Nuclear waste management

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Nuclear waste management

  1. 1. NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT BY MAHESH SHERKHANE AMIT MATALE GUIDE Dr. R K TIWARI
  2. 2. CONTENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • INTRODUCTION BASIC CONCEPTS RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOURCES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE CLASSIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE NUCLEAR WASTE HALF LIFE TIME FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MATHEMATICAL MODELLING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE LEACHING STUDIES PROBLEMS OF WASTE GENERATION WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT AND REGULATION OPTIONS BEING CONSIDERD FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT RECOMMANDATION FOR SOLVING NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT PROPOSED MODEL FOR NUCLEAR WASTE CONTAINER CONCLUSION N.W.M.
  3. 3. RADIOACTIVITY • PROCESS BY WHICH AN UNSTABLE ATOMIC NUCLEUS LOSSES ENERGY BY EMITTING IONIZING PARTICLES OR ELECTROMAGNETIC RAYS DURING PROCESS • THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF RADIATION ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY ARE 1. ALPHA RADIATION 2. BETA RADIATION 3. GAMA RADIATION N.W.M.
  4. 4. ALPHA RADIATION • ALPHA RADIATION:1. CONSISTS OF PERTICLES (NUCLEI OF HELIUM ATOMS) CARRYING POSITIVE CHARGE 2. SOURCE:- AMERICIUM METAL GIVES OF THESE RADIATION SO, CALLED ALPHA RADIATION N.W.M.
  5. 5. BETA RADIATION • BETA RADIATION:1. CONSISTS OF PARTICLES(STREAM OF ELECTRONS) CARRYING NEGATIVE CHARGE 2. SOURCE:– STRONTIUM-90 SOFT HIGHLY REACTIVE METAL GIVES BETA RADIATION 3. TYPES:– a) BETA PLUS b) BETA MINUS N.W.M.
  6. 6. BETA MINUS DECAY BETA PLUS DECAY N.W.M.
  7. 7. GAMMA RADIATION • GAMMA RADIATION:1. CHARGELESS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WITH SHORTER WAVELENGH THAN ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION 2. SOURCE:- GAMMA RADIATION IS OFTEN EMITTED WITH ALPHA AND BETA RADIATION N.W.M
  8. 8. MEASURMENTS UNITS • RADIOACTIVE SURFACE CONTAMINATION IS USUALLY EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF RADIOACTIVE PER UNIT AREA • SI UNIT:– BECQURRELS /m 2 • OTHER UNIT:– PICOCURRIES / 100cm2 N.W.M
  9. 9. RADIOACTIVE WASTE • USUALLY PRODUCT OF NUCLEAR PROCESS SUCH AS NUCLEAR FISSION • INDUSTRIES NOT DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY MAY ALSO PRODUCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE N.W.M
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE • LOW LEVEL:- (HALF LIFE TIME< 30 YEARS) • CONSIST OF a. TRANSURANIC WASTE • HIGH LEVEL:- (HALF LIFE TIME>30 YEARS) • CONSIST OF a. SPENT FUEL b. THE LIQUID EFFLUENTS c. THE SOLIDS N.W.M
  11. 11. SOURCES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE • TYPES: a.NATURAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE b. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE • MAJORITY OF WASTES ORIGINATE FROM NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND NUCLEAR WEAPON PROCESSING • AS WELL AS NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS N.W.M
  12. 12. NUCLEAR WASTE • NUCLEAR WASTE:- WASTE GAS OR LIQUID OR SOLID CONTAINING RADIO- NUCLIDE SUBSTANCES • TYPES:a. HIGH-LEVEL (HALF LIFE TIME >30 YEARS) b. LOW-LEVEL (HALF LIFE TIME <30 YEARS) N.W.M
  13. 13. NUCLEAR WASTE • HIGH LEVEL WASTE:COMES FROM THE PRODUCTION OF NUCLEAR WEAPON AND THE TESTING OF THEM • LOW-LEVEL WASTE:COMES FROM HOUSEHOLDS PRODUCTS LIKE PAINT, PAINT THINNER, BATTERIES, AND OTHER CAR PRODUCTS N.W.M
