Oracle Multitenant - organized by Orient ITM - 12 Jul 2014

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Oracle Multitenant Architecture, Oracle Database 12c

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  • Here’s an example of how we’d specify resource plans for the allocation of CPU between three PDBs
    There are four total shares, 2 for HCM and one each for CRM and ERP.
    That means that HCM is guaranteed 50% of the CPU whatever else is going on in other PDBs.
    Similarly CRM and ERP are each guaranteed at least 25%.

    However, there are no caps in this case, so that, for example, ERP could have 100% of the CPU if HCM and CRM were idle.
  • Oracle Multitenant - organized by Orient ITM - 12 Jul 2014

    1. 1. Oracle Multitenant Mahir M. Quluzade Organized by ORIENT ITM 12 July 2014
    2. 2. 2 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Agenda  Rethinking Architecture for the Database  Multitenant Architecture  Capabilities Enabled  Managing Shared Resources  Upgrading to Multitenant
    3. 3. 3 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com About me  Broad member of AZEROUG (Azerbaijan Oracle User Group)  OCE, RAC 11g and Grid infrastructure  OCP Database 11g Administrator  OCE Database SQL  Author of OTN Articles and OTech Magazine  Central Bank - Oracle DBA  Oracle Blog : http//www.mahir-quluzade.com
    4. 4. 4 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Oracle Database Architecture  Oracle Instance – SGA & PGA – Background Processes  Oracle Database – Control Files – Data Files – Redo Logs (Online and Archived) – Parameter and Password file Pre-12c Oracle Database
    5. 5. 5 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Oracle Database Architecture Requires memory, processes and database files System Resources
    6. 6. 6 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com New Multitenant Architecture Memory and processes required at multitenant container level only System Resources
    7. 7. 7 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com New Multitenant Architecture Memory and processes required at multitenant container level only System Resources
    8. 8. 8 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Increasing Consolidation Oracle Database 12g Schema Consolidation Multitenant Database
    9. 9. 9 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Agenda  Rethinking Architecture for the Database  Multitenant Architecture  Capabilities Enabled  Managing Shared Resources  Upgrading to Multitenant
    10. 10. 10 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Multitenant Architecture Components of a Multitenant Container Database (CDB) Pluggable Databases (PDBs) PDBs Root CDB create database … enable pluggable database Create CDB create pluggable database … Create PDB
    11. 11. 11 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Multitenant Architecture  Multitenant architecture can currently support up to 252 PDBs  A PDB feels and operates identically to a non-CDB  You cannot tell, from the viewpoint of a connected client, if you’re using a PDB or a non-CDB Database Link
    12. 12. 12 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Unplug / plug Simply unplug from the old CDB…
    13. 13. 13 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Unplug / plug  Moving between CDBs is a simple case of moving a PDB’s metadata  An unplugged PDB carries with it lineage, opatch, encryption key info etc …and plug in to the new CDB…
    14. 14. 14 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Unplug / plug Example alter pluggable database HCM unplug into '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/…/hcm.xml' create pluggable database My_PDB using '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/…/hcm.xml' Plug Unplug
    15. 15. 15 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Common Data Dictionary Before 12.1: dilution over time Database Created Data Dictionary User Data Meta Data Mature Database Data Dictionary User Data Meta Data Tables, Code, Data added Data Dictionary User Data Meta Data
    16. 16. 16 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Data Dictionary Architecture in a CDB Oracle Database 12c OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ … EMP DEPT … OBJ$ TAB$ SOURCE$ … root Database Metadata Only PDB User Metadata Only User Data MetadataLinks  Oracle Database stores metadata about dictionary objects only in the root – PDB uses Metadata Link to point to the definition of object stored in the root  The data corresponding to a metadata link resides in its PDB
    17. 17. 17 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Multitenant Architecture – Dynamics  PDBs share common SGA and background processes  Foreground sessions see only the PDB they connect to
    18. 18. 18 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP BI GB Pluggable Database MEMORY 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP BI DW GB Pluggable Database MEMORY Multitenant Scalability  Only small increments in memory as additional PDBs are added 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CRM HCM ERP GB Pluggable Database MEMORY
    19. 19. 19 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Files in the CDB  Each PDB has its own set of tablespaces including SYSTEM and SYSAUX  PDBs share UNDO, REDO and control files, (s)pfile  By default the CDB has a single TEMP tablespace but PDBs may create their own Namespaces
    20. 20. 20 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Users  Local users are the successors for customer-created users in a non-CDB  A local user is defined only in a PDB  A local user can administer a PDB  A common user is defined in the root and is represented in every PDB  A common user can log into any PDB where it has “Create Session” and can therefore administer a PDB  The Oracle system is owned by common users
    21. 21. 21 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Common Users and Privileges  A common user can be granted privileges locally in a PDB (or root) and therefore differently in each container  A common user can, alternatively, be granted a system privilege commonly – the grant is made in root and every PDB, present and future  You can create a common role  A common role can be granted to a common user commonly  Authorization is checked in the container where the SQL is attempted considering only the privileges that the user has in that container Authorization is checked in the same way as as pre-12.1
