Quality management features by conventional and islamic perspective
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Quality management features by conventional and islamic perspective

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Quality Management Features by Conventional and Islamic Perspective

Quality Management Features by Conventional and Islamic Perspective

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Quality management features by conventional and islamic perspective Quality management features by conventional and islamic perspective Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4 Quality Management Features by Conventional and Islamic Perspective: An Analysis of TheoryLokman Bin Abdul Rasol*, Master’s Candidate, Department of Islamic Political Science, Academy of IslamicStudies, University of MalayaSiti Arni Binti Basir**, Senior Lecturer’s at Department of Islamic Political Science, Academy of IslamicStudies, University of MalayaAbstractQuality management in an organization over the years Continuously Improved to Achieve the Goals That havebeen targeted by the government through the Transformation That has been introduced in the National KeyResult Areas (NKRA) and Key Performance Index (KPI). Improving the quality of an organization is crucial tosatisfying the customer The customer preference That is the main goal of an organization Involved with thework of services and products in the market. Among features of quality management was introduced by thequality Gurus is top management support, strategic planning, philosophy, training and recognition, teamworkand performance measurement. However, the public does not know that the quality management features areactually very similar to That Islamic values have been applied as the concept of Shura, Goodwill, istiqamah,Obedience and others. This paper will attempt to find the common features of conventional quality managementand management features of the Islamic administration has been since That the time of the Prophet Mohammed.Hopefully this paper will be Easier for people to understand Islam, especially in improving the performance ofan organization and thus can produce excellent Ummah.Keywords: Quality Management, Quality Islamic Management, Leadership, Customer Satisfaction, IslamicAdministrations.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 1
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 41. IntroductionGovernment Transformation Programme (GTP) was introduced by Malaysias sixth Prime Minister YAB DatoSeri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak in April 2009. He is known as the Father of the National Transformationis committed to developing country with a variety of activities that can improve the quality of life of Malaysians(in line with the concept of People First, Performance Now). Among the selected planning to drive excellence isto identify the administration of the National Key Result Areas (NKRA) and Key Result Areas Ministry(MKRA)1. GTP objective is to transform government to be able to deliver services effectively and create aunited Malaysian society towards achieving developed nation status by 20202.GTP is specially formulated to help raise the living standards of Malaysians by reducing crime, fightingcorruption, improving student achievement, improve the living standards of low income households, basic ruralinfrastructure, improving public transportation in the city and enhance the accountability of the KeyPerformance Indicator (KPI ) minister3. Indirectly, people were mesmerized by a quality lifestyle for those whoare in the group necessarily want to change their quality of life of the deprived and unpleasant conditionsundries and happy enough.The picture above is one example of quality management in a country. Quality management is not onlyimplemented in the administrative machinery of government, it will also be conducted in private agencies andNGOs.2. The Concept of Quality ManagementQuality management is generally associated as meeting expectations (customers) a reasonable time 4. Part of theorganization or industry that is too much spending money to ensure their organization or industry and excellentquality results they produce5. But the main aspect is emphasized in the management of quality produce workersbecause through their products and services of a quality can be produced.Oxford English Dictionary (1978) and English-Malay Dictionary Hall (1992), defines quality as "degree ofexcellence, quality, or the nature of Excellence". Demings view that quality must be targeted to the needs ofpresent and future6. In my mind they produce a high quality production workers if they take pride in their workand the quality of the means to acquire