  14. 14. HALF LIFE TIME FOR NUCLEAR WASTE • HALF LIFE TIME:- HALF LIFE IS THE PERIOD OF TIME REQUIRED FOR SUBSTANCE UNDERGOING DECAY TO DECREASE BY HALF • USED TO DESCRIBE CHARACTERISTICS OF UNSTABLE ATOM • TIME REQUIRED TO DECAY UNSTABLE ATOM • FORMULA FOR HALF LIFE IN EXPOENATIAL DECAY:Nt = No(½)( t / t ½) Nt = No e-t λ N.W.M
  15. 15. HALF LIFE TIME FOR NUCLEAR WASTE • No:- INITIAL QUANTITY OF THE SUBSTANCE • Nt :- QUANTITY THAT STILL REMAINS • t ½:- HALF-LIFE OF THE DECAYING QUANTITY • λ :- DECAY CONSTANT N.W.M
  16. 16. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE LEACHING STUDIES • TRANSPORT PHENOMENA INVOLVED IN THE LEACHING OF A RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL FROM A COMPOSITE MATRIX INTO SURROUNDING WATER ARE INVESTIGATED USING THREE METHODS BASED ON THEORETICAL EQUATIONS a) DIFFUSION EQUATION (DERIVED FOR PLANE SOURCE MODEL) b) RATE EQUATION (DIFFUSION COUPLED WITH A FIRST-ORDER REACTION ) c) AN EMPIRICAL METHOD (EMPLOYING A POLYNOMIAL EQUATION) N.W.M
  17. 17. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE LEACHING STUDIES • THREE METHODS ARE COMPARED WITH RESPECT TO THEIR APPLICABILITY TO EXPERIMENTAL LEACHING DATA ON MORTAR AND CONCRETE A) METHOD I: DIFFUSION EQUATION IN THIS MODEL THE FRACTION F LEACHED AT TIME IS GIVEN BY , N.W.M
  18. 18. WHERE, Σan :- CUMULATIVE FRACTION LEACHED OF CONTAMINANT FOR EACH LEACHING PERIOD Ao :- INITIAL AMOUNT OF CONTAMINANT IN SAMPLE V :- VOLUME OF SAMPLE (cm3) S :- EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF THE SAMPLE (cm 2) tn :- DURATION OF LEACHANT RENEWAL PERIOD (d) De :- DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT (cm2 s-1) • THE RESULTS MAY ALSO BE EXPRESSED BY THE CUMULATIVE FRACTION OF THE CONTAMINANT • LEACH TEST RESULTS ARE PLOTTED AS THE CUMULATIVE FRACTION OF CONTAMINANT LEACHED FROM THE SAMPLES AS A FUNCTION OF SQUARE ROOT OF TOTAL LEACHING TIME N.W.M
  19. 19. WHEN THIS IS TRUE, A PLOT OF Σan/Ao VERSUS √Σtn IS A STRAIGHT LINE THEN De , WHERE , m=(Σan/Ao) (1/√Σt),IS THE SLOPE OF THE STRAIGHT LINE (d-1/2). N.W.M
  20. 20. B) METHOD II: RATE EQUATION IN THIS MODEL, THE RATE EQUATION IS, HERE, THE SPECIAL CASE WHERE g(C) IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE CONCENTRATION C, i.e. A FIRST-ORDER REACTION WAS CONSIDERED THE INITIAL AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ARE, IS, N.W.M
  21. 21. FROM THIS, THE FRACTION LEACHED FROM A SPECIMEN HAVING A SURFACE AREA S(cm2) AND VOLUME V(cm3) IS , WHERE k IS THE RATE CONSTANT (PROPORTIONAL CONSTANT) OF THE FIRSTORDER REACTION N.W.M
  22. 22. C) METHOD III:- POLYNOMIAL EQUATION THE ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIAL IS ONE OF THE MOST USEFUL EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS. ITS GENERAL FORM IS, WHERE, Ai :- PARAMETER TO BE DETERMINED ΦI :-FUNCTION OF X HERE, φi (x) - IS TAKEN AS t1/2 THE LEACHING FRACTION IS GIVEN BY, N.W.M
  23. 23. • CONCLUSION FROM MATHEMATICAL MODELLING a) METHOD I CANNOT DESCRIBE THE WHOLE LEACHING PROCESS; IT IS VERY CONVENIENT TO SIMULATE A LEACHING OVER A LONGER PERIOD BECAUSE OF ITS SIMPLICITY b) DESPITE THE VERY COMPLEX NUMERICAL TREATMENT REQUIRED, THE APPLICABILITY OF METHOD II TO THE PRESENT DATA IS ONLY COMPARABLE TO THAT OF METHOD I c) METHOD III GIVES THE BEST APPROXIMATIONS DURING THE WHOLE PERIOD TESTED N.W.M
  24. 24. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WASTE • HEALTH RISK :1. SOMATIC EFFECTS (EFFECT IS PRIMARILY SUFFERED BY THE INDIVIDUAL EXPOSED EXAMPLE: CANCER) 2. GENETICS EFFECTS (EFFECT IS SUFFERED BY THE OFFSPRING OF THE INDIVIDUAL EXPOSED) 3. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS (BIRTH DEFFECTS, PARENTAL DEATH) • ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS :1. CHERNOBYL DIGSTER (NOW CALLED “RED FOREST” ) - RADIOACTIVE PARTICLES SETTLED ON TREES KILLING AREAS OF FOREST N.W.M
  25. 25. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WASTE • BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION:BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO HIGH DOSE OF RADIATION, a. < 5 RAD:- NO IMMEDIATE OBSERVABLE EFFECTS b. 5 RAD TO 50 RAD:- SLIGHT BLOOD CHANGES MAY BE DETECTED BY MEDICAL EVALUATIONS c. 50 RAD TO 150 RAD:- SLIGHT BLOOD CHANGES WILL BE NOTED AND SYMPTOMS OF NAUSEA, FATIGUE, VOMITING, ETC. d. 150 RAD TO 1,100 RAD:- SEVERE BLOOD CHANGES WILL BE NOTED AND SYMPTOMS APPEAR IMMEDIATELY N.W.M
  26. 26. PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR WASTE GENAERATION • THE GROWTH OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES IS VITABLE WITH THE RENEWED FUEL SUPPLIES TO INDIA ,SO THE GENERATION OF NUCLEAR WASTE • WITH THE INCREASE IN NUCLEAR RESEARCHES, POWER GENERATION etc. THE MAJOR PROBLEM FACED IS MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE N.W.M
  27. 27. WASTE DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT & REGULATION • WASTE MANAGEMENT MEANS THE ENTIRE SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS STARTING WITH GENERATIONS OF WASTE AND ENDING WITH DISPOSAL • APPROACHES TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL(RAW) N.W.M
  28. 28. METHODS CONSIDERD FOR NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS N.W.M
  29. 29. GEOLOGICAL DUMPING • GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL MEANS DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE UNDER CONTINENTAL CRUST OR UNDER SEABED • IT PROVIDES NATURAL ISOLATION SYSTEM THAT IS STABLE OVER THOUSANDS OF YEARS TO CONTAIN LONG LIVED RADIOACTIVE WASTE • LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE (IN NEAR SURFACE FACILITIES OR OLD MINES) • HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE (IN HOST ROCKS THAT ARE CRYSTALINE OR ARGILLACEOUS) N.W.M
  30. 30. OCEAN DUMPING • OCEAN DUMPING (GOOD ALTERNATIVE AND LEAST EXPENSSIVE METHOD) • IN THIS METHOD NUCLEAR WASTE IS DUMPED INTO THE OCEAN • FOR MANY YEARS THE COUNTRIES LIKE U.S.A.,U.K.,FRANCE etc. ADOPTED THIS METHOD • BANNED BY MOST OF COUNTRIES DUE TO SCIENTIFIC PROOF OF BAD EFFECTS ON OCEAN AND MARINE LIFE • BUT RUSSIA CONTINUES TO DISPOSE OF ITS WASTE INTO OCEAN ;BECAUSE IT HAS NO OTHER ALTERNATIVE METHOD N.W.M
  31. 31. SUBDUCTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL • IT IS ONE OF THE SINGLE VIABLE DISPOSAL METHOD WHICH ENSURES NON RETURN OF REGULATED MATERIAL TO BIOSPHERE • SUBDUCTION IS PROCESS WHERE ONE TECTONIC PLATE SLIDES BENEATH ANOTHER AND IS EVENTUALLY REABSORBED INTO MANTLE • IT FORMS HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN A SUBDUCTING PLATE WHERE IT WILL BE DISPERSED THROUGH MANTLE N.W.M
  32. 32. TRANSMUTATION OF HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE • TRANSMUTATION DEVICES CONSISTING OF NUCLEAR REACTOR AND AN ACCELARATOR OF CHARGED PARTICLES ARE USED TO DESTROY RADIOACTIVITY BY NEUTRONS • THE FISSION FRAGMENTS CAN BE TRANSMUTED BY NEUTRON CAPTURE AND BETA DECAY TO PRODUCE STABLE NUCLIDES N.W.M
  33. 33. SCOPE OF NUCLEAR GROWTH IN INDIA • WITH SIGNING NUCLEAR DEAL ,THE CIVILIAN NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES WILL BE ACCELARATED AND THE ENERGY GENERATION FROM NUCLEAR SOURCES WILL BE ON A RISE • WITH NUCLEAR SUPPLIER GROUP (NSG) SUPPLYING THE NUCLEAR FUEL THE NET GROWTH OF NUCLEAR POWER WILL BE A BOON TO INDIAN ECONOMY AS WELL AS IT REDUCES THE DEPENDENCY ON NON RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY N.W.M
