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Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
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Lecture 6
Lecture 6
Lecture 6
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Lecture 6

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  • 1. Medium Access Control
    • Can we apply media access methods from fixed networks?
    • Example CSMA/CD
      • C arrier S ense M ultiple A ccess with C ollision D etection
      • send as soon as the medium is free, listen into the medium if a collision occurs (original method in IEEE 802.3)
    • Problems in wireless networks
      • signal strength decreases proportional to the square of the distance
      • the sender would apply CS and CD, but the collisions happen at the receiver
      • it might be the case that a sender cannot “hear” the collision, i.e., CD does not work
      • furthermore, CS might not work if, e.g., a terminal is “hidden”
  • 2. Hidden Terminals
  • 3. Hidden & Exposed Terminals
    • Hidden terminals
      • A sends to B, C cannot receive A
      • C wants to send to B, C senses a “free” medium (CS fails)
      • collision at B, A cannot receive the collision (CD fails)
      • A is “hidden” for C
  • 4.
    • Exposed terminals
      • B sends to A, C wants to send to another terminal (not A or B)
      • C has to wait, CS signals a medium in use
      • but A is outside the radio range of C, therefore waiting is not necessary
      • C is “exposed” to B
  • 5. Near & Far Terminals
  • 6. Near & Far Terminals
    • Terminals A and B send, C receives
      • signal strength decreases proportional to the square of the distance
      • the signal of terminal B therefore drowns out A’s signal
      • C cannot receive A
  • 7. Near & Far Terminals If C for example was an arbiter for sending rights, terminal B would drown out terminal A already on the physical layer Also severe problem for CDMA-networks - precise power control needed!
  • 8. Access methods SDMA/FDMA/TDMA
    • SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
      • segment space into sectors, use directed antennas
      • cell structure
    • FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
      • assign a certain frequency to a transmission channel between a sender and a receiver
      • permanent (e.g., radio broadcast), slow hopping (e.g., GSM), fast hopping (FHSS, Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
    • TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
      • assign the fixed sending frequency to a transmission channel between a sender and a receiver for a certain amount of time
  • 9. Fixed FDMA Example GSM f t 124 1 124 1 20 MHz 200 kHz 890.2 MHz 935.2 MHz 915 MHz 960 MHz
  • 10. TDMA
    • The receiver is tuned to the same frequency all the time
    • The receiver listens to many channels separated in time.
    • A time slot is allocated to a channel.
    • The channel accesses the medium at the designated time
  • 11. Fixed TDM
    • The Base station assigns the fixed time pattern to all the mobile stations
    • The mobiles synchronize to the base station and wait for its turn to access the medium
  • 12. Fixed Duplex TDMA : Example DECT 1 2 3 11 12 1 2 3 11 12 t downlink uplink 417 µs
  • 13. Fixed Duplex TDMA
    • The channels is made of 24 time slots
    • Uplink – 12 time slots are allocated for the mobiles to access the Base station
    • Downlink – 12 time slots are allocated for the base station to access mobiles
    • Each connection is allocated its uplink-downlink pair
    • The pattern repeats every 10 msec. So, every time slot is for 10msec/24 = 417 μ sec
  • 14. Fixed Duplex TDMA
    • Merits :
    • Every user gets a fixed bandwidth
    • Very efficient for constant data rates
    • Demerit:
    • Not very suitable if the data is bursty
    • Some slots may be unused if the user does not transmit data in a time slot.
  • 15. Classical Aloha
    • TDM is applied without any access control
    • Aloha does not coordinate the medium
    • It does not resolve contention on MAC layer
  • 16. Classical Aloha sender A sender B sender C collision t
  • 17. Classical Aloha
    • Users access the medium in a random fashion
    • If there is a collision, the MAC protocol does not resolve
    • It is for the higher layers to resolve
    • Throughput is only 18%.
    • Useful only for light loads
  • 18. Slotted Aloha sender A sender B sender C collision t
  • 19. Slotted Aloha
    • The time for medium access is divided into slots
    • There is no coordination of users to access the medium
    • Users can access the medium only at the beginning of the time slots
    • Time synchronization is very important
    • The throughput is now 36% with the introduction of slots
    • UMTS uses this slotted Aloha MAC.
  • 20. Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Sender MEDIUM FOR TRANSMISSION Check if carrier is free Wait for a set duration
  • 21. CSMA
    • Since the medium is accessed to check if it is idle and then the transmission is initiated, probability of collision is reduced.
    • This scheme can not still solve the Hidden Terminal problem.
    • A variant : station tries for a slot with probability p. If not successful, it moves on to the next slot
  • 22. Demand Assigned Multiple Access with Reservation
    • Contention Phase :
    • Fixed Aloha slots (very short duration slots) are used reserve future slots
    • The satellite for example, sends a list of approved users and the slots.
