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  • Presentation credentials     This is presentation is a mash up of 3 different sources. They are: Taylor, J.(2010). Unit 4 Chemical energy and ATP. Distarasiswa, D. (2010). Cellular Respiration. Ferguson, S. (2009).Energy in a cell.
  • ENERGY  All living organisms must be able to obtain energy from their environment  All energy comes from sunlight and organisms either obtain it directly or indirectly
  • ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)  Energy storing molecule.  Releases energy quickly whenever a cell needs it.
  • ATP Structure  Composed of an adenosine molecule with three phosphate molecules attached.  The energy of ATP becomes available when the bond is broken between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups.  adenosineTRIphosphate to adenosineDIphosphate
  • ATP
  • Photosynthesis  The process that uses sunlight to make simple sugars.  Contains 2 reactions.
  • Light - dependent reaction  Requires light in order to occur.  Reactants :  Products : ATP and NADPH and releases oxygen. Sunlight and water.
  • Light - Independent Reaction  Also known as the dark cycle or calvin cycle .  Does not need sunlight in order to occur.  Reactants : ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide.  Products : Glucose and Pgal.
  • Calvin Cycle OR Dark Cycle
  • Formula for photosynthesis  6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • Chloroplast  The plant organelle in which photosynthesis occurs.  Contains pigments called chlorophyll that absorbs most wavelengths of light except green.
  • Chloroplast
  • Aerobic Cellular Respiration (with Oxygen)    Breakdown of sugar (food) into ATP (usable energy). Occurs in the mitochondria. 3 phases: 1. glycolysis : Anaerobic (no oxygen) *Steps 2&3 with oxygen 2. citric acid cycle (kreb cycle) 3. electron transport chain
  • Mitochondria
  • Formula for aerobic respiration  Opposite of photosynthesis.  C6H12O6 + O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  • GLYCOLYSIS (sugar splitting)   Anaerobic: no oxygen is used. Takes the 6-Carbon glucose and breaks it into 2, 3-Carbon pyruvic acid molecules.
  • Glycolysis Cont… Only produces 2 ATP molecules
  • Glycolysis Cont…  Pyruvic acid is then converted into Acetyl Co-enzyme A before it enters the citric acid cycle.  Reactants: Glucose  Products: Pyruvic Acid
  • CITRIC ACID CYCLE (Also called the Kreb Cycle)     During this process high energy electrons are captured by NADH and FADH2. (electron carriers) Pulls carbons off the sugar molecules, releasing carbon dioxide and generating 2 ATP (varies). Reactants: Acetyl Co-enzyme A Products: NADH and FADH2
  • Kreb Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
  • ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN    The electron carriers NADH and FADH2 transfer their electrons to the electron transport chain. The electrons are passed through a series of proteins, gradually releasing the energy they contain, to form 32 ATP molecules. The final electron acceptor is oxygen.
  • Electron Transport Chain
  • Aerobic Respiration
  • Anaerobic Respiration (No oxygen)  Lactic acid fermentation: Occurs during strenuous exercise when the body is not able to supply needed oxygen to the muscles.  Allows the continued production of ATP until oxygen levels are restored.
  • Anaerobic Respiration Cont... No Oxygen!!! Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.  Produces lactic acid.   Not very efficient – Only 2 ATP produced.
  • Anaerobic Respiration Cont.. Alcoholic Fermentation  Used by yeast and some bacteria.  Produces carbon dioxide and alcohol.
  • Cellular Respiration  Cellular Respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.  6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy  Oxygen + Glucose  Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
  • Cellular Respiration
  • KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.
  • Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars.  Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen.  Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria. mitochondrion animal cell
  •  Glycolysis must take place first. – – – – anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) takes place in cytoplasm splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules produces two ATP molecules
  • Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis.  The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron Krebs Cycle transport chain. 1 mitochondrion mitochondrion takes place in mitochondrial matrix  breaks down three-carbon – makes a small amount of ATP molecules from glycolysis – releases carbon dioxide matrix (area enclosed and by inner membrane) 6CO  – transfers energy-carrying molecules ATP 2 energy 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O2 2 inner membrane ATP and 6H2 O 4
  • • The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP. – takes place in inner membrane – energy transferred to electron transport chain – oxygen enters process – ATP produced 1 mitochondrion mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed and by inner membrane) 6CO 2 energy Electron Transport 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O2 – water released as a waste product ATP 2 inner membrane ATP and 6H2 O 4
  •  • The equation for the overall process is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 →→→→→→ 6CO2 + 6H2O The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.
  • Fermentation     Releases energy from glucose without the presence of oxygen. There are two types of fermentation: alcoholic and lactic acid. Alcoholic fermentation is done by yeasts and some microorganisms. It produces alcohol & Carbon Dioxide Lactic Acid is produced by muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen.
  •  Fermentation is used in food production. – yogurt – cheese – bread
  • Aerobic Respiration 1. Includes the the Electron Chain Krebs Cycle & Transport 2. Pyruvic acid from glycolysis diffuses into matrix of mitochondria & reacts with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA (2-carbon compound) 3. CO2 and NADH are also produced
  • Krebs Cycle Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion During the Krebs Cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. Citric Acid is created in this cycle thus giving it the nickname Citric Acid cycle. Net ATP Production is 2 ATP.
  •  The Krebs cycle produces energy-carrying molecules.
  • Electron Transport Chain
  • References This presentation is a mash up of 3 different sources. They are: Taylor, J.(2010). Unit 4 Chemical energy and ATP. http://www.slideshare.net/olympushighschool/unit-4-chemical-energy-and-atp Accessed 6 March 2014 Distarasiswa, D. (2010). Cellular Respiration. http://www.slideshare.net/dhitaunforgetable/powerpoint-metabolisme-2 Accessed 6 March Ferguson, S. (2009).Energy in a cell. http://www.slideshare.net/biologyteacher60/chapter-9-biology-i Accessed 6 March 2014