  34. 34. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA • ELECTICITY GENERATION BY NUCLEAR MEANS CAN BE REGARDED AS MINIMUM MEASURE OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE • ON SCALE OF NUCLEAR SHARE OF ELECTRICITY INDIA RANKS 4th FROM BOTTOM IN ABOUT 30 COUNTRIES • UNDERGROUND ENGGINTRED TRENCHES IN NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILLITIES ARE UTILISED FOR DISPOSAL OF WASTE N.W.M
  35. 35. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA • HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTERS ARE USED TO MINIMISE AIR BORNE RADIOACTIVITY • TROMBAY ,TARAPORE ,KAKRAPARA , NARORA,HYDERABAD AND JADUGUDA ARE SOME OF SETUP OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT N.W.M
  36. 36. RADIO ACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA COUNTRY ELECTRICITY GENERATION (%) FRANCE 75 SWEDEN 47 THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 42.24 JAPAN 34.65 GERMANY 31.21 UK 28.87 USA 19.80 RUSSIA 14.41 CANADA 12.44 INDIA 2.65
  37. 37. RADIO ACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA COUNTRY GIGAWATTS USA 97 FRANCE 63 JAPAN 44 GERMANY 21 RUSSIA 20 THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 13 UK 13 CANADA 10 SWEDEN 9 INDIA 9
  38. 38. RECOMMANDATION FOR SOLVING WASTE MANAGEMENT • THERE ARE VARIOUS METHOD RECOMMANDED FOR NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT , IN WHICH SEABED DISPOSAL IS ONE OF THEM • SEABED DISPOSAL IS DIFFERENT FROM SEA DUMPING WHICH DOESNOT INVOLVE ISOLATION OF LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE WITHIN A GEOLOGICAL STRTUM • HOWEVER THERE ARE QUESTIONS THAT REMAIN TO BE ANSWERED ?:N.W.M
  39. 39. RECOMMANDATION FOR SOLVING WASTE MANAGEMENT N.W.M
  40. 40. PROPOSED MODEL OF NUCLEAR WASTE CONTAINER • PROVIDE PROTECTIVE BARRIERS AGAINST PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL STRESS DURING TRANSPORTATION, INTERIM STORAGE AND DISPOSAL • WASTE CONTAINERS ARE USED IN BURIALS OF NUCLEAR WASTE • IT INCLUDES CARBON STEEL DRUM, LINERS AND BOXES AND HIGH INTEGRITY CONTAINER N.W.M
  41. 41. PROPOSED MODEL FOR WASTE PACKAGE CONTAINAR N.W.M
  42. 42. PROPOSED MODEL OF NUCLEAR WASTE CONTAINER • CABON STEEL CONTAINERS ARE INEXPENSIVE BUT CAN UNDERGO BOTH UNIFORM CORROSION AND PITTING CORROSION WITHIN SOIL AND CEMENTED SYSTEM • LIFE TIME OF CARBON STEEL CONTAINER IS TO BE VERY SHORT , SO IT IS USED FOR DISPOSAL OF SHORT LIVED NUCLIDES • HIGH INTEGRITY CONTAINERS REPRESENTS MORE DURABLE AND ARE USED FOR DISPOSAL OF LONG LIVED HIGH ACTIVE WASTE N.W.M
  43. 43. • THIS TYPE OF HIC IS EXPECTED TO FAIL EVENTUALLY BY DEGRADATIONOF CONCRETE CASING AND CREEP OF HIGH DENSITY POLYMER
  44. 44. CONCLUSION • NUCLEAR WASTE REQUIRES SOPHISTICATED TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT TO SUCCESSFULLY ISOLATE IT FROM INTERACTING WITH THE BIOSPHERE • THIS USUALLY NECESSIATES TREATMENT, FOLLOWED BY LONG TERM MANAGEMENT STRATEGYINVOLVING STORAGE,DISPOSAL OR TRANSFORMATION OF NUCLEAR WASTE INTO NON-TOXIC FORM
  45. 45. REFERENCES • CE S. Budiansky and J. Josephson, Waste Disposal Chemistry, Enelronmental • Science Technology 14, no, 5 (1980):508. • Plecas, I.,Peric, A., Drljaca, J., Kostadinovic, A."Leaching Behavior of 137 Cs in Cement", J.Radioanal.Nucl.Chem., Lett., 154 ,309-317. (1991) • Sludge Disposal,” Environmental Science and Technology 10, no. 12, (1976):1147 • B. L. Cohen, “Ocean Dumping of High Level Waste— ” Nuclear Technology 47 (1980) • Cl. B. L. Cohen, “The Cancer Risk from Low Level Radiation,” Health Physics 39(1981):659 • M. A. Callahan, etal., Water Related Fate of129 Priority Pollutants, vol. 1, EPA-440/4-79-O29a, 2, EPA-440/4-79-029b, December
  46. 46. THANK YOU

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