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Presentation Chapter 12 BIO120



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  • 1. Bio120Chapter 12Anesthesia & Neuralgia
    Submitted by:
    Mahendra Kafle
    Professor R. Abdullah
  • 2. Anesthesia
    General meaning of anesthesia is lack of senses.
    General anesthesia (or general anesthesia)  is a  state of unconsciousness and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anesthetic agents. A  variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring  hypnosis, amnesia, 
    analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss 
    of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous  system. 
  • 3. Types of Anesthesia
    The word anesthesia was coined by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. in 18.46
    Types of anesthesia include 
    Local Anesthesia 
    • Local anesthesia inhibits sensory perception within a specific location on the body, such as a tooth or the urinary bladder. 
    Regional Anesthesia
    • Regional anesthesia renders a larger area of the body insensate by blocking transmission of nerve impulses between a part of the body and the spinal cord. Two frequently used types of regional anesthesia are spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia
  • Contd.
    General Anesthesia
    • General anesthesia refers to inhibition of sensory, motor and sympathetic nerve transmission at the level of the brain, resulting in unconsciousness and lack of sensation.
    Dissociative Anesthesia
    • Dissociative anesthesia uses agents that inhibit transmission of nerve impulses between higher centers of the brain (such as the cerebral cortex) and the lower centers, such as those found within the limbic system.
  • Other Terms
    Branch of medicine specializing in all aspects of anesthesia, including for surgical procedures, resuscitation measures, and management of acute and chronic pain. Physician is called anesthesiologist.
  • 4. Contd.
    Anesthetic Agents: An anesthetic agent is a drug that brings about a state of anesthesia. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside of anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized in to two categories:  general anesthetics cause a reversible loss of consciousness (general anesthesia , while local anesthetics cause reversible local anesthesia and a loss of nociception.
  • 5. Contd.
    Patients under general anesthesia must undergo continuous physiological monitoring to ensure safety. This includes electrocardiography (ECG), heart rate, blood pressure, inspired and expired gases, oxygen saturation of the blood (pulse oximetry), and temperature.
  • 6. Anesthesia Record:
    The anesthesia record is the medical and legal documentation of events while a patient is under anesthesia.It reflects a detailed and continuous account of drugs, fluids, and blood products administered and procedures undertaken, and also includes the observation of cardiovascular responses, estimated blood loss, urine output and data from physiologic monitors while a patient is under anesthesia.
  • 7. Neuralgia
    Neuralgia is pain that follows the path of a nerve.
    • Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common form of neuralgia. A related but uncommon neuralgia affects the glossopharyngeal nerve, which provides feeling to the throat.
    • 8. Neuralgia is most common in elderly people, but it may occur at any age.
  • Causes and Symptoms
    Causes of neuralgia include:
    • Certain drugs & Chemical irritation
    • 9. Chronic renal insufficiency & Diabetes
    • 10. Infections, such as shingles, syphilis, and Lyme disease
    • 11. Porphyria
    • 12. Pressure on nerves by nearby structures (for instance, tumors)
    • 13. Swelling and irritation (inflammation)
    • 14. Trauma (including surgery)
  • Symptoms Includes:
    • Impaired function of affected body part due to pain, or muscle weakness due to motor nerve damage
    • 15. Increased sensitivity of the skin or numbness of the affected skin area (feeling similar to a local anestheticsuch as a Novocaine shot)
    • 16. Pain along the path of a specific nerve
    • 17. Pain located anywhere, usually on or near the surface of the body
    • 18. In the same location for each episode
    • 19. Sharp, stabbing pain that comes and goes (intermittent) or constant, burning pain
  • Treatment
    • The goal of treatment is to reverse or control the cause of the nerve problem (if found), and provide pain relief. Treatment varies depending on the cause, location, and severity of the pain, and other factors. Even if the cause of the neuralgia is never identified, the condition may improve on its own or disappear with time.
    • 20. The cause (if known) should be treated. This may include surgery to remove tumors or separate the nerve from blood vessels or other structures that press on it. This can be done for some cases of carpal tunnel syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia.
  • Prevention
    Treating related disorders such as diabetes and renal insufficiency may prevent some neuralgias. Strict control of blood sugar may prevent nerve damage in people with diabetes. In the case of shingles, there is some evidence that antiviral drugs can prevent neuralgia.
  • 21. References:
    Textbook : Medical terminology (Fremgen & Frucht)