Human Behaviour in Organisation


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Human Behaviour in Organisation

  1. 1. Organization Behavior
  2. 2. Organization Behavior Change Stress Personality HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  3. 3. “The best thing about the future is that it comes only one day at a time.“ Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)
  4. 4. Change  Defined as planned or unplanned transformation in an organization structure, technology and/or people.  For Organization - Change is not exception, but rule.  Organization Change - Organizational Development Techniques designed to implement needed change in a manner that is acceptable to employees and that enhances the effectiveness of the organization. - Strategic Planning which involves deliberately making radical changes in the way organization operates. Organizational Change HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  5. 5. What, Exactly is Change? ChangeOrganizationalStructure • Changes made in span of control. • Altering number of employees for which supervisors, manager are responsible. • Revising basis of creating departments. Technology • Industrial Robotics • Automation • Computerized Performance management • Assistive Technology People • Unfreezing • Changing • Refreezing HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  6. 6. Change First Order Change •Restaurant - Adding new items to Menu Second Order Change •Restaurant launches a global operations Unplanned •Shifting Employee Demographics •Performance Gaps •Government Regulation Magnitude: How much is change? HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  7. 7.  Use of machines – Automation use of machines to perform complex task and function known as Industrial Robotics (i.e. Robotics used in Car manufacturing)  Assistive Technology – Touch screen, Voice Recognition System used for visual Impairments.  Computerized Performance Management used by manager to manage their respective teams about how well they perform their jobs.  Personalized Services – HDFC ATM have this feature of recording frequent withdrawal amount of customer. Change How has Information Technology changed the way we work? HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  8. 8.  Outsourcing Restructuring Organizations completely by eliminating parts of themselves that focus on non core sectors and hiring outside firms to perform such functions instead – a practice which we call Outsourcing. Product Off shoring Services Off shoring Off shoring Technical Support is a Big Business The ready availability of well-educated, English- speaking experts in IT, in the city of Bangalore, have made their nation a haven for companies seeking the services of technical support representatives. Many businesses here provide these services to American, British, and European firms in 24/7 call centres, located in gigantic Cyber and InfoTech Parks. Change HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  9. 9.  Management by Objectives The Organization Development technique by which manager and their subordinates work together to set and then strive to attain organizational goals. Change Set Goal Develop action plan Evaluate Results Implement Plan MBO HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  10. 10. Stress may be defined as "a state of psychological and / or physiological imbalance resulting from the disparity between situational demand and the individual's ability and / or motivation to meet those demands." -Stress can be positive or negative. -Stress can be positive when the situation offers an opportunity for a person to gain something. It acts as a motivator for peak performance. Stress can be negative when a person faces social, physical, Organizational and emotional problems. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11 Stress What is Stress?
  11. 11.  Occupational Stress Occupational stress is stress involving work. Stress is defined in terms of its physical and physiological effects on a person, and can be a mental, physical or emotional strain. Occupational stress can occur when there is a discrepancy between the demands of the environment/workplace and an individual’s ability to carry out and complete these demands. Factors contribute to workplace stress such as negative workload, isolation, extensive hours worked, toxic work environments, lack of autonomy, difficult relationships among coworkers and management, management bullying, harassment and lack of opportunities or motivation to advancement in one’s skill level. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11 Stress
  12. 12. 5 categories associated with occupational stress. Factors unique to the job Role in the organization Career development Interpersonal work relationships Organizational Structure/Climate HBO- ITM-SMBA-11 Stress
  13. 13. A Model of Stress Stress Environmental Factors Organizational Factors Individual Factors Individual Differences Experience Stress HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  14. 14. Stress Environmental Factors Economic Uncertainty Political Uncertainty Technological Uncertainty Organizational Factors Individual Factors Task Demands Role Demands Interpersonal Demands Organizational Structure Organizational Leadership Family Problems Economic Problems HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  15. 15. Stress Experience Stress Physiological Symptoms Headaches High blood presure Heart Disease Psychological Symptoms Anxiety Depression Decrease in job satisfaction Behavioral symptoms Productivity Absenteeism Turnover HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  16. 16. Stress Stress Management Strategies Individual Approaches TimeManagement •An understandin g & utilization of basic time management principles can help individuals better cope with job demands. PhysicalExercise •Noncompetiti ve physical exercise (as aerobics, joggi ng, and riding a bicycle have been advice physicians as a way to deal with excessive stress levels. RelaxationTraining • Individuals can teach themselves to relax through techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objective is to reach a state of deep relaxation SocialSupport • Having friends, family, or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet when stress levels become excessive. Expanding your social support network HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  17. 17. Stress Stress Management Strategies Organisational Approach Goal Setting The use of goals can reduce stress and provide motivation. Specific goals that are perceived as attainable clarify performance expectations results in less stress Job Redesign Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress Participative Decision Making By giving these employees a voice in decisions that directly affect their job performances, ma nagement can increase employee control and reduce this role stress. Organizational Commitment Given the importance that perceptions play in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also use effective communications as a means to shape employee perceptions HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  18. 18. Stress Wellness Program These programs focus on the employee's total physical and mental condition. For example, they typically provide workshops to help people – -quit smoking -control alcohol use -lose weight -eat better, and -develop a regular exercise program. HBO-ITM-SMBA 11
  19. 19. Stress How to change the Organization to prevent Job stress. Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. Design jobs to provide meaning, stimulation, and opportunities for workers to use their skills. Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. To reduce workplace stress, managers may monitor the workload given out to the employees. Also while they are being trained they should let employees understand and be notified of stress awareness. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. HBO-ITM-SMBA 11
  20. 20. Stress How to change the Organization to prevent Job stress. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. Combat workplace discrimination (based on race, gender, national origin, religion or language). Introducing a participative leadership style to involve as many subordinates as possible to resolve stress- producing problems. HBO-ITM-SMBA 11
  21. 21. Personality  Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  22. 22. Personality  Major Personality attributes influencing OB Self Monitoring Risk Propensity Type A & B personality Self Esteem Machiavellian personality Locus of Control HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  23. 23. Personality  Internal Locus of control Belief that one controls key events & consequences in one’s life  External Locus of control One’s life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate  Machiavellianism – People who adopt a manipulative approach to their relations with others are described as being high in Machiavellianism (known as high Mach's)  Pragmatic  Maintain Emotional Distance Locus of Control HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  24. 24. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11 Self Esteem - The degree to which a person likes or dislikes himself. It is directly related to expectations for success. • Two types High Self esteem Low Self esteem Risk Propensity Willingness to take risk Quick Decision making Specific to job. Self Monitoring - Ability to adjust our behavior to external, situational factors. Personality
  25. 25. Personality TypeAPersonality • Suffer high level of stress • Quantity over quality • Time Pressure / Deadlines. • Rarely creative , Poor Decision Makers TypeBPersonality • Good Decision maker • Quality of work • No compromise on health • Wiser than hasty • Creative / innovative solutions to same problem. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  26. 26. Personality Five Dimensions – Cricketers Example Extraversion Outgoing, Talkative, Sociable, Assertive Agreeableness, Trusting, Good Natured, Co-operative, Soft Hearted Conscientiousness, Dependable, Responsible, Achievement oriented, Persistent Emotional Stability Relaxed, Secure, Unworried. Openness To Experience Intellectual, Imaginative, Curious, Broad minded. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  27. 27. Personality Case in Point More than a half a year ago, Steve Jobs passed away but he prepared his successor before that – Timothy D. Cook took over Apple in the summer of 2011 – From the iron fist management style of Jobs, Cook seems to be transforming Apple into a more typical, corporate structure, more accessible to the public, with a bigger focus on overseas workers' conditions and with a CEO that's actually smiling and more down to earth. HBO- ITM-SMBA-11
  28. 28. Mahesh Karane Sneha Choughule Mubin Sayyed Kapil Rode Sanjeev Chengond Jaikumar Bhatia Milin Chakravarty HBO-ITM-SMBA 11 HBO- ITM-SMBA-11