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RESEARCH APPROACH & DESIGN
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RESEARCH APPROACH & DESIGN

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Research Approach & Design

Research Approach & Design

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  • 1. RESEARCH APPROACH & DESIGN DR. MAHESWARI JAIKUMAR
  • 2. DEFINITION • The research design is the master plan specifying the methods & procedures for collecting & analyzing the needed information in a research study.
  • 3. • Research design can be defined as a blue print to conduct a research study, which involves the description of research approach, study setting, sampling size, sampling technique, tool & methods of data collection & analysis to answer specific research questions or for testing research hypothesis
  • 4. • Research design is a plan of how & where data are to be collected & analyzed.
  • 5. • Research design is the researcher's overall plan for answering the research questions or testing the research hypotheses.
  • 6. ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
  • 7. ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN APPROACH Qualitative Quantitative Both METHOD OF ANALYSIS TOOL & METHODS ELEMENTS With /witho ut concep tual frame work POPULATION, SAMPLE & SAMPLING TECHNIC TIME & METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
  • 8. SELECTION OF RESEARCH DESIGN • FACTORS AFFECTING RESEARCH DESIGN CONT…
  • 9. 1. Nature of the research problem. 2. Purpose of the study. 3. Researcher’s knowledge & experience. 4. Researcher’s interest & motivation. 5.Research ethics & principles.
  • 10. 6. 7. 8. 9. Subjects & participants. Resources. Time. Possible control on extraneous variables. 10.Users of the study findings.
  • 11. VALIDITY OF RESEARCH DESIGNS 1.INTERNAL VALIDITY. 2.EXTERNAL VALIDITY.
  • 12. INTERNAL VALIDITY THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY 1.History. 2.Maturation of subjects. 3.Testing. 4.Instrumentation change. 5.Mortality. 6.Slection bias.
  • 13. EXTERNAL VALIDITY FACTORS AFFECTING EXTERNAL VALIDITY 1.Hawthrone Effect. 2.Experimental Effect. 3.Reactive effect of pre test. 4.Novelty effect. 5.People. 6.Place. 7.Time
  • 14. TYPES RESEARCH DESIGN
  • 15. TYPES QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
  • 16. QUANTITATIVE RSEARCH DESIGNS
  • 17. TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN OTHER ADDITIONAL DESIGN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN NON EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
  • 18. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN PRE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
  • 19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS
  • 20. FEATURES CATEGORY EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN RESEARCH DESIGN TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1.Post-test-only control design 2.Pre –test-post test control group design 3.Solomon four-group design 4.Factorial design 5.Randomized block design 6.Cross over design FEATURES 1. MANIPULATION OF INDEPENCENT VARIABLE, IN THE PRESENCE OF CONTROL GROUP. 2. RANDOMIZATION
  • 21. CATEGORY RESEARCH DESIGN FEATURES EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1.Non randomized control group design. 1.Manipulation of independent variable 2.Time series design 2.absence of either randomization or control group
  • 22. CATEGORY RESEARCH DESIGN FEATURES EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN PRE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1.One shot case design 1.Manipulation of independent variable 2.Limited control over extraneous 2.One group pre variables test post test design 3.No randomization & control group
  • 23. NON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS
  • 24. DESIGNS CATEGORY NON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN RESEARCH DESIGN 1.DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN. 2.CORRELATIONAL DESIGN/EX POST FACTO DESIGN 3DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN 4.EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DESIGNS 5.SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN
  • 25. DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN TYPE FEATURE 1.UNIVARIENT DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL, SITUATION, OR GROUP & 2.EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN 3.COMPARITIVE DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH A CERTAIN PHENOMENON OCCURS IN A NATURAL SETTING WITHOUT IMPOSING ANY CONTROL OR MANIPULATION.
