Solar energy and Acid Rain Presentation


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presentation on solar energy and acid rain combined..
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Solar energy and Acid Rain Presentation

  1. 1. Solar energy is the most readily available source of energy. It does not belong to anybody and is, therefore, free. It is also the most important of the non-conventional sources of energy because it is non-polluting and, therefore, helps in lessening the greenhouse effect.
  2. 2. Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever- evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces.
  3. 3. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
  4. 4. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".
  5. 5. Solar energy has been used by humans for thousands of years. For example, ancient cultures used energy from the sun to keep warm by starting fires with it. They also kept their homes warm through passive solar energy designs. Buildings were designed so that walls and floors collected solar heat during the day that was released at night to keep them warm. If you have ever stood in the sun to get warm then you too have utilized solar thermal energy.
  6. 6. The discovery of photovoltaic happened in 1839 when the French physicist Edmond Becquerel first showed photovoltaic activity. Edmond had found that electrical current in certain materials could be increased when exposed to light. 66 years later, in 1905, we gained an understanding of Edmonds' work when the famous physicist Albert Einstein clearly described the photoelectric effect, the principle on which photovoltaic are based. In 1921 Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his theories on the photoelectric effect.
  7. 7. The word solar stems from the Roman word for the god of the sun, Sol. Therefore, the word solar refers to the Sun and “solar power” is power from the Sun. When we say something is solar powered, we mean that the energy it uses for power came directly from solar energy or sunlight energy. The sun provides Earth with 2 major forms of energy, heat and light. Some solar powered systems utilize the heat energy for heating while others transform the light energy into electrical energy (electricity).
  8. 8. A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, many installations contain several panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and interconnection wiring.
  9. 9. A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. What are Solar Cells?
  10. 10. Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules which are used to capture energy from sunlight. When multiple modules are assembled together (such as prior to installation on a pole- mounted tracker system), the resulting integrated group of modules all oriented in one plane is referred to in the solar industry as a solar panel. The general public and some casual writers often refer to solar modules incorrectly as solar panels; technically this is not the correct usage of terminology. The distinction between a module and a panel is that a module cannot be disassembled into smaller re-usable components in the field, whereas a solar panel is assembled from, and can be disassembled back into a stack of solar modules.
  11. 11. The above diagram shows the working of solar panels
  12. 12. To understand how solar panels work and provide electricity I have broken down its working and processes in to steps for better understanding. These steps are mentioned with the in the order as it happens in given solar plant. The steps are:- •Sun light •Earth surface •Photovoltaic Cells •Weather Station •DC switch •Inverter •Transformer •AC switch •Electric meter.
  13. 13. These are four steps which are must to be taken place for any solar panel to work. These may include:- •Electric meter •Weather station device •DC switch disconnection module •Transformer •AC switch disconnection module •Data acquisition module •Electricity distribution panel module.
  14. 14. These electric meters are used for the same purpose as our normal electric meters are used for. They keep the record of energy being consumed which is produced by solar panels. Normally electric energy is measured in watts or kilowatts. Most of solar panels come with electric meters especially when panels are designed to produce energy on large scale.
  15. 15. Weather station is another useful add-on for solar panels. As name suggests it keeps the record of weather conditions. Weathers conditions are very crucial as far as the performance or solar panels are concern, therefore keeping weather conditions as record is important. These modules are normally located near photovoltaic cells or arrays. Weather station normally have anemometer to keep the record for wind speed, pyranometer keeps record for solar energy falling on solar panel arrays and of course thermometer to measure temperature. All these inputs are then send to data acquisition module for further processing.
  16. 16. This module helps professional solar panel electricians to disconnection solar panel from the rest of its system. When DC switch is off, electricians can do maintenance task on the rest of solar panel components.
  17. 17. Transformer is an important component for any electric system; it makes sure that electricity coming from inverter is compatible with electric voltage of house, building office etc.
  18. 18. This module allows electricians to disconnect electric supply of house or building from photovoltaic system. With AC switch turned off maintenance of solar photovoltaic system can be performed.
  19. 19. Data acquisition module is important module which receives inputs from weather station module and electric meter. It is normally designed in such a way that it gathers important information to calculate weather conditions and output of solar panels.
  20. 20. This module is designed to receive energy from solar panels which is then combined with other electricity supply company. From here this energy is passed on electric wiring all over the building, house office etc to run electric appliances.
  21. 21. Today , Solar Energy is used in many ways. Some of them are given below:- •Residential Usage •Commercial Usage •Industrial Usage •Remote Application Usage
  22. 22. The number of PV installations on buildings connected to the electricity grid has grown in recent years. Government subsidy programs (particularly in Germany and Japan) and green pricing policies of utilities or electricity service providers have stimulated demand. Demand is also driven by the desire of individuals or companies to obtain their electricity from a clean, non-polluting, renewable source. These consumers are usually willing to pay only a small premium for renewable energy. Increasingly, the incentive is an attractive financial return on the investment through the sale of solar electricity at premium feed-in tariff rates.