    22. 22. 22 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com
    23. 23. 23 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Agenda  Rethinking Architecture for the Database Cloud  Multitenant Architecture  Capabilities Enabled  Managing Shared Resources  Upgrading to Multitenant
    24. 24. 24 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Manage Many as One with Multitenant Backup databases as one; recover at pluggable database level One Backup Point-in-time recovery At pluggable database level
    25. 25. 25 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Manage Many as One with Multitenant One standby database covers all pluggable databases
    26. 26. 26 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Multitenant for Simplified Patching Apply changes once, all pluggable databases updated Upgrade in-place
    27. 27. 27 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Multitenant for Upgrades Flexible choice when patching & upgrading databases
    28. 28. 28 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Improved Agility With Changing Workloads Expand Cluster to Support Flexible Consolidation Model Services Single SGA per CDB Instance Node1 CDB Instance 1 Node2 CDB Instance 2 Multitenant Container Database (CDB)
    29. 29. 29 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Improved Agility With Changing Workloads Expand Cluster to Support Flexible Consolidation Model Services Single SGA per CDB Instance Node1 CDB Instance 1 Node2 CDB Instance 2 Node3 CDB Instance 3 Multitenant Container Database (CDB)
    30. 30. 30 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Multitenant for Provisioning  PDBs can be cloned from remote CDBs  PDBs can be cloned from within the same CDB Fast cloning of PDBs
    31. 31. 31 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Cloning a PDB Example create pluggable database HCMBI from HCM create pluggable database HCMBI from HCM@us.acme.db1 Remote (DB Link) Local
    32. 32. 32 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Per PDB vs per CDB Common operations on CDB with granular control where appropriate Single Oracle Software Version Data Guard Scheduled RMAN Backups Some parameters/properties e.g. homogeneous character set Redo and Undo RMAN point-in-time recovery Ad hoc RMAN backups Flush shared pool Parameters where IsPDB_Modifiable = 'TRUE' Per CDB Per PDB
    33. 33. 33 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Advantages of Multitenant Architecture Reduced CapEx & OpEx, Increased Agility, Easy Adoption Self-contained PDB for each application  Applications run unchanged  Rapid provisioning (via clones)  Portability (via pluggability) Shared memory and background processes  More applications per server Common operations performed at CDB level  Manage many as one (upgrade, HA, backup)  Granular control when appropriate
    34. 34. 34 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Agenda  Rethinking Architecture for the Database Cloud  Multitenant Architecture  Capabilities Enabled  Managing Shared Resources  Upgrading to Multitenant
    35. 35. 35 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Managing Shared Resources Resource management in multitenant environment High Priority Medium Priority Low Priority
    36. 36. 36 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Managing Resources between PDBs  Resource Manager can manage resources on two basic levels: – CDB level  How resources are allocate d to PDBs  Limit the resources utilization of specific PDBs – PDB level  Resource Manager can manage the workloads within each PDB
    37. 37. 37 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Managing Resources between PDBs  Using Resource Manager, you can control – CPU – Parallel execution servers – Exadata I/O – Sessions  Configure a policy that controls how resources are utilized – Default configuration that works, even as PDBs are added or removed  You can change default configuration
    38. 38. 38 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Manage CPU Pluggable Database Shares Guaranteed CPU Maximum CPU HCM 2 2/4 = 50% 100% CRM 1 1/4 = 25% 100% ERP 1 1/4 = 25% 100% 2 Shares 1 Share 1 Share A CDB Resource Plan uses shares to specify how CPU is distributed between PDBs
    39. 39. 39 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Agenda  Rethinking Architecture for the Database Cloud  Multitenant Architecture  Capabilities Enabled  Managing Shared Resources  Upgrading to Multitenant
    40. 40. 40 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Upgrading to Multitenant Step 1: Upgrade databases in-place Upgrade in Place
    41. 41. 41 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Upgrading to Multitenant Step 2: Plug-in upgraded databases
    42. 42. 42 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Upgrading to Multitenant  No application changes required. Step 3. Change applications to work with Multitenant
    43. 43. 43 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Migrate using Replication ① Provision new PDB from Seed ② Replicate using technologies such as Oracle GoldenGate or Data Pump New in 12.1, you ask that full database export and full database import make maximum use of transportable tablespaces in the single expdb and impdb commands. (Backported to 11.2.0.3.)
    44. 44. 44 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Benefit Capability Enabled Minimize CapEx • More applications per server Minimize OpEx • Manage many as one • Standardized procedures & service levels • Rapid provisioning Maximize Agility • Cloning for development / testing • Portability through “pluggability” • Scalability with RAC Ease of Adoption • Applications run unchanged Key Benefits
    45. 45. 45 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Agenda  Rethinking Architecture for the Database Cloud  Multitenant Architecture  Capabilities Enabled  Managing Shared Resources  Upgrading to Multitenant
    46. 46. 46 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Your questions
    47. 47. 47 Oracle Multitenant - Mahir M. Quluzade © 2014 http://www.mahir-quluzade.com Mahir M. Quluzade http://www.mahir-quluzade.com

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