1. Mahdie Hosseini Comparison of the grammar translation method& directmethod & audio lingual method
2. 22• GTM: the students should be able to read literature written in the target language.• DM: the students should learn how to communicate in the target language.• ALM: the student should be able to use the target language communicatively .
3. role of the teacher & the student• GTM: the teacher is the authority in the classroom. the students do as she says so they can learn what she knows.• DM: the students and teachers are more like partners in the teaching-learning process.
4. role of the teacher & the student• ALM: the teacher direct and control the language behavior of the students. The students follow the teacher’s direction and respond as accurately and as rapidly as possible.
5. characteristic of teaching/ learning process• GTM: -student are taught to translate from one language into another. -students study grammar deductively. -students memorize native language equivalents for target language vocabulary words.
6. characteristic of teaching/ learning process• DM: -students need to associate meaning with the target language directly. -Grammar is taught inductively. -the syllabus used in direct method is based upon situation or topic. -student practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.
7. characteristic of teaching/ learning process• ALM:-New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogues. -The dialogues are learned through imitation and repetition. -Grammar is induced from the examples given -cultural information is contextualized in dialogues or presented by the teacher -Student’s reading and written work is based upon the oral work they did earlier.
8. the nature of student-teacher interaction & student-student interaction• GTM: teacher to students. little student initiation and little student-student interaction.• DM: teacher to student & student to teacher students converse with one another.• ALM: teacher and student student to student : in chain drills: teacher-
9. the feeling of the student• GTM,DM,ALM: THRE IS NO PRINCIPLE OF THESE METHODS THAT RELATED TO THIS AREA
10. how is the language viewed?• GTM: literary language is considered.• DM: language is primarily spoken not written.• ALM: everyday speech is emphasized and comprises several different levels: phonological, morphological, syntactic.
11. how is culture viewed?• GTM: culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts.• DM: they study the history, geography and daily lives of the speakers of the language.• ALM: culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.
12. what areas of language are emphasized?• GTM: vocabulary and grammar• DM: vocabulary• ALM: sound system and grammatical pattern.
13. what language skills are emphasized?• GTM: reading and writing• DM: reading, writing, speaking, listening• ALM: listening, speaking, reading, writing(natural order)
14. what is the role of the students’ native language?• GTM: the students native language is mostly used• DM: the students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.• ALM: the target language is used in the classroom.
15. how is evaluation accomplished?• GTM: written tests in which students are asked to translate.• DM: we did not actually see any formal evaluation in the class we observed.• ALM: the answer to this question is not obvious.
16. how does the teacher respond to students errors?• GTM: the teacher gives them correct answer.• DM: the teacher tries to get students to self-correct.• ALM: students errors are to be avoided if at all possible.