SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
737
On Slideshare
729
From Embeds
8
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
56
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 8

http://study.myllps.com 8

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES DR. MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR HIV VIRUS
  • 2. DEFINITION • STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact and caused by a wide range of bacterial, viral, protozoal & fungal agents & ecto parasites
  • 3. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) • STDs or STIs (sexually transmitted infections) are infections/diseases that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact. In India, the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases is quite high. Among the sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS is a serious concern.
  • 4. • STDs or STIs (sexually transmitted infections) are infections/diseases that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact. • Some of the Sexually Transmitted Infections are also transmitted through birth, intravenous needles or breastfeeding.
  • 5. • Adolescents and young adults (15-24) are the age groups at the greatest risk for acquiring a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD). STDs can have severe consequences if not treated, especially in women. • It is important to go for STD testing whenever you suspect that you have contracted a sexually transmitted disease.
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION OF STD AGENTS A. BACTERIAL AGENTS. B. VIRAL AGENTS. C. PROTOZOAL AGENTS. D. FUNGAL AGENTS. E. ECTOPARASITES.
  • 7. A. BACTERIAL AGENTS: Nesseria gonorrhoea. Chlamydia trachomatis. Haemophilus ducreyi. Mycoplasma hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum. Callymmatobacterium granulomatis. Shigella spp. Grp B steptococcus. Bacteial vaginitis associated organisms.
  • 8. NESSERIA GONORRHOEA.
  • 9. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
  • 10. HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI.
  • 11. MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS.
  • 12. UREAPLASMA UREALYTICUM.
  • 13. SHIGELLA Sp
  • 14. GRP B STREPTOCOCCUS
  • 15. VIRAL AGENTS. • Human (alpha) Herpes virus. • Human (beta) Herpes virus. • Hepatitis B virus. • Human Papilloma Virus. • Molluscum contagiosum virus. • Human Immunodeficiency virus.
  • 16. HEPATITIS B VIRUS
  • 17. HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS
  • 18. HEPATITIS VIRUS
  • 19. HUMAN IMMUNO VIRUS
  • 20. MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS.
  • 21. PROTOZOAL AGENTS. • Entamoeba histolytica. • Giardia lamblia. • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • 22. ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
  • 23. GIARDIA LAMBLIA.
  • 24. TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS
  • 25. FUNGAL AGENTS • Candida albicans
  • 26. ECTOPARASITES. • Phthirus pubis. • Sarcoptes scabiei
  • 27. PHTHIRUS PUBIS.
  • 28. SARCOPTES SCABIEI
  • 29. EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM WORLD: • True incidence will never be known not only due to inadequate reporting but also because of the secrecy that surrounds them. • Most of them are not even notifiable.
  • 30. INDIA STD is becoming a major public health problem in India.
  • 31. SYPHILIS 2011 – About 37,243 cases (19,032 males/18,211 females) were reported in the country with two deaths.
  • 32. GONORRHOEA Information is notoriously lacking as most cases are not reported. Generally gonorrhoea is widely prevalent than syphilis. 2011- About 2,50,155 cases (56,386 males/93,769 female) were reported with 3 deaths.
  • 33. CHANCROID • Is widely prevalent in India CHANCRIOD VIRUS
  • 34. LGV • Is more prevalent in southern states of Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Maharastra & Karnataka
  • 35. DONOVANOSIS • Is endemic in Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka & Maharashtra. • A greater prevalence along coastal areas has been reported.
  • 36. OTHER STDs Information is not available, as there is no reporting system for these diseases.
  • 37. AIDS
  • 38. PATHOGENS & STD PATHOGEN DISEASE OR SYNDROME Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gonorrhoea, urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis, PID, noe natal conjuctivitis Treponema pallidum Syphilis
  • 39. PATHOGEN DISEASE OR SYNDROME Haemophilus ducreyi Chancroid Chamydia trachomatis LGV, urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, epididymitis, PID Calymmatob acterium granulomatis Donovanosis
  • 40. PATHOGEN DISEASE OR SYNDROME Herpes simplex virus Genital herpes Herpes B virus Acute & Chronic hepatitis Human Papilloma virus Genital & anal warts
  • 41. PATHOGEN DISEASE OR SYNDROME Human Immuno Deficiency virus AIDS Mollucum contagiosum Genital molluscum contagiosum
  • 42. PATHOGEN DISEASE OR SYNDROME Candida albicans Vaginitis Trichomonas vaginalis Vaginitis
  • 43. HOST FACTORS • AGE: Highest rate are prevalent in 20-24 yers old & followed by 25-29 & 15-19 years age groups. • GENDER: Morbidity is higher in men. • MARITAL STATUS : Higher among single, divorced and separated persons than among married couples
  • 44. • SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS: Individuals from the lowest socio economic groups have the highest morbidity rates
  • 45. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS Certain demographic factors contribute to a higher prevalence rates. They are; 1. Population explosion. 2. Rural to Urban migration. 3. Increasing educational opportunities for women. 4. Delayed marriage due to the afore said.
  • 46. SOCIAL FACTORS 1. Prostitution (good time girl). 2. Broken homes. 3. Sexual disharmony. 4. Easy money. 5. Emotional immaturity. 6. Urbanization. 7. International travel. 8. Changing behavioural patterns. 10. Alcoholism.
  • 47. CLINICAL SPRECTRUM
  • 48. GONOCOCCAL INFECTION • Causes inflammation of the genital tract involving urethra in men & women and rectum among homosexuals. • Other sites are throat & eyes.
  • 49. GONORRHOEA
  • 50. • Complications in women include PID (infertility). • In men it may lead to epididymitis (urethral strictures). • The antibiotics of choice are CIPROFLAXIN, CEFTRIAXONE, CEFIXIME or SEPTINOMYCIN.
  • 51. SYPHILIS • Causes ulceration of the uro genital tract, mouth or rectum. • Later skin eruptions may be seen. • Final stage is marked with complications of CVS, Nervous system.
  • 52. • Congenital syphilis is an important cause for still birth. • Penicillin, doxycycline and eryhtromycin are drug of choice.
  • 53. FEMALE SYPHILIS
  • 54. MALE SYPHILIS
  • 55. CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION • Individuals may not exhibit clinical manifestations. • The symptoms mimic like gonorrhoea. • It can result in vertical transmission to the foetus.
  • 56. CHLAMYDIA
  • 57. CHLAMYDIA
  • 58. • The drug of choice include doxycycline, azithromycin / amoxycillin, ofloxacin, erythromycin or tetracycline.
  • 59. TRICHOMONIASIS • The parasitic infection leads to vaginitis & vaginal discharge in women. • Usually there are no symptoms. In men it may cause urethritis. • The treatment option is metronidazole / tinidazole.
  • 60. CHANCRIOD • After infection a small papule develops at the site of inoculation within 2-3 days. • The lesion then erodes into a deep ulcer that is extremely painful. • This is followed by painful swelling of the inguinal lymph node (BUBO).
  • 61. CHANCROID
  • 62. • The antibiotics used are ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ciftriaxone and azithromycin.
  • 63. LGV • It commonly presents with swelling of lymph nodes in the groin. • Initially there is a small painless ulcer of the genitalia 3-30 days after exposure. • It may pass unrecognized and resolve spontaneously.
  • 64. GRANULOMA
  • 65. • If left untreated the disease may cause extensive lymphatic damage resulting in elephantiasis of the genitalia. • The antibiotics used are doxycycline, erythromycin & tetracycline. • Later it may cause rectal strictures (surgery required)
  • 66. DONOVANOSIS • Symptoms are similar togranuloma venereum. • The first manifestation appears after a 3-40 days incubation period. • Usually it is a small papule which ruptures to form a granulomatous lesion that is characteristically pain free & bleeds readily on contact.
  • 67. GRANULOMA
  • 68. • The drug used are azithromycin & doxy or alternatively erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole.
  • 69. GENITAL HERPES • HSV type 2 is the primary cause of genital herpes. • It can be recognized by presence of typical papular lesions that progress to multiple blisters & ulcers. • The first manifestations are frequently associated with a prolonged course of ulceration lasting to 3-4 wks
  • 70. HERPES SIMPLEX
  • 71. HERPES (LIPS)
  • 72. • Anti virals such as acyclovir valaciclovir and famiclovir are effective.
  • 73. HPV • Causes genital warts, which vary from the common soft, flesh coloured protuberances which may become exuberant (cauliflower like) to papular flat warts on drier areas (shaft of the penis). • Can cause cervical cancer in women.
  • 74. HPV
  • 75. HPV
  • 76. • Prevention is the drug of choice. (sexually active individuals)
  • 77. STD CONTROL PROGRAMME • National STD Control Programme in India was started in 1946. With the arrival spread of HIV infection in the country it was brought under the purview of National AIDS Organization in the year 1992.
  • 78. OBJECTIVES OF STD CONTROL PROGRAMME (INDIA) 1.Reduce STD cases and thereby control HIV transmission by minimizing the risk factor 2. Prevent the short term as well as long term morbidity and mortality due to STD
  • 79. STRATEGIES • The broad strategies for controlling STD, as outlined in the strategic plan for the prevention and control of AIDS in India are the following:
  • 80. • Adequate and effective programme management • Prevention of the transmission of STD/HIV infection through IEC and promotion of safer sexual behaviour by the use of condoms.
  • 81. • Adequate and comprehensive case management including diagnosis, treatment, individual counseling, partner notification and screening for other diseases. • Increasing access to health care for STD by strengthening existing facilities and structures and creating new facilities wherever necessary.
  • 82. • Early diagnosis and treatment of mostly asymptomatic infections through case finding and screening.
  • 83. ACTIONS • Training of health care workers in both public and private sectors in comprehensive STD case management. • Development of appropriate laboratory services for the diagnosis of STD
  • 84. • Conduct of Microbiological, Socio-behavioural and Operation research. • Surveillance to assess the epidemiological situation, and monitor and� evaluate the on going STD control programme.
  • 85. • One of the major actions taken along the lines suggested in the strategies was strengthening the existing facilities and structure of STD clinics.
  • 86. • This year following drugs are supplied to the STD clinics other than the usual. • Erythromycin 500 mg Tabs. • Doxycycline caps 100 mg • Norfloxacin 400 mg Tabs • Fluconazole 150 mg tabs • Clotrimzole Vag Tab 500 mg • Acyclovir cream 5 mg tubes
  • 87. AIDS REFER AIDS CONTROL PROGRAMME IN INDIA
  • 88. CONTROL OF STDs INVOLVES FOUR STEPS: 1. Initial planning. 2. Intervention strategies. 3. Support components. 4. Monitoring and evaluation.
  • 89. INITIAL PLANNING COMPRISES OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS: 1. Problem definition. 2. Establishing priorities. 3. Setting objectives. 4. Considering strategies.
  • 90. INTERVENTION STRATEGIES INCLUDES: 1. Case detection (Screening, contract tracing, cluster testing). 2. Case holding and treatment. 3. Epidemiological treatment(contact treatment)
  • 91. 4. Personal prophylaxis. 5. Health education
  • 92. SUPPORT COMPONENTS INCLUDE: 1. Establishing of STD clinics. 2. Laboratory services. 3. Primary Health Care. 4. Information System. 5. Legislation. 6. Social Welfare Measures. (Socio therapy)
  • 93. SOCIAL WELFARE MEASURES 1.Rehabilitation of Commercial Sex Workers. 2. Provision of recreation facilities. 3. Marriage counselling. 4. Prohibiting Sexually stimulating literature. 5. Prohibition of pornography (Advertisements & Photographs).
  • 94. MONITORING & EVALUATION THIS CRITICAL ASPECT INCLUDES: 1. Monitoring of disease trends. 2. Evaluation of programme activities. 3. On going evaluation of the disease. 4. Determining the appropriateness of intervention strategies.
  • 95. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES DR. MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR HIV VIRUS