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Value Chain Analysis What can it do for you and your company? Copyright    l aney & associates  Inc.  November  2002
Table of Contents <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Intelligence – what is it? </li></ul><ul><li...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting th...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting th...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting th...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting th...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting th...
Competitive Intelligence – what is it?   “ The best way to differentiate your company from the competition, the best way t...
Competitive Intelligence – what is it?   <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about oppo...
Competitive Intelligence – what is it?   <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about oppo...
Competitive Intelligence – what is it?   <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about oppo...
Competitive Intelligence – what is it?   <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about oppo...
Competitive Intelligence – what is it?   <ul><ul><li>It is the total knowledge a  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>company or a ...
Market Intelligence vs  Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company abou...
Market Intelligence vs  Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company abou...
Market Intelligence vs  Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company abou...
Market Intelligence vs  Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company abou...
Market Intelligence vs  Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company abou...
Market Intelligence vs  Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company abou...
Business Pyramid   Business Intelligence Broad – environmental scanning, market research and analysis
Business Pyramid   Business Intelligence Competitive Intelligence Assimilates all Competitive Intelligence Broad – environ...
Business Pyramid   Business Intelligence Competitor Analysis Competitive Intelligence Individual Competitor Profile Assimi...
Value of Competitive Intelligence   <ul><li>A study by the University of North Texas found that CI </li></ul><ul><li>Compa...
Different tools and techniques   <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul>
Different tools and techniques   <ul><li>Five basic tools  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Different tools and techniques   <ul><li>Five basic tools  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Different tools and techniques   <ul><li>Five basic tools  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Different tools and techniques   <ul><li>Five basic tools  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Different tools and techniques   <ul><li>Five basic tools  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><ul><li>It can be developed for individual competitors or an entire industry </li></ul></ul>
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><ul><li>It can be developed for individual competitors or an entire industry </li></ul></ul><ul...
Value Chain Analysis   <ul><ul><li>Cost Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why costs differ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wh...
The Three Tiers     <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul>
The Three Tiers     <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </l...
The Three Tiers     <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </l...
The Three Tiers     <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </l...
The Three Tiers     <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </l...
The Three Tiers     <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </l...
Vertical Linkage Analysis     <ul><li>“  gaining and sustaining a competitive advantage requires that a firm understand th...
Value Chain Components     Value Chain Analysis for Assessing Competitive Advantage – CMA Handbook   R&D Design Production...
Developing Value Chains   <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis requires expertise in more than one area </li></ul>
Developing Value Chains   <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis requires expertise in more than one area </li></ul><ul><li>Competit...
Developing Value Chains   <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis requires expertise in more than one area </li></ul><ul><li>Competit...
How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis    <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks  have been identified  for value chai...
How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis    <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks  have been identified  for value chai...
How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis    <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks  have been identified  for value chai...
How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis    <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks  have been identified  for value chai...
Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model    <ul><li>Michael Porter (1980, 1985) developed the five forces model. Five factors in...
Bargaining Power of Suppliers/Buyers   <ul><li>For Suppliers this includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input differentiation </...
Bargaining Power of Suppliers/Buyers   <ul><li>For Buyers this includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyer concentration </li></...
Entry Barriers    <ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Vertical Alliances    <ul><li>Value Chain analysis can show opportunities for participants within the chain that can have ...
Real Life Examples    <ul><ul><li>SWATCH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IKEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FedEx </li></ul></ul><...
Bibliography   <ul><ul><li>CMA Value Chain Analysis for Assessing Competitive Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadia...
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Value chain analysis

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  • What does this mean?