  • 26. DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN UNIVARIENT DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN FEATURE Studies under taken to describe the frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon rather than to study relationship
  • 27. DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN FEATURE EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN Investigating the phenomenon & its related factors about which very little is known
  • 28. DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN FEATURE COMPARITIVE DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN CPMPARING OCCURANCES OF A PHENOMENON IN TWO OR MORE GROUPS
  • 29. CORRELATIONAL DESIGN CORRELATIONAL DESIGN FEATURE 1.PROSPECTIVE DESIGN EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO OR MORE VARIABLES IN A NATURAL SETTING WITH OUT MANIPULATION OR CONTROL ( CAUSE & EFFECT RELATIONSHIP) 2.RETROSPECTIVE DESIGN
  • 30. DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN 1. CROSS SECTIONAL DESIGN 2.LONGITUDINAL DESIGN FEATURE EXAMINING THE PHENOMENON IN RESPECT TO THE TIME. 1.CROSS SECTIONAL : Examining the phenomenon only at one point in time. 2.LONGITUDINAL: Examining the phenomenon at more than one point in time.
  • 31. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DESIGNS EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURE DESIGN 1.CASE CONTROL THE STUDIES INVESTIGATION OF DISTRIBUTION 2.COHORT STUDIES & CAUSES OF DISEASES IN A POPULATION
  • 32. SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN FEATURE SURVEY STUDIES ARE INVESTIGATION IN WHICH SELF REPORTED DATA ARE COLLECTED FROM SAMPLE …… WITH THE PURPOSE OF DESCRIBING POPULATION ON SOME VARIABLES OF INTEREST
  • 33. OTHER ADDITIONAL DESIGN
  • 34. DESIGNS CATEGORY OTHER ADDITIONAL RESEARCH DESIGNS RESEARCH DESIGN 1.METHODOLOGICAL STUDIES 2.META ANALYSIS 3.SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 4.OUTCOME RESEARCH 5.EVALUATION STUDIES 6.OPERATIONAL RESEARCH
  • 35. CATEGORY RESEARCH DESIGN OTHER ADDITIONAL RESEARCH DESIGNS 7.PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 8.ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 9.GROUNDED THEORY 10.CASE STUDIES. 11.HISTORICAL RESEARCH 12.ACTION RESEARCH
  • 36. METHODOLOGICAL STUDIES METHODOLOGICAL FEATURE STUDY RESEARCH CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP, TEST & EVALUATE THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS & METHODS
  • 37. META ANALYSIS META ANALYSIS FEATURE QUANTITATIVELY COMBINING & INTEGRATING THE FINDINGS OF THE MULTIPLE RESEARCH STUDIES ON A PARTICULAR TOPIC
  • 38. SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS FEATURE A RESEARCH DESIGN IN WHICH THE DATA COLLECTED IN ONE RESEARCH IS RE ANALYZED BY ANOTHER RESEARCHER, USUALLY TO TEST A NEW HYPOTHESIS
  • 39. OUT COME RESEARCH OUT COME RESEARCH FEATURE OUTCOME RESEARCH INVOLVES THE EVALUATION OF CARE PRACTICES & SYSTEMS IN PLACE. IT IS USED IN NURSING TO DEVELOP EVIDENCED BASED PRACTICE & IMPROVE NURSING ACTIONS
  • 40. EVALUATION STUDIES EVALUATION STUDIES FEATURES IT IS A RESEASRCH DESIGN WHICH INVOLVES THE JUDGMENT ABOUT SUCCESS OF A PROGRAMMES, PRACTICES, PROCEDURES, OR POLICIES
  • 41. OPERATIONAL RESEARCH OPERATIONAL RESEARCH FEATURE INVOLOVES THE STUDY OF COMPLEX HUMAN ORGANIZATIONS & SERVICES TO DEVELOP NEW KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INSTITUTIONS, PROGRAMMES, USE OF FACILITIES & PERSONNEL IN ORDER TO IMPROVE WORKING EFFICIENCY OF AN ORGANIZATION
  • 42. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS
  • 43. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH PHENOMENOLOGICAL FEATURE RESEARCH PHENOMENOLOGIC AL RESEARCH EXAMINES HUMAN EXPERIENCES THROUGH THE DESCRIPTIONS PROVIDED BY PEOPLE INVOLVED.
  • 44. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH FEATURES INVOLVES THE INFORMATION COLLECTED FROM CERTAIN CULTURAL GROUPS, BY LIVING WITH PEOPLE OF THOSE GROUPS & FROM THEIR KEY INFORMANTS, WHO ARE BELIEVED TO BE THE MOST KNOWLEDGEABLE ABOUT THE SELECTED CULTURE
  • 45. GROUNDED THEORY GROUNDED THEORY GROUNDED THEORY FEATURES Theory is developed inductively from a corpus of data acquired by a participant observer
  • 46. CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES FEATURES Research on a phenomenon by studying in depth a single case example. The case can be an individual person, an event, a group or an institution.
  • 47. HISTORICAL RESEARCH HISTORICAL RESEARCH FEATURE HISTORICAL RESEARCH Systematic collection & objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events & anticipate future events.
  • 48. ACTION RESEARCH ACTION RESEARCH ACTION RESEARCH FEATURES Seeks action to improve practices & study the effect of the action that was taken
  • 49. THANK YOU