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Universal Immunization Programme in India
 

Universal Immunization Programme in India

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Universal Immunization Programme in India

Universal Immunization Programme in India

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    Universal Immunization Programme in India Universal Immunization Programme in India Presentation Transcript

    • IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME IN INDIA DR. MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR
    • EDWARD JENNER
    • HISTORY • 14 May 1796 - Jenner inoculated James Phipps, an 8 yr old boy with cowpox lymph taken from Sara Nelms, a milkmaid. • Boy recovered after a brief illness
    • • Jenner inoculated pus taken from a small pox patient. • Boy showed no reaction. • Jenner recommended vaccination for prevention of smallpox
    • • Smallpox vaccination being a safe, simple, effective and inexpensive procedure, gained universal acceptance. • Main instrument for eradication for smallpox at global level. • Small pox has since been eradicated but Jenner lives for ever.
    • SMALL POX
    • • Small pox eradicated in 1977. • IMMUNIZATION MOST POWERFUL & COST EFFECTIVE TOOL.
    • • The first vaccine having been sent by jenner himself and used in bombay in 1802. • The pilot projects began during 1960. • WHO certified India to be free of smallpox in march 1977. • The global eradication of smallpox is arguably the greatest achievement of twentieth century medicine
    • VACCINE PREVENTABLE DISEASES
    • VPD • An infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. • If a person dies from it, the death is considered a vaccine-preventable death.
    • 8 TARGETED VPDS Diphtheria Hepatitis B Measles Pertusis Poliomyelitis Tetanus Tuberculosis JE
    • • DIPHTHERIA • PERTUSSIS • TETANUS • POLIO • TUBERCULOSIS • MEASLES
    • DIPHTHERIA
    • PERTUSSIS
    • PERTUSIS
    • TETANUS
    • POLIO
    • TUBERCULOSIS
    • MEASLES
    • MEASELS
    • MUMPS
    • CHIKEN POX
    • FULLY IMMUNIZED CHILD • A child who received One dose of BCG, Three doses of DPT and OPV One dose of measles before one year of age. • This gives a child the best chance for survival
    • MILESTONES IN THE IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM IN INDIA • 1978: Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) introduced after smallpox eradication: BCG, DPT, OPV, Typhoid. • Limited to mainly urban areas
    • • 1985 : Universal Immunization Program (UIP) introduced; Expanded to entire country; Measles added. • 1990 : Vitamin-A supplementation. • 1992: Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program.
    • • 1995: Polio National Immunization Days. • 1997: Reproductive and Child Health Program (RCH I). • 2005 : RCH-II and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
    • EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION 1974 • 1974-
    • EXPANDED… • Adding more disease controlling antigens to vaccination schedules. • Extending coverage to all corners of a country. • Spreading services to reach the less privileged sectors of the society
    • 1978 – PRIMARY HEALTH CONCEPT • ALMA – ATA declaration included immunization as one of the strategies for achieving HFA by 2000 AD. • WHO named this immunization programme as EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION.
    • • 1985 – UNICEF re named it as “UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMME”. • There is no difference between both the prog.
    • • The goal was to achieve universal immunization by 1990. • EPI is regarded as an instrument of UPI.
    • EPI IN INDIA 1978 • The Govt of India launched it’s EPI in 1978. • The objective was to reducing mortality, morbidity resulting from VPDs. • To achieve a self sufficiency in vaccine production.
    • EPI IN INDIA 1978 • BCG, OPV, DPT & Measles- under 5 children. • TT- pregnant women. • Typhoid added. • OPV- 1979.
    • UNIVERSAL IMMUNIZATION PROG • 1985 in remembrance of then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi.
    • • The UIP was taken up in 1986 as National Technology Mission & became operational in all districts in the country during 1989-90. • UIP become a part of the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) Programme in 1992 and Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Programme in 1997.
    • COMPONENTS OF UIP 1. Immunization of pregnant women against tetanus. 2.Immunization of children in their first year of life against 6 VPDs.
    • 2 COMPONENTS OF UIP
    • • 3. The aim was to achieve 100 % coverage of pregnant women with 2 doses of TT. • & at least 85% coverage of children under one year (with 3 doses of DPT, OPV & one dose of BCG, One dose of MMR) by 1990
    • • UIP was first taken up in 30 selected districts & catchment areas of Medical Colleges. • A technology Mission on Vaccination & Immunization of Vulnerable Population was set up to focus on all aspects of immunization activity.
    • OBJECTIVES • To increase immunization coverage. • To improve quality of service. • To achieve self sufficiency in vaccine production
    • • To train health personnel. • To supply cold chain equipment and establish a good surveillance network. • To ensure district wise monitoring
    • CHANNEL OF SERVICE PROVISION • Immunization services are provided through the existing HCDS. (MCH centers, PHC, HSc, Hospitals, Dispensaries).
    • Though the target was 100% coverage no country in the world has reached the coverage figure. Therefore it can be interpreted as “NO CHILD SHOULD BE DENIED OF IMMUNIZATION.”
    • STATUS OF VPD -INDIA DISEASE 1987 2011 POLIMYELITIS 28,257 1 % DECLINE 100 DIPTHERIA 12,952 4,233 62.3 PERTUSIS 163,786 3,909 76.13 NNT 11,849 734 93.8 MEASLES 247,519 33,634 86.41
    • PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION PLAN • PIP was set to strengthen programme implementation.
    • COMPONENTS: • 1.Support for alternative vaccines delivery from PHC to HSc & out reach sessions. • 2.Deploying retired manpower to implement vaccination services in urban slums & underserved areas
    • 3. Mobility support to Dist Immunization Officer. 4. Reviewing meeting at state level with the districts at 6 monthly intervals. 5. Training of ANM, cold chain handlers, mid level managers, refrigerator machines.
    • MOBILITY SUPPORT
    • 6. Support mobilization by ASHAs, Self Help Groups. 7. Printing of immunization cards, monitoring sheets, cold chain chart vaccine inventory charts.
    • PULSE POLIO IMMUNIZATION • 1995. • Under 5 children. • Additional oral polio drops administered in December & January.
    • STATUS FEB 2012 • INDIA is removed from the list of “POLIO ENDEMIC COUNTRIES”