  23. 23. In solar systems connected to the electricity grid, the PV system supplies electricity to the building, and any daytime excess may be exported to the grid. Batteries are not required because the grid supplies any extra demand. However, to be independent of the grid supply, battery storage is needed to provide power at night.
  24. 24. Holiday or vacation homes without access to the electricity grid can use solar systems more cost- effectively than if the grid was extended to reach the location. Remote homes in sunny locations can obtain reliable electricity to meet basic needs with a simple system comprising of a PV panel, a rechargeable battery to store the energy captured during daylight hours, a regulator (or charge controller), and the necessary wiring and switches. Such systems are often called solar home systems (SHS).
  25. 25. On an office building, roof areas can be covered with glass PV modules, which can be semi- transparent to provide shaded light. On a factory or warehouse, large roof areas are the best location for solar modules. If the roof is flat, then arrays can be mounted using techniques that do not breach the weatherproofed roof membrane. Also, skylights can be partially covered with PV.
  26. 26. The vertical walls of office buildings provide several opportunities for PV incorporation, as well as sunshades or balconies incorporating a PV system. Sunshades may have the PV system mounted externally to the building, or have PV cells specially mounted between glass sheets comprising the window.
  27. 27. For many years, solar energy has been the power supply choice for industrial applications, especially where power is required at remote locations. Because solar systems are highly reliable and require little maintenance, they are ideal in distant or isolated places.
  28. 28. Solar energy is also frequently used for transportation signaling, such as offshore navigation buoys, lighthouses, aircraft warning light structures, and increasingly in road traffic warning signals. Solar is used to power environmental monitoring equipment and corrosion protection systems for pipelines, well- heads, bridges, and other structures. For larger electrical loads, it can be cost-effective to configure a hybrid power system that links the PV with a small diesel generator.
  29. 29. Remote buildings, such as schools, community halls, and clinics, can benefit from solar energy. In developing regions, central power plants can provide electricity to homes via a local wired network, or act as a battery charging station where members of the community can bring batteries to be recharged.
  30. 30. PV systems can be used to pump water in remote areas as part of a portable water supply system. Specialized solar water pumps are designed for submersible use or to float on open water. Large-scale desalination plants can also be PV powered using an array of PV modules with battery storage.
  31. 31. 1. Solar energy is renewable. We never have to worry about running out of sunlight or using it all up. The sun is a consistent power source meaning it's always going to be there every day. 2. Solar energy is environmentally friendly. Compared to fossil fuels which release greenhouses gases, carcinogens and carbon dioxide, solar cells don't release anything into the air. 4. Solar cells make no noise while collecting energy. There are no other renewable energy sources that are completely silent.
  32. 32. According to a report, by 2050 almost one fourth of the world is expected to use the solar energy. Out of the total supply, 11 percent of the solar energy is predicted to be used through the solar panel for the domestic purposes, offices and so on and the other 11 percent will be used by central solar power station to provide electricity in the populated areas.
  33. 33. According to a report, solar power currently is only using 0.5 percent of total electricity supply, but solar power should be used in generating the electricity to cut down the carbon emissions. It is said that the future of solar energy largely depends on its cost. The value of the solar energy is more than the value of power energy today, but after a decade the value of the solar energy would become equivalent to other powers of energy.
  34. 34. But several other sources say that by 2040, 50 percent of the world’s energy will come from solar energy. Since this is a renewable energy, there is no risk of this energy resource getting depleted, and the usage will increase by a high margin as people will shift towards non exhaustible resources of energy. So it is necessary to change to solar energy and build a solar dwelling. Also do what you can do for the environment and develop the future use of solar energy.
  35. 35. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. The chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and erosion of stone statues..
  36. 36. The above picture shows how acid rain is formed......
  37. 37. Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to the damage of trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 feet) and many sensitive forest soils. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage. Prior to falling to the earth, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases and their particulate matter derivatives— sulfates and nitrates—contribute to visibility degradation and harm public health.
  38. 38. Acid rain can be prevented by reducing emissions that come from the mining industries, burning of fuels for electrical power generation, oil operations, and reducing fuel emissions from cars and trucks. Reduce our use of products that produce chlorofluorocarbons that are released into the atmosphere by actively conserving the use of your air conditioning. Become energy wise by conserving energy through the use of fluorescent lights, closing off rooms you do not use, and use washers, dryers, and dishwashers only when full. Last but not lease please recycles packaging and other disposable products. How to Prevent Acid Rain?
  39. 39. It is our humble request that please do not use cheap house cleaning products that contain harmful chemicals, please walk or use a bicycle to travel to nearby places instead of using a motorbike and please use public buses to travel instead of using a car but still if you want to use a car please use a eco-friendly pollution free and fuel efficient cars .