the number of plant managers who meet the specifications7. Demingorganized the use of statistical techniques in the measurement of production performance compared to thespecification8.Juran relates to the cost of quality-oriented. High quality can usually be "cut costs"9 while Crosby was sayingthe quality is the consistency with the requirements and it can be achieved if management is willing to learn andchange to implement10.Islamic scholars also provide critical view on quality management. Muhammad Ammarah11 stressed theimportance of understanding the needs of diverse communities to ensure the stability of the mode quality of life.Ibn Taymiyyah 12 and Al-Buraey 13 Islam is of the view that quality management must be parallel to theorientation sharia and protect the interests of the community.1 Unit Pengurusan Prestasi dan Pelaksanaan (PEMANDU) Jabatan Perdana Menteri (2010), 1 Malaysia ProgramTransformasi Kerajaan Pelan Hala Tuju, Putrajaya : Jabatan Perdana Menteri, :82 http://www.epu.gov.my/gtp. Diperolehi pada 11 Januari 2012.3 Ibid4 Panel Akademi Pengurusan (2005), Pengurusan Dalam Islam : Menghayati Prinsip Dan Nilai Qurani, Kuala Lumpur :Akademi Pengurusan YPEIM, :174.5 Mohd Yusof Hj Othman (2000), Menjejak Kualiti Menjana Kecemerlangan, Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, :1.6 J.S Oakland (2007), Ke Arah Peningkatan Prestasi Pengurusan Kualiti Menyeluruh, (terj) Abdul Rahman Ibrahim, KualaLumpur : Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia Berhad, : 5.7 Mohd Ashari Idris (2004), Orientasi Kualiti : Prinsip dan Amalan Strategi, Selangor : Penerbit Universiti KebangsaanMalaysia, : 21.8 Azizan Abdullah (2002), Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti ISO 9000:2000 Strategi Ke Arah Pensijilan, Petaling Jaya : PrinticeHall, : 4.9 Joseph M. Juran (2000), Juran’s Quality Handbook, 5th Edition, New York : McGraw-Hill Company, h.2.1-2.3.10 Mohd Ashari Idris (2004), op. cit., : 41.11 Muhammad Ammarah (2006), Al-Islām wa Huqūq al-Islām, Ḍharūrāt Lā Huqūq, Kaherah : Dar as-Syuruk, : 82-86.12 Ibn Taymiyyah (t.t), Al-Siyāsah al-Syar’iyyah fi Iṣlaḥ al-Rai’ey wa al-Rai’yah, Beirut: Dar al-Kutb al-Arabiyyah, : 21-25.13 Al-Buraey, M.A (2005), “Islamic Principles in the Management of An Organisation : A Focus on Leading “, dlm MazilanMusa & Shaikh Mohd Saifuddin Shaikh Mohd Salleh (eds.), Quality Standard from the Islamic Perspective, Kuala Lumpur :Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia, : 63.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 2
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4 14 15Al-Habshi said God created man in quality . The analogy of human creation proves that Islam teaches peopleto act in accordance with a fair balance of knowledge and when doing the work are to be certain levels of qualitymanagement that is considered perfect. Nik Mustapha Nik Hassan increase efforts to create a compilation ofIslamic organization meet an appropriate methodology and practical approach. The process of change to achievesuccess must be the Tawheed of values, philosophy and spirit of the existing system 16.View of the above represent some of the quality management scientists in the conventional and Islamic. Islamicscholars menyingkapi quality management with the understanding of human purpose on earth was created andthe management must be based on aspects of sharia and has an element of unity of God While Western scholarsalso understand this quality management as a mechanism to meet customer satisfaction and reap handsomegains at minimal cost. Thus, the concept of Islamic and conventional visual quality difference, especially fromthe point of integration for the spiritual element in quality management within the framework of conventionaltheory occurs dualism. However, in terms of material and the modus operandi of using the same modular.Features in Quality ManagementQuality management requires a number of features that can be implemented to achieve the goals of theorganization. Between quality management features include:2.1 Effective LeadershipOrganization requires a leader who acts as a champion (hero) and this kejaguhan generally accepted.Organisations need to create heroes that much if you want to grow and motivate employees. Strongorganizational culture can be described by a respected individual leadership. The success of the leader will bethe topics of conversation and stimulus to all employees. In addition, the successful leader of an organizationcan improve its image17. This is because the caliber of leaders who will make every effort to improve the qualityand organization.Leaders must have the vision or long-term goals and be focused on achieving the goal gradually. Tun Dr.Mahathir