RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA Mahesh Kumar Dept of Rural Mgmt BBAU, LKP
The Concept of Rural Devt. Has changed in the past three decades Until 70’s RD was synonymous with agri. devt. 80’s – ‘a strategy designed to improve the eco. and soc. life of a specific group of people – the rural poor’ World Bank Concerns were deepening rural poverty Changing concept of devt. Emergence of diversified rural economy Non-income dimensions of poverty recognised Today – Inclusive RD. Goes beyond growth , income and output Quality of life – health, edn, nutrition, living conditions Reduction in gender equalities
Challenges in Rural Development 71% of India’s popn. is rural 29% of rural popn. (>200 million people) is below the national poverty line. Rural poverty declined at 0.73% per year over the period 1993-2005, down from 0.81% in 1983-94. 46% of rural children under five, 40% of adult women and 38% of adult men are underweight (compared to 33%, 25% and 26% for urban). 59% are small and marginal farmers and landless labourers who depend on agriculture.
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and Bihar together account for 40% of India’s rural poor. 16% of India’s population is classified as scheduled caste, and 8% as scheduled tribe. These groups are dominantly poor and rural and face particular socio- cultural barriers to development. Source: Compiled from various sources including National Census (2001), National Sample Survey, 61st round (2004/05); National Family Health Survey 3 (2005/06); Mahendra Dev and Ravi ‘Poverty and Inequality: All India and States, 1983-2005’. Economic and PoliticalWeekly. (2007). pp 509-521.
Community Development ProgrammeGandhian notion of CD Rural upliftment and reconstruction 19 Point programme – Khadi & Village, Industries, Sanitation, Health care, Economic equity, Communal Harmony, Education, Women Empowerment CD assumed high propriety after independence 1952 GOI launched 55 CD projects each covering 300 villages / popn.of 30,000 1953 National Extension Service project – similar objective, to cover larger areas Began as a comprehensive development effort to rebuild rural life and livelihood.
CD blocks treated as admin. units for planning and devt. with separate budget. By first 5yr plan (1952-57) – 1114 blocks covering 163,000 villages were operation By the sixties CDP covered the entire country Economic progress was core objective CDP was the main programme until the 3rd 5 Yr plan. Comprehensive in content Objective was to create conditions for high living standards and upliftment of rural poor Agriculture, Animal husbandry, Roads, Health, Education, Housing, Employment
Implementation Facets of CDPs Headed by a block development officer BDO assisted by eight Extension Officers One each for agriculture, animal husb, Panchayat, co-operation rural industries, rural engineering, social education, women and child welfare VLV – BDO – Dist. Collector – Devt Comssioner– Planning Commssion Govt officials prepared plan under Plng Commsn Initially no chance for community to demand any facility to solve their problem Later advisory committee
1950s to mid 1970s – little achievement Economy slower compare to East and South- East Asian counterparts Land Reform Act 1956 – could not help poor and helpless esp. in North India Increase in poverty in late sixties and early seventies Govt compelled to import food grain
Panchayti Raj Institutions 1957 Balwant Rai Mehta Commitee appointed to suggest measures to remove obstacles from CDP Three tier system of local Govt. – Gram Panchayat (Village level), Panchayat Samiti (Block level), Zilla Parishad (District level) The three-tier system aimed to link Govt. and elected representative. To decenterlise decision making To shift decision making closer to people and encourage their participation To place Bureaucracy under people’s control
PRIs only partially able to meet these expections Elite capture of PRIs Welfare of weaker sections ignored Mid 60s Focus shifted to agriculture production Technological orientation to agriculture Central Govt. brings special Programs bypassing PRIs SFDA (Small Farmers Devt Agency),
IAAP (Intensive Agricultural Programmes) IADP (Intensive Agricultural District Programme) TDA (Tribal Development Agency) MFAL (Marginal, Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency ) Command Area Development, Drought Prone Area and Hill Area All these were financed and operated directly by the Central Govt. Agri initiative of late 60s increase food production Benefits reaped by rich, non-poor farmers in irrigated areas. Small and Marginal Farmers trailed Productivity increase from the Green Revolution in 1970s- 80s, however, did reduce rural poverty
Integrated Rural Devt. Programme IRDP introduced in 1979 for rural poor and weaker sections of society Earlier Programmes relied on delivery systems which supressed self-reliance Shift from community devt. to schematised planning
Linkage between infrastructure and employment scheme drawn Programme design has credit based self- employment activity and not as subsidy distribution exercise Decentralization of programme implementation through DRDA and Block Authority Sub schemes – Devt. Of women and children (DWCRA), Traning of Rural Youth for Self -employment (TRYSEM), National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Jawahar Rojar Yojana (JRY)
By Mid 80s – there are improvements in meeting the minimum needs of poor . Progress in Elementary education, Health, Water supply, Roads Still around 1993-94, was 32% of population was poor In SC & ST this was higher by 17-22% Small land holding , Landlessness, Illiteracy were key factors
Decentralized Planning For Rural Devt. Based on Sivaraman Committee report, Planning Comn. urged states in 1987 to consider Block as unit of Planning At Dist. level District Planning and Development council / District planning Board – has elected and nominated reps headed by a minister or district collector or a non official It planned, coordinated, monitored, reviewed, and finalized plan at block level
However people’s participation were still limited Gap between Bureaucracy and peoplePanchayati Raj Reforms 73rd amendment in 1992 Empowered PRIs to participate in devt. and decentralized planning Dependency of villagers on Govt. officials and machinery reduced
29 items of Devt. Transferred to PRIs – Agriculture Forestry and Envt. Industry infrastructure, Minimum needs Social welfare Poverty alleviation Maint. of community assets More than 34 lakh elected reps of Panchayats Broadest rep. base in any country in world Reservation for weaker section & women Gram sabha – Forum for discussion and annual planning Self help groups 9th five year plan(1997-2002)
Between 1990 and present Phase Liberal economic policies and reforms introduced in the early 1990s Driven by rapid growth in the manufacturing and service sectors Growth rate in agriculture has declined since 1997 and remains low. The share of agriculture in GDP has declined from 43% in 1970 to 22% in 2004. Public investment in irrigation has fallen
Thrust areas Economy growing at around 8% Paradigm policy shift in rural development - rural poor treated as resource, an integral part of the devt. strategy, and not as a burden Objectives are to Bridging the rural-urban divide. Guaranteeing wage employment and ensuring food security Making rural people the arbiters of their own destiny and to provide for their economic uplift by self employment Creating rural infrastructure for better economic opportunities and growth Ensuring dignified living – shelter,water, clean envt. Restoring lost or depleted productivity of the land for better livelihood opportunities Approved outlay 1st 2 yrs of 11th Plan (2007- 2012) Rs 36560 crores and 42400 crores
Bharat Nirman Under Bharat Nirman, developmental works are undertaken in the areas of irrigation, road, rural housing, rural water supply, rural electrification and rural telecommunication connectivity. Three of the goals of Bharat Nirman fall within the mandate of the Min. of Rural Development: rural connectivity rural housing rural water supply Specific targets so that there is accountability in the progress of this initiative. Bharat Nirman an effort to unlock rural Indias growth potential and key for ushering a new era National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP)
Key Programmes National Rural Employment Guarantee Act2005 (NREGA) Act guarantees 100 days of employment in a financial year to every household a social safety net for the vulnerable groups and an opportunity to combine growth with equity Structured towards harnessing the rural work-force, not as recipients of doles, but as productive partners in our economic process assets created result in sustained employment for the area for future growth employment and self-sufficiency Operationalised from 2nd February, 2006 in 200 selected districts, extended to 130 more districts in 2007-08. The remaining districts (around 275) of the country under the ambit of NREGA from 1st of April, 2008
Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) launched on 25th September 2001 objectives of providing additional wage employment ensuring food security while creating durable community, social & economic infrastructure and assets in the rural areas SGRY along with National Food for Work Programme (NFFWP) have been subsumed in the NREGA districts
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): Self employment programme for the rural poor. The assisted families (Swarozgaris) may be individuals or groups (Self-Help Groups). Emphasis is on the group approach To bring the assisted poor families above the poverty line by providing them income generating assets through a mix of bank credits and government subsidy Organization of poor into Self-Help Groups and taking care of training, credit, technology infrastructure and marketing Implemented by the District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) with the active participation of PRI’s the Banks, the line Departments, and NGO’s
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Launched December, 2000 100% centrally sponsored scheme to provide connectivity to unconnected habitations Road connectivity to all habitations with a population of thousand (500 in case of hilly or tribal areas) with all weather roads by 2009 Will lead to rural employment opportunities, better access to regulated and fair market, better access to health, education and other public services Bridge the rural-urban divide and pave the path of economic growth.
Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Since 1985-86 to help build or upgrade homes to householdsbelow the poverty line Ceiling on construction assistance under the IAY currently is Rs. 25,000/- per unit for the plain areas and Rs.27,500/- for the hilly terrains/difficult areas To impart transparency to the selection process of beneficiaries, a permanent waitlist is being prepared under IAY. 60 lakh houses are to be constructed in a period of 4 year from 2005-06 Against this overall target, 15.52 lakh were built in 2005-06 and 14.98 lakh homes in 2006-07
National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) To provide public assistance to its citizens in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement within the limit of the economic capacity of the State Launched for fulfillment of this obligation in 1995-96. National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS) • -Rs.200 per month from1st April 2006, National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS) National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS). (IGNOAPS) launched on 19.11.2007 • citizens above the age of 65 years and living below the poverty line Annapurna Scheme for providing free good grains to the elderly
Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme ARWSP Central government supplements States’ efforts for providing safe drinking water and sanitation by providing financial and technical assistance under two centrally sponsored programmes Accelerated Rural Water Supply (ARWSP) Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP). By 2009, 55,067 uncovered, 3.31 lakh slipped back and 2.17 lakh quality affected habitations are to be addressed approximately 6 lakhs habitations where water supply is a problem to be covered
Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) Central Rural Sanitation Programme‘ (CRSP) launched in 1986 aims at improving the quality of life of the rural poor and to provide privacy and dignity to women in rural areas. In 1999, Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) under restructured CRSP was launched to promote sanitation in rural areas. Follows participatory demand-responsive approach, educating the rural households about the benefits of proper sanitation and hygiene
Selected InstitutionsNational Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) More than 50 years of existence is an apex body for undertaking. Training Research Action research Consultancy functions
Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) Founded in 1986 For improving the quality of life in the rural areas, particularly the poor and socially disadvantaged . People below the poverty line, scheduled castes and tribes, bonded labour, women and people with disabilities are priority focus groups for CAPART.The major goals of CAPART are:To support voluntary organisations in implementing projects for sustainable development in rural areas.• To act as a national nodal point for development and promotion of appropriate rural technologies.• To promote and support voluntary action and peoples participation for rural development, through capacity-building for voluntary organisations and rural communities.
To act as a data bank and clearing house for information on the voluntary sector, rural technologies and rural development. Facilitating community action for development. Building awareness on critical development issues. Building and strengthening village-level people and organisations. Promoting the development and dissemination of appropriate rural technologies. Strengthening the capacities of voluntary organisations in rural areas. Creating employment opportunities and economic self- reliance. Creation of community assets and fulfilment of basic needs. Conservation and regeneration of the environment and natural resources. Enabling women, persons with disabilities and other disadvantaged groups to participate in development
End note“The long arms of the states shortening and the reach of the market forces is being extended but unevenly… The question is no longer whether decentralised collective action can be effective, but under what circumstances it is appropriate, and how positive synergy between the state, market and civil organisations can most efficiently and fairly supply public goods… --------Norman Uphoff
III Review of Rural Development Programmes in India Broad features for Rural Development Programmes in Five Year Plans Began as a comprehensive development effort to rebuild rural life and livelihood. Community Development Programme was the main programme until the Third Five year plan. Became a bundle of special programmes with focus on poverty alleviation. RDP has also been a top-down centrally guided and centrally sponsored programme. Hardly any state government has made special resource commitment for RD Programmes. A large body of literature shows limited impact on poverty removal / reduction through RDP.
C. D. P. as a Mini Plan for RD Provision in the 2ndFive Year Plan Rs. In Crore1.Personnel and Equipments 522.Agricultural, Animal Husbandry,Minor Irrigation land reclamation etc. 553.Communication 184.Rural Arts and Crafts 55.Education 126.Social Education 107.Health and Sanitation 208.Housing (Project Staff + Rural Housing) 169.CD Centre 12TOTAL 2004.2% of total plan outlay.3,100 blocks and 3,70,000 villages were covered by the beginning of thethird plan.1crore= 10 million
Features of Community Development as National Extension Programme Areas of intensive efforts for over all development of social and economic life. Different development agencies of Government to work as a team. Villagers came together for bringing about social changes are assisted to seek and enable their participation in execution of economic development programs self-help and co-operation are recognised as principles to guide. Cover all rural families especially those who are "underprivileged".
Co-operatives –Co-operative farming Development Panchayats actively responsible Landholding consolidation / Land Reforms Agricultural. Development Small and village industry Women and Youth get special focus Intensive work in Tribal area
Third Five Year Plan(1961-66) The village production plan Glimpses of Sustainable economic development? Agricultural Production Programs Full utilisation of irrigation facilities by maintaining field channels repair and maintain commu. Irrigation works. increases area under multiple cropping. spread of improved seeds composting and green manure, fertilisers Improved agricultural practices –Soil conservation, contourbunding, dry farming, drainage, land reclamation, plant protection. individual and community minor irrigation projects improved implements production of vegetables and fruits
Development of poultry, fish, dairy Animal Husbandry –stud bulls castration Development of Village fuel plantation and pastures.• Panchayat Development Socio-political• DPAP –DDP Focus on Natural ResourcesD Aims:• Optimum utilisation of land, water and livestock resources.• Restoration of ecological balance• Stabilising the income of poor• Arrest desertification advancement
Key Elements:1. Development & Management of water resources2. Soil and Moisture conservation3. Afforestation–Social + Farm forestry4. Development of pasture lands5. Livestock and dairy development6. Restructuring cropping pattern7. development subsidiary occupation
Financial Resources Centres share (50:50basis) Rs.crores(10 million)IRDP 750DPAP 175 (Rs.15 lakhs per block)DDP 50NREP 980 + Special Areas Programme Water Resources -over exploited –crisis Land Resources -degradation on rise Forest Resources -degraded and under threat Common Property Resources -Open access & degraded mostly
Fourth Five Year Plan(1969-74) By the end of 3rd Five Year Plan coverage is all villages in 5265 blocks Welding together Panchayati Raj and CD Balwant Rai MehtaCommittee –The three-tier system village, block, district link Government, and elected representative. Studies on Area Planning Concept of Growth Centre introduced growth centre to be promoted and woven into district plans.
Fifth Five Year Plan(1974-78)The Slimmest Volume! In 1975 20 point programme is introduced. Community Development Programme does not find place in text and discussion.
Sixth Five Year Plan(1980-85)RD Through Special Programmes Achievements in previous plan lauded Network of extension and development service established Land reforms successful Rural community aware and ready to adopt technical advances (GRT adoption as evidence). Special area programmes introduced. DPAP mid 1970s Drought Areas DDP late 1970s Desert Areas SFDA, MFAL since 1971 Small, marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers. RD to focus on special employment and income generation programmes for poor. Focus shifted to individual Household based support. All individual / Household Programme merged and Integrated Rural Development Programme is born (IRDP).
Seventh Five Year Plan(1985-90)“The approach to the Seventh Plan reiterates the goal of bringing down the percentage of population below the poverty line to less than 10 by 1994-95” …Therefore, the special programmes will be continued at an accelerated rate.
Eighth Five Year Plan(1992-97)List of Programmes Reviewed E IRDP (1980) TRYSEM (1979) DWCRA (1982) NREP (1980) RLEGP (1983) JRY (1990) MEGS (1971-72) Maharashtra SEPG (1991) Gujarat DPAP (1973) DDP(1978) Voluntary sector to help. Rest same as 7thF.Y.P.
Ninth Five Year Plan(1997-02)Introduction of Integrated Watershed Development Programmes DPAP, DDP + People in Centre Contradictions between Agricultural Irrigation and RD Programmes Impact of GRT (agro mechanical + bio-chemical) on ecological/environmental parameters. District Planning and RD Programmes People as if they matter Assessment of local area, resource base, people –existing situation. Natural Resource base as unit for improving resource productivity. Use of individual, social, local and indigenous knowledge. Formulation of sustainable development plans. Community Development Facilitation.
Tenth Five Year Plan(2002-07)Strategy for Equity and Social Justice “Agricultural Development must be viewed as a core element of plan, since growth in this sector is likely to lead to the widest spread of benefits especially to the rural poor. The first generation of reforms concentrated on the industrial economy and reforms in the agricultural sector were neglected. This must change in the Tenth Plan.” Box 1.3, p.9, Volume-I Five Year Plan 2002-2007 P.C.GoI, 2002
Growth Strategy Creating Gainful Employment Opportunities Deal with policy constraints that discourage growth in employment. Agriculture in extended sense Tourism, Transport Special Programs Retailing SSI IT & Communication –enabled service Other New services