    • The users have to perfectly synchronize and use the medium exactly as per the approved list.
  • 23. Demand Assigned Multiple Access with Reservation Aloha reserved Aloha reserved Aloha reserved Aloha collision t
      • two modes:
        • ALOHA mode for reservation: competition for small reservation slots, collisions possible
        • reserved mode for data transmission within successful reserved slots (no collisions possible)
  • 24. Demand Assigned Multiple Access with Reservation
      • it is important for all stations to keep the reservation list consistent at any point in time and, therefore, all stations have to synchronize from time to time
  • 25. Implicit reservation (PRMA - Packet Reservation MA):
    • Implicit reservation (PRMA - Packet Reservation MA):
      • a certain number of slots form a frame, frames are repeated
      • stations compete for empty slots according to the slotted aloha principle
      • once a station reserves a slot successfully, this slot is automatically assigned to this station in all following frames as long as the station has data to send
      • competition for this slots starts again as soon as the slot was empty in the last frame
  • 26. Implicit reservation (PRMA - Packet Reservation MA): frame 1 frame 2 frame 3 frame 4 frame 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 time-slot collision at reservation attempts A C D A B A F A C A B A A B A F A B A F D A C E E B A F D t ACDABA-F ACDABA-F AC-ABAF- A---BAFD ACEEBAFD
  • 27. PRMA - Packet Reservation MA
    • A Base station (for ex., a satellite) broadcasts the status of slots (for example, ACDABA-F) to all mobiles.
    • The mobiles know which all slots are allocated to them in this frame.
    • All stations needing a slot will contend for the free slot (Slot F in this case).
    • There is a collision here since more than one mobile is trying for the free slot F.
    • Slot F is not allocated since there is a collision. In the next frame, stations can compete for this and any released slots.
  • 28. Reservation TDMA
    • Reservation Time Division Multiple Access
      • every frame consists of N mini-slots and x data-slots
      • every station has its own mini-slot and can reserve up to k data-slots using this mini-slot (i.e. x = N * k).
      • other stations can send data in unused data-slots according to a round-robin sending scheme (best-effort traffic)
    N mini-slots N * k data-slots reservations for data-slots other stations can use free data-slots based on a round-robin scheme e.g. N=6, k=2
  • 29. MACA : Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
    • MACA (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) uses short signaling packets for collision avoidance
      • RTS (request to send): a sender request the right to send from a receiver with a short RTS packet before it sends a data packet
      • CTS (clear to send): the receiver grants the right to send as soon as it is ready to receive
    • Signaling packets (RTS and CTS) contain
      • sender address
      • receiver address
      • packet size
  • 30. MACA : Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance B RTS CTS CTS B RTS CTS RTS
    • MACA avoids the problem of hidden terminals
      • A and C want to send to B
      • A sends RTS first
      • C waits after receiving CTS from B
    • MACA avoids the problem of exposed terminals
      • B wants to send to A, C to another terminal
      • now C does not have to wait for it cannot receive CTS from A
    A C A C
  • 31. MACA –State Diagram idle wait for the right to send wait for ACK sender receiver packet ready to send; RTS time-out; RTS CTS; data ACK RxBusy idle wait for data RTS; RxBusy RTS; CTS data; ACK time-out  data; NAK ACK: positive acknowledgement NAK: negative acknowledgement RxBusy: receiver busy time-out  NAK; RTS
  • 32. Polling Mechanisms
    • If one terminal can be heard by all others, this “central” terminal (a.k.a. base station) can poll all other terminals according to a certain scheme
      • now all schemes known from fixed networks can be used (typical mainframe - terminal scenario)
    • Example: Randomly Addressed Polling
      • base station signals readiness to all mobile terminals
      • terminals ready to send can now transmit a random number without collision with the help of CDMA or FDMA (the random number can be seen as dynamic address)
      • the base station now chooses one address for polling from the list of all random numbers (collision if two terminals choose the same address)
      • the base station acknowledges correct packets and continues polling the next terminal
      • this cycle starts again after polling all terminals of the list
  • 33. ISMA (Inhibit Sense Multiple Access)
    • Current state of the medium is signaled via a “busy tone”
      • the base station signals on the downlink (base station to terminals) if the medium is free or not
      • terminals must not send if the medium is busy
      • terminals can access the medium as soon as the busy tone stops
      • the base station signals collisions and successful transmissions via the busy tone and acknowledgements, respectively (media access is not coordinated within this approach)
      • mechanism used, e.g., for CDPD (USA, integrated into AMPS)

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