Mohamad, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, once said to be a good leader they should have long-term plans: "I believe that the leader should look ahead rather than solely profit"18. Leaders with a forward-thinking organization can make always ready with any situations that will occur in the near future.A leader is trustee of a large and they must fulfill their responsibilities. S.W.T word of God, which means: "O ye who believe, do not betray (trust) in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad) and (also) do not betrayyour trust entrusted to you, and you knows is wrong" Surah Al-Anfal (8) : 27Islam takes special care to include the aspect of leadership characteristics, the approach adopted by the leadersas well as environmental factors that influence the style of leadership. Islamic leadership model outlined severalkey features that need to be adopted by a Muslim leader. These features include the ability, honesty, passion,patience and honesty. Leaders also must practice what he had said19. Gods Word S.W.T. :"O ye who believe! Why do you say what you do not? It is most hateful in the sight of Allah that ye say thatwhich you do not do " Surah al-Ṣoff (61): 2-3According to Mustafa Haji Daud (1994) chief of the leadership is the result of cooperation between individuals.Every organization needs a leader who works for the common goal. Islam encourages each organization toappoint a chief as a symbol of encouragement to live in, especially in the organization. This is based on thetraditions of the Prophet says 20:14 Al-Habshi, S.O. (1996), “ Quality and Productivity Consciousness: An Islamic Approach”, dlm Sadeq, Abul Hasan danAhmad, A. Khaliq (eds.), Quality Management from Islamic Perspective, Kuala Lumpur: Leeds Publications, : 157-159.15 Sūrah al-Sajdah (32):7-9.16 Norain Ishak, Noormala Rabu, Razali Abdul Rahim et.al (2010), Teras dan Amalan Pengurusan Islam. Melaka : PusatPemikiran dan Kefahaman Islam (CITU) UiTM, : 1.17 Mumtaz Begam Hj. Abdul Kadir, Norasiken Bakar, Norhayatee Ismail (2002), Kualiti Dalam Pengurusan SumberManusia, Shah Alam : Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd, : 51.18 Naceur Jabnoun (2008), Islam and Management, Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House, : 209-21019 Siti Arni Basir, Bharudin Che Pa, Raja Hisyamudin Raja Sulong (2010), “Suntikan Nilai-Nilai Islam ke atas PerlaksanaanPenambahbaikan Berterusan dalam Konteks Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (SPK) ISO 9000”, 18(1), : 91-122.20 Norain Ishak, Noormala Rabu, Razali Abdul Rahim et.al (2010), op.cit., : 109.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 3
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4"When three people travel, there shall be one of the amir (chief)" (Reported by Abu Dawud)Hadith the prophet was explained that the importance of appointing a leader in an organization or even a state.This is because the leaders have an important role in controlling the behavior of his servants or employees fromdoing things that could jeopardize the relationship between the group members as conflicting opinions andconflicting interpretations.2.2 Providing Quality and Strategic PlanningStrategic management can be defined as an art to make forecasting and directing the movement and operation ofa body to achieve specific goals. It is based on implementing the tactics employed (Lewis, 1994). Strategicplanning has helped many organizations in the private sector and increasingly in the public sector. Through thisprocess, government departments in this country have a clear idea who their customers, customer needs todetermine the type of output to be removed. Successful strategic planning is often as a strategic planning modelinvolving strategic alignment. Strategic planning is also suitable as a basis for the departments mission andquality objectives and to determine improvement programs suitable for short and long term 21. Strategic planningis crucial implemented in an organizations vision and mission that they are easy and fast to reach.Planning is a process of using available resources more economically and efficiently in order to achieveorganizational goals. In addition, the plan also can help reduce uncertainty in the future and thus enable theorganization to do the job better and more effective. Strategic planning is the process of setting goals anddetermining policies and programs needed to achieve organizational goals and set method should be used toensure that programs and policies are implemented effectively22. When this objective is reached, the next it willincrease consumer confidence in goods or services they provide to customers.At the time of the Prophet are also strategic planning that has been used by the prophet. Many