  • Market share Average market share for CI companies was 5.4% compared to 0.8% for other companies Earnings per share CI Companies had an average EPS of $1.24 per share compared other companies in the same industry that posted a net loss for this measure of $0.07. CI companies performed better than other companies on this measure in 15 of 19 industries
  • Strategic Analysis Industry Classification Core Competencies and capabilities Resource Analysis Future Analysis
  • Product-oriented Analysis Reverse Engineering Teardown Analysis
  • Behavioural Analysis Competitor’s management “ Shadowing”
  • Financial Analysis Traditional Ratio Analysis Sustainable Growth Analysis Disaggregated Financial Analysis Competitive Cost analysis
  • Customer Oriented Analysis Competitive Benchmarking Customer Value Analysis Value Chain Analysis
  • Customer Oriented Analysis Competitive Benchmarking Customer Value Analysis Value Chain Analysis
  • Identify factors that determine costs of different activities Understand why a firm’s costs or a sector’s costs differs from its competitors Understand why large differences in profitability exist within the same industry Identify which activities are performed efficiently or inefficiently Show how costs in one activity influence another Identify competitor’s cost positions Understand the nature and source of competitive advantage
  • It needs to Identify the processes to create the product Determine the portion of the total cost of the product to each process Identify the cost drivers for each process Identify the links between the processes Evaluate opportunities for achieving relative cost advantage
  • This could involve Superior product features Improved marketing channels Enhanced support/service Brand or image positioning Price
  • Expertise in internal operations and information External financial and non financial information Integration of databases and potential sources of timely information Cooperation of all managers involved in value chain processes
  • Knowledge of publicly available data sources and how to mine them Ethical inquiry of suppliers, buyers… Knowing what’s inside your own peoples’ heads
  • For example: Opportunities can be identified for suppliers outside of the firm’s immediate sphere of influence Forging alliances with an end market retailer gives your supplier potential access to other markets for him. This helps to increase his overall profitability/reduce costs thus improving your position with him - a “Win-Win” situation
  • Transcript of "Value chain analysis"

    1. 1. Value Chain Analysis What can it do for you and your company? Copyright  l aney & associates Inc. November 2002
    2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Intelligence – what is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Value of Competitive Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Different tools and techniques of Competitive Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Value Chain Components </li></ul><ul><li>Developing your value chain </li></ul><ul><li>How a firm can use value chain analysis </li></ul>
    3. 3. Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting the construction of value as related to end customer . </li></ul>
    4. 4. Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting the construction of value as related to end customer. </li></ul><ul><li>It can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your competitiveness </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting the construction of value as related to end customer. </li></ul><ul><li>It can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce your costs </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting the construction of value as related to end customer. </li></ul><ul><li>It can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce your costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve your market share </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Value Chain analysis was first suggested by Michael Porter (1995) as a way of presenting the construction of value as related to end customer. </li></ul><ul><li>It can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce your costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve your market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom Line - improve overall profitability! </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Competitive Intelligence – what is it? “ The best way to differentiate your company from the competition, the best way to put distance between you and the crowd is to do an outstanding job with information… How you gather, manage and use information will determine whether you win or lose” Bill Gates, 1999
    9. 9. Competitive Intelligence – what is it? <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Competitive Intelligence – what is it? <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging information/knowledge to improve competitive position of companies and local industries </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Competitive Intelligence – what is it? <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging information/knowledge to improve competitive position of companies and local industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting of changes about the economic environment </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Competitive Intelligence – what is it? <ul><li>Competitive Intelligence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information which makes companies and local industries more competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting of changes about the economic environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actionable recommendations from analysis of the environment </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Competitive Intelligence – what is it? <ul><ul><li>It is the total knowledge a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>company or a local industry possesses about the environment in which it competes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gathered in an ethical manner </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Market Intelligence vs Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company about the marketplace </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Market Intelligence vs Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company about its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and demand for its products </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Market Intelligence vs Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company about its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and demand for its products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers that influence demand </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Market Intelligence vs Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company about its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and demand for its products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers that influence demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who the buyers and suppliers are </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Market Intelligence vs Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company about its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and demand for its products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers that influence demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who the buyers and suppliers are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall economic outlook for the product </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Market Intelligence vs Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>Market Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells a company about its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and demand for its products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers that influence demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who the buyers and suppliers are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall economic outlook for the product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Competitive Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps a company understand what its competitive position is in a specific market – weaknesses and strengths </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Business Pyramid Business Intelligence Broad – environmental scanning, market research and analysis
    21. 21. Business Pyramid Business Intelligence Competitive Intelligence Assimilates all Competitive Intelligence Broad – environmental scanning, market research and analysis
    22. 22. Business Pyramid Business Intelligence Competitor Analysis Competitive Intelligence Individual Competitor Profile Assimilates all Competitive Intelligence Broad – environmental scanning, market research and analysis
    23. 23. Value of Competitive Intelligence <ul><li>A study by the University of North Texas found that CI </li></ul><ul><li>Companies outperformed other companies by all three </li></ul><ul><li>key financial measures 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earnings per share </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 Steven Miller, Editor Competitive Intelligence Magazine – 1995 study </li></ul>
    24. 24. Different tools and techniques <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Different tools and techniques <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Different tools and techniques <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Different tools and techniques <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Different tools and techniques <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Different tools and techniques <ul><li>Five basic tools : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product-oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Oriented Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value Chain Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Value Chain Analysis <ul><ul><li>It can be developed for individual competitors or an entire industry </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Value Chain Analysis <ul><ul><li>It can be developed for individual competitors or an entire industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can be for the product as it relates to end customers or customers within a chain </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Value Chain Analysis <ul><ul><li>Cost Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why costs differ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why swings in profitability? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiencies and inefficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitor’s costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature and source of advantage </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The Three Tiers <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul>
    34. 34. The Three Tiers <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. The Three Tiers <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A firm or a sector needs to understand its own value chain in order to compare to its competitors </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. The Three Tiers <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Differentiation Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. The Three Tiers <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Differentiation Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A firm or a sector then needs to identify the processes that distinguish its products or services from that of its competitors </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. The Three Tiers <ul><li>There are three tiers of Value Chain Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Cost Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Differentiation Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Linkage Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Vertical Linkage Analysis <ul><li>“ gaining and sustaining a competitive advantage requires that a firm understand the entire value delivery system, not just the portion of the value chain in which it participates. Suppliers and customers and suppliers’ suppliers and customers’ customers have profit margins that are important to identify in understanding a firm’s cost/differentiation positioning, because the end-use customers ultimately pay for all the profit margins along the entire value chain.” </li></ul><ul><li>Shank and Govindarajan (1993) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Value Chain Components Value Chain Analysis for Assessing Competitive Advantage – CMA Handbook R&D Design Production Marketing Distribution Service Supplier Value Chain Firm Z Value Chain Distribution Value Chain Buyer Value Chain Disposal Value Chain End-Use Consumer Pays for Profit Margins Throughout the Value Chain Primary Activities Support Activities Service Service Service Service
    41. 41. Developing Value Chains <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis requires expertise in more than one area </li></ul>
    42. 42. Developing Value Chains <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis requires expertise in more than one area </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive intelligence is to be gathered ethically </li></ul>
    43. 43. Developing Value Chains <ul><li>Value Chain Analysis requires expertise in more than one area </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive intelligence is to be gathered ethically </li></ul><ul><li>And then developing a systematic process for capturing, analyzing it and disseminating the intelligence and developing the appropriate strategies to enhance your competitiveness. </li></ul>
    44. 44. How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks have been identified for value chain analysis: </li></ul>
    45. 45. How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks have been identified for value chain analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Structure Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks have been identified for value chain analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Structure Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Competencies </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. How a firm can use Value Chain Analysis <ul><li>Three useful strategic frameworks have been identified for value chain analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Structure Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model <ul><li>Michael Porter (1980, 1985) developed the five forces model. Five factors influence the profitability of a firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining power of buyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of substitute products or services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of new entrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of Competition </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Bargaining Power of Suppliers/Buyers <ul><li>For Suppliers this includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost relative to total dollars </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Bargaining Power of Suppliers/Buyers <ul><li>For Buyers this includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyer concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Entry Barriers <ul><ul><li>Economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government policy </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Vertical Alliances <ul><li>Value Chain analysis can show opportunities for participants within the chain that can have an immediate effect on your costs </li></ul>
    53. 53. Real Life Examples <ul><ul><li>SWATCH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IKEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FedEx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AB originated Beef to L.A. retail stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural chemicals sold in the US Midwest </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Bibliography <ul><ul><li>CMA Value Chain Analysis for Assessing Competitive Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Institute for Competitive Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCIP – Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals email address [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Intelligence Magazine </li></ul></ul>
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