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Grounded theory

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Grounded Theory Research Design

Grounded Theory Research Design

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  • 1. GROUNDED THEORY DR.MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR
  • 2. • Is an inductive technique developed for health related topics by GLOSER & STRAUSS (1967). • GROUNDED THEORY means that the theory developed from the research is “grounded” or has it’s roots in the data from which it was derived.
  • 3. CHARACTERISTICS • The main focus is on developing social experiences that characterize a particular event or a phenomenon. • The theory suggests that there should be a continuous interplay between data collection & data analysis
  • 4. • The grounded theory allows the researcher to develop a theoretical account of the general features of a topic • ……….. while simultaneously grounding the account in the empirical observation or data.
  • 5. • Grounded theory begins with a research situation. • Within that situation the task of a researcher is to understand what is happening there. (core variable) & how players manage their role.
  • 6. • After each hour of data collection, the investigator notes down the key issues. This is known as NOTE TAKING. • Constant comparison is made. • From this comparison theory emerges.
  • 7. • Researchers compare the initial data to the theory & the results of comparison are written in the margin of the notes, taken as codes. • The researcher’s identify categories & their properties from these codes. • There may be links between categories or a core category may emerge.
  • 8. • The researcher writes further notes about this theory, which is called MEMOING. • The researcher groups memo line by line & sequences them in an order that will make the theory clearer.
  • 9. PHASES OF GROUND STUDY DATA COLLECTION 1 NOTE TAKING CODING 2 3 MEMOING 4 SORTING WRITING 5 6
  • 10. METHODOLOGY • The steps of grounded theory occurs simultaneously. • Constant comparison is an important methodological technique.
  • 11. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION • The researcher uses his/her – all senses. • A lot of information can be learned by simple observation. • Sources of data collection varies with the focus of enquiry, purpose of investigation & guidelines of research approach being used.
  • 12. ISSUES OF DATA COLLECTION ISSUES METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION UNITS OF DATA COLLECTION GROUNDED THEORY Primarily individual interviews, sometimes group interviews, observation, participant journals, documents, self reports. Individual subjects
  • 13. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION Formal & informal interviews Audio/video tape recording SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION Diaries Case studies Documents Participant observation Art work
  • 14. ISSUES GROUNDED THEORY Cross sectional or longitudinal. DATA COLLECTION POINTS LENGTH OF Typically TIME FOR DATA moderate. COLLECTION
  • 15. ISSUES DATA RECORDING SALIENT FEATURES GROUNDED THEORY Interview notes / audio taping / memoing / observation notes Building rapport, encouraging candor, listening while preparing what to ask next, keeping ‘ on track’ & handling emotions.
  • 16. DATA ANALYSIS • Usually the sample size is 25 -50 & data are collected by in depth interviews, data collection notes, typed interview transcripts or video taped / audio taped conversations that contain multiple pieces of data to be stored & analyzed.
  • 17. • The process is initiated by coding & categorizing the data. • There are several types of coding : OPEN, AXIAL & SELECTIVE CODING.
  • 18. AS I WAS WITH MOSES, I WILL BE WITH YOU. I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU JOSHUA 1:5
  • 19. OPEN CODING • Open coding is concerned with identifying, naming, categorizing & describing phenomenon found in the text. • Each line or a paragraph is read in search of the answer to the repeated questions.
  • 20. AXIAL CODING • Is a process of relating (categories & properties) to each other via inductive & deductive thinking. • The ground theorist emphasize causal relationship & fit things into a basic frame of generic relationship
  • 21. SELECTION CODING • Is the process of choosing one category to be the core category & relating all other categories to that category. • The essential idea is to find the driver that implies the story forward.
  • 22. TYPES OF GROUND THEORY 1. SUBSTANTIVE THEORY. 2.FORMAL THEORY.
  • 23. SUBSTANTIVE THEORY 1.Is grounded in data on a specific substantive area. (such as post partum depression). 2.Substantive theory serves as a spring board foe developing a higher abstract level of theory.(custom tailored clothing)
  • 24. FORMAL THEORY • Is opposite of substantive theory. (Ready to wear clothing)
  • 25. EXAMPLE • A grounded theory to look into how parents coped with difficult times when caring for a chronically ill child
  • 26. THANK YOU