examples cited inthis context is the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina, a strategic move that brought major implications onthe history of Islam. Throughout the history of the mission ceased, he has been through many events, some ofwhich occur without any planning as Isra and Miraj is happening in miracles absolutely, but most of the othersthere with him as events planning emigration. It happened so God wills to set an example to people to think,plan and strategy23. Islam has emphasized the aspect of planning must be closely and regularly before the startof an action. Therefore, to ensure the quality, strategic planning needs to be done and in accordance with Islamicrequirements.Dr. Ahmad Ibrahim Abu Sin (2008)24 tells in his book, He also made a strategic plan to accept the opinion ofBadr Bin Mundzir Khabab that he suggested to the Prophet to go to the primary sources of water from a height,and lived there and make a hole wells behind it, and build the lake is filled with water to facilitate the Muslimarmy in the battle for water.2.3 Focus on Customer NeedsPublic servants need to prioritize customer-friendly services, including practice characteristics, sweet face, wellmannered, friendly and responsive. In addition, to help, especially in matters that easy though sometimes notconnected with his duties and did not practice favoritism even if the client has a kinship with him 25 . Thispractice is important to avoid unfairness in the transaction. It may cause disbelief on the organizationscustomers.Those who deal with the company will emphasize good service and lasting relationships. They will appreciateall the related business, which will enhance the relationship between the companys closeness to the customer oruser. Long-lasting relationship will be fostered for a long time. Therefore, a high concern for the quality of21 Lokman Abdul Rahman (1997), Pengurusan Islam : Etika, Komunikasi dan Motivasi, Melaka : Jabatan Agama IslamMelaka (JAIM), : 48-49.22 Mumtaz Begam Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim (2009), Integriti Peningkatan Kualiti Organisasi, Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn Bhd., : 131.23 Panel Akademi Pengurusan YPEIM (2005), op.cit. : 158-159.24 Dr. Ahmad Ibrahim Abu Sinn (2008), Manajemen Syariah : Sebuah Kajian Historis Dan Kontemporer, Jakarta : PTRajaGrafindo Persada,: 142.25 Sharifah Hayaati Syed Ismail al-Qudsy (2004), Efektif Governan di Malaysia Menurut Perspektif Islam, Kuala Lumpur :Penerbit Universiti Malaya, : 28.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 4
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4foods evidenced by the manager will be seen by customers as a commitment given by the company againstthem26.The main agreement organization is providing services as promised to meet the needs of society. Demand andcustomer needs into operational priorities of the organization and should be given priority. In Islam, the conceptof customer priorities articulated in the Quran as his word, which means27:“Creator of the heavens and the earth, and when he desires (to create) a, then (enough) he just said to him:"Be!" then so be it”. Surah al-Baqarah (2) : 117Indeed, the promise must be questioned. Surah al-Isra (17) : 34The above verse clearly shows that God is very concerned about what has been entrusted by Him to His servantthat which he would be questioned by Allah in the Hereafter. God is very concerned with his servant to fulfill itspromise because it is a religious obligation.To the needs of the organization and the customer should be apriority employee who receives remuneration from the work performed.During the reign of the Umayyad caliphate, when the rulers are very concerned about people that can also bedefined as customers that they are entitled to assistance from the authorities. Population in Basra was dividedinto 5 groups (akhmas) and the people in Kufa were divided into 4 groups (Arba ) to replace the existing systemhas been practiced since the reign of Caliph Umar al-Khattab again. This division aims to ensure social justiceso that the distribution of income distribution can be enjoyed by people with justice28.2.4 TeamworkTeamwork refers to a group of employees in organizations that are working together to perform the duties ofeach other and join together to achieve collective goals. Team members will interact closely, share information,make decisions and take responsibility together to perform duties specified in the scope of delegated authority29.Each member of the company must work together in planning to select, develop, make decisions that involve theongoing development program and will be implemented. The effect of co-operation will foster a sense of mutualhelp, respect and responsibility30. This cooperation is very important applied within the organization to facilitatethe planned projects in an organizations quality program to be implemented easily and get support from allmembers of the organization.Teamwork is one of the characteristics of quality management.Team work is a collaboration between themanager or head of department personnel responsible for planning and carrying out their responsibilitiesproperly31 . Use the team approach in problem solving, have many advantages from the individual to let aseparate problem32.According to Islam this team is working together in unison is working with others in a team. Islam encouragesits followers to do a job or in congregational worship. As the order of God in the Quran that says:And Help one you in the (work) charity and piety, and do not help one another in sin and rancor. And fearAllah, surely Allah is severe in His punishment. Surah al-Maidah (5) : 2Leadership in the implementation of Islam Hadhari as manhaj and implementing the principle of shura ordiscussion before deciding on a decision based on the word of God which says 33:26 Ab. Aziz Yusof (2010), Pengurus Bertakwa Memakmurkan Syarikat, Sintok : Penerbit Universiti UtaraMalaysia, : 193-194.27 Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab (2008), Kecemerlangan Pengurusan Organisasi dalam Islam Siri 1, Pahang : PenerbitUniversiti Malaysia Pahang, : 40-41.28 Mahayuddin Hj. Yahya (1984), Sejarah Awal Perpecahan Umat Islam (11-78H/632-698M), cet.1. Kuala Lumpur : DewanBahasa dan Pustaka, : 6.29 Alauddin Sidal (2004), Kerja Berpasukan dalam Organisasi, Siri Pengurusan INTAN, Kuala Lumpur : Institut TadbiranAwam Negara, : 40.30 Ab. Aziz Yusof (2010), op.cit., : 62.31 Yoep Hussin Bidin (2006), Kerja Berpasukan, Selangor : PTS Profesional Publishing Sdn. Bhd., : 2.32 John S.Oakland (1995), penterj : Muhamad Salmi Mohd Sohod, Pengurusan Kualiti Menyeluruh, Kuala Lumpur : DewanBahasa dan Pustaka, : 266.33 Jaafar Salleh (2008), Falsafah Hadhari dalam Islam Relevan Sepanjang Zaman, Batu Caves : Thinker’s Library Sdn.Bhd, : 295.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 5
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4and consult with them about the matter, Surah ᾹliImrān (3): 1592.5 Continuous ImprovementPhilosophy of continuous improvement include increased reliability and control requirements of accuracy (to doa job right from the beginning each time). Continuous improvement is the most simple improvement activitiesthan the benchmark method and the reengineering of the more complex to implement34.Continuous improvement process requires management support, feedback and measures to make the reviewprocess has been completed, delegated authority to the employee and the metric system that can accuratelymeasure the result of the improvement process 35.Continuous improvement requires the cooperation of all parties to achieve this. According to Fazila AzniAhmad (2006), this commitment must involve all members of the company, suppliers and the customers. Forhim the strategies to be taken in order to make improvements is to identify improvement goals, determine themethod of implementation, planned training for employees implementing, implementing the plannedimprovements, evaluate the performance improvement, standardize processes and make the extended remedialaction needs to be done36.The concept of continuous improvement has a remarkable resemblance to istiqamah concept in Islam. Istiqamahmeans doing something with the regular, continuous and practiced regularly. For example, Allah commands Hisservants remain in the true foundation of Islam as his word, which means:"Say:" Verily I am only a man like you, revealed to me that your Lord is the only God, then remain on theright path to it and ask forgiveness of him and Woe to those who worship false gods " Surah al-Fushshilat (41) : 6The above verse about the importance of us as human beings remain in the path of Islam. Only Muslims whocan lead us to heaven with God and leave the execution of orders forbidden. Staying on the Path of Allah, manshould be in performing their religious duties istiqamah and never abandoned.Every organization that wants to succeed in improving the quality or the quality of output should be capable ofaddressing to customer needs. In addition, the method or its implementation must be consistent with Islamiclaw. This improvement process can also use a systematic process control equipment to assist in decision-makinganalysis. What is important, the process must be done with istiqamah because it will guarantee to qualityimprovement37.2.6 Performance MeasurementPerformance measurement process shows organization first set the standards applