• Is an inductive technique
developed for health related
topics by GLOSER & STRAUSS
• GROUNDED THEORY means that
the theory developed from the
research is “grounded” or has it’s
roots in the data from which it
• The main focus is on developing
social experiences that characterize
a particular event or a
• The theory suggests that there
should be a continuous interplay
between data collection & data
• The grounded theory allows the
researcher to develop a
theoretical account of the
general features of a topic
• ……….. while simultaneously
grounding the account in the
empirical observation or data.
• Grounded theory begins with
a research situation.
• Within that situation the task
of a researcher is to
understand what is happening
there. (core variable) & how
players manage their role.
• After each hour of data
collection, the investigator notes
down the key issues. This is
known as NOTE TAKING.
• Constant comparison is made.
• From this comparison theory
• Researchers compare the initial data
to the theory & the results of
comparison are written in the
margin of the notes, taken as codes.
• The researcher’s identify categories
& their properties from these codes.
• There may be links between
categories or a core category may
• The researcher writes further
notes about this theory, which is
• The researcher groups memo
line by line & sequences them in
an order that will make the
PHASES OF GROUND STUDY
• The steps of grounded theory
• Constant comparison is an
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
• The researcher uses his/her – all
• A lot of information can be learned
by simple observation.
• Sources of data collection varies
with the focus of enquiry, purpose
of investigation & guidelines of
research approach being used.
ISSUES OF DATA COLLECTION
METHODS OF DATA
UNITS OF DATA
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
TIME FOR DATA moderate.
Interview notes /
audio taping /
preparing what to ask
next, keeping ‘ on
track’ & handling
• Usually the sample size is 25 -50 &
data are collected by in depth
interviews, data collection notes,
typed interview transcripts or video
taped / audio taped conversations
that contain multiple pieces of data
to be stored & analyzed.
• The process is initiated by
coding & categorizing the
• There are several types of
coding : OPEN, AXIAL &
AS I WAS WITH MOSES,
I WILL BE WITH YOU.
I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU
NOR FORSAKE YOU
• Open coding is concerned with
identifying, naming, categorizing &
describing phenomenon found in
• Each line or a paragraph is read in
search of the answer to the
• Is a process of relating
(categories & properties) to each
other via inductive & deductive
• The ground theorist emphasize
causal relationship & fit things
into a basic frame of generic
• Is the process of choosing one
category to be the core category &
relating all other categories to that
• The essential idea is to find the
driver that implies the story
TYPES OF GROUND THEORY
1. SUBSTANTIVE THEORY.
1.Is grounded in data on a specific
substantive area. (such as post
2.Substantive theory serves as a
spring board foe developing a
higher abstract level of
theory.(custom tailored clothing)
• Is opposite of substantive theory.
(Ready to wear clothing)
• A grounded theory to look into
how parents coped with difficult
times when caring for a
chronically ill child