DR. MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR.
• "A project is a bit of life that has
been imparted into the school,
further in project method, learning
by living; this life has spontaneity,
purpose, significance,interest and
freedom. " Prof. Ballard
• "Poject method is a whole hearted,
purposeful activity proceeding in a
social environment". Williams
• "Project method is a problematic
act carried to completion in its
natural setting". Stevenson.
CHARATERISTICS OF A
• The method aims at teaching the
learner to get the best out of life.
• An attempt to use experience, trust
and the best master whose lessons
• The method gives opportunity for
• The experiments of the project
aims at resetting the whole
curriculum and has potentials to
break all barriers.
• The project method proposes the
whole sequence of activities &
involves a complete
• A project can be a large unit of
appreciational learning or of
attitude devlopment that increases
motor skills and technical
• A project is a play activity and
learners are engaged in carrying
out the activity.
• The project method is a complete
surrender to the learner's point of
• In the project method the
procedure of school is liable to be
determined by the techique of a
workshop because the individual
learners learns much better from
his own activity than by constant
• Project method is an attempt made
to establish a positive relation with
• The project method lends itself
naturally to group work.
• It is a large unit of planning.
• The method seeks to have
individuals see and understand life
in its unity.
TYPES OF PROJECT
1. PROJECTOR TYPE.
2. CONSUMER TYPE.
3. PROBLEM TYPE.
4. DRILL TYPE.
• Projects where students get an
opportunity to build or create
something like building a house or
a garden, execute a model of a
textile factore are called projector
• Projects in which the students set
and enjoy the direct experience
with their future expected
• E.g., Projects related with home/
house visit to assess the elderly in
• Projects where a solution to a
problem is found out or arrived at.
• The drill type projects involve an
activity that aims at acquiring
• E.g., A student is given a project in
which he or she is expected to
develop in developing competency
to carry out an experiment or a
ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD
• The project should stress present
and future values and experiences
that supplement and extend rather
than duplicate learning acquired
outside the school.
• The project should have a great
bearing on a variety of subjects
and the knowledge acquired
through it may be applied in a
variety of ways.
• The project should be timely.
• The project should be challenging.
• The project should be feasible.
• The project method starts with
identifying a suitable problem for
which a solution is required.
• A background research is done
and hypothesis is worked out.
• Tests are carried out and analyse
the result and draw conclusion.
• This is followed by testing the
hypothesis and communicating the
ORGANIZING A PROJECT
• The teacher must exercise
guidance in the selection of a
• Good planning should be done by
the students before carrying out
• During execution of the project, the
teacher should carefully supervise
the students in manipulative skills
to prevent a waste of materials and
to guard against accidents.
• The evaluation of the project
should be done by both by the
teacher and the student.
ROLE OF A TEACHER IN A
• The teacher skillfully guides the
selection of the project.
• The student has to be given help
when ever required.
• The teacher should be a good
• The relations of a teacher and
students should be much closer
and informal than in ordinary class
• The teacher acts like a friend with
rich and mature experience.
• The teacher acts like a director,
i.e., the teacher's knowledge
should be thorough and specific.
• The teacher must be a keen
observer and a true sympathizer.
• The teacher should be a store
house of information and
• It follows psychological laws of
learning.(Law of readiness, Law of
exercise & Law of effect).
• Project method gives freedom to
• It suits to the psychological
methods of maturation.
• It has potentials to drive social
• It promotes learning through
practical problem solving.
• It trains for social adjustments.
• It saves the learners from
insincerity and superficiality.
• It trains for a democratic way of
• It promotes learning through
practical problem solving.
• It sets up an intrensic standard of
• It leads to satisfaction of
completing the whole work.
• It is ideal for science work,
handicrafts and practical
geography and dramatic work
• The method is economical; the
students take more interest and
learn in the shortest possible time.
• The method helps students and
teachers to grow. The learner
stimulated and encouraged in his
exploration of many materials will
ultimately approach other areas of
learning in a similar manner.
• The teacher will grow in their
understanding of a child's creative
• The role of communication in
teaching learning process is
subordinated to the glorification of
• It is time consuming and limited by
availability and cost of materials.
• The practical difficulty of covering
syllabus rule out the project
method as the basis of teaching in
most educational institutions.
• The method provides opportunity
only for the practical enthusiast.
• It may be too ambitious; beyond
the student's capacity.
• It leaves gap in students
• Opportunity for the correlation with
the academic subjects is extremely
• The project method may disturb
the regular instruntional schedule.
• It ivolves difficulty to ensure any
kind of systematic progress in
• Projects may be adopted or
abandoned at will.
• The project approach often results
in an incomplete mastry of the
tools of learning, which are
essential to student education
• A complete re organization of the
school is needed for a new