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  1. 1. CHAPTER 9  ENERGY IN A CELL
  2. 2. Presentation credentials     This is presentation is a mash up of 3 different sources. They are: Taylor, J.(2010). Unit 4 Chemical energy and ATP. Distarasiswa, D. (2010). Cellular Respiration. Ferguson, S. (2009).Energy in a cell.
  3. 3. ENERGY  All living organisms must be able to obtain energy from their environment  All energy comes from sunlight and organisms either obtain it directly or indirectly
  4. 4. ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)  Energy storing molecule.  Releases energy quickly whenever a cell needs it.
  5. 5. ATP Structure  Composed of an adenosine molecule with three phosphate molecules attached.  The energy of ATP becomes available when the bond is broken between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups.  adenosineTRIphosphate to adenosineDIphosphate
  6. 6. ATP
  7. 7. Photosynthesis  The process that uses sunlight to make simple sugars.  Contains 2 reactions.
  8. 8. Light - dependent reaction  Requires light in order to occur.  Reactants :  Products : ATP and NADPH and releases oxygen. Sunlight and water.
  9. 9. Light - Independent Reaction  Also known as the dark cycle or calvin cycle .  Does not need sunlight in order to occur.  Reactants : ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide.  Products : Glucose and Pgal.
  10. 10. Calvin Cycle OR Dark Cycle
  11. 11. Formula for photosynthesis  6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2
  12. 12. Chloroplast  The plant organelle in which photosynthesis occurs.  Contains pigments called chlorophyll that absorbs most wavelengths of light except green.
  13. 13. Chloroplast
  14. 14. Aerobic Cellular Respiration (with Oxygen)    Breakdown of sugar (food) into ATP (usable energy). Occurs in the mitochondria. 3 phases: 1. glycolysis : Anaerobic (no oxygen) *Steps 2&3 with oxygen 2. citric acid cycle (kreb cycle) 3. electron transport chain
  15. 15. Mitochondria
  16. 16. Formula for aerobic respiration  Opposite of photosynthesis.  C6H12O6 + O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  17. 17. GLYCOLYSIS (sugar splitting)   Anaerobic: no oxygen is used. Takes the 6-Carbon glucose and breaks it into 2, 3-Carbon pyruvic acid molecules.
  18. 18. Glycolysis Cont… Only produces 2 ATP molecules
  19. 19. Glycolysis Cont…  Pyruvic acid is then converted into Acetyl Co-enzyme A before it enters the citric acid cycle.  Reactants: Glucose  Products: Pyruvic Acid
  20. 20. CITRIC ACID CYCLE (Also called the Kreb Cycle)     During this process high energy electrons are captured by NADH and FADH2. (electron carriers) Pulls carbons off the sugar molecules, releasing carbon dioxide and generating 2 ATP (varies). Reactants: Acetyl Co-enzyme A Products: NADH and FADH2
  21. 21. Kreb Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
  22. 22. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN    The electron carriers NADH and FADH2 transfer their electrons to the electron transport chain. The electrons are passed through a series of proteins, gradually releasing the energy they contain, to form 32 ATP molecules. The final electron acceptor is oxygen.
  23. 23. Electron Transport Chain
  24. 24. Aerobic Respiration
  25. 25. Anaerobic Respiration (No oxygen)  Lactic acid fermentation: Occurs during strenuous exercise when the body is not able to supply needed oxygen to the muscles.  Allows the continued production of ATP until oxygen levels are restored.
  26. 26. Anaerobic Respiration Cont... No Oxygen!!! Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.  Produces lactic acid.   Not very efficient – Only 2 ATP produced.
  27. 27. Anaerobic Respiration Cont.. Alcoholic Fermentation  Used by yeast and some bacteria.  Produces carbon dioxide and alcohol.
  28. 28. Cellular Respiration  Cellular Respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.  6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy  Oxygen + Glucose  Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
  29. 29. Cellular Respiration
  30. 30. KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.
  31. 31. Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.  Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.  Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria. mitochondrion animal cell
  32. 32.  Glycolysis must take place first. – – – – anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) takes place in cytoplasm splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules produces two ATP molecules
  33. 33. Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.  The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron Krebs Cycle transport chain. 1 mitochondrion mitochondrion takes place in mitochondrial matrix  breaks down three-carbon – makes a small amount of ATP molecules from glycolysis – releases carbon dioxide matrix (area enclosed and by inner membrane) 6CO  – transfers energy-carrying molecules ATP 2 energy 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O2 2 inner membrane ATP and 6H2 O 4
  34. 34. • The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP. – takes place in inner membrane – energy transferred to electron transport chain – oxygen enters process – ATP produced 1 mitochondrion mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed and by inner membrane) 6CO 2 energy Electron Transport 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O2 – water released as a waste product ATP 2 inner membrane ATP and 6H2 O 4
  35. 35.  • The equation for the overall process is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 →→→→→→ 6CO2 + 6H2O The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.
  36. 36. Fermentation     Releases energy from glucose without the presence of oxygen. There are two types of fermentation: alcoholic and lactic acid. Alcoholic fermentation is done by yeasts and some microorganisms. It produces alcohol & Carbon Dioxide Lactic Acid is produced by muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen.
  37. 37.  Fermentation is used in food production. – yogurt – cheese – bread
  38. 38. Aerobic Respiration 1. Includes the the Electron Chain Krebs Cycle & Transport 2. Pyruvic acid from glycolysis diffuses into matrix of mitochondria & reacts with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA (2-carbon compound) 3. CO2 and NADH are also produced
  39. 39. Krebs Cycle Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion During the Krebs Cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. Citric Acid is created in this cycle thus giving it the nickname Citric Acid cycle. Net ATP Production is 2 ATP.
  40. 40.  The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.
  41. 41. Electron Transport Chain
  42. 42. References This presentation is a mash up of 3 different sources. They are: Taylor, J.(2010). Unit 4 Chemical energy and ATP. http://www.slideshare.net/olympushighschool/unit-4-chemical-energy-and-atp Accessed 6 March 2014 Distarasiswa, D. (2010). Cellular Respiration. http://www.slideshare.net/dhitaunforgetable/powerpoint-metabolisme-2 Accessed 6 March Ferguson, S. (2009).Energy in a cell. http://www.slideshare.net/biologyteacher60/chapter-9-biology-i Accessed 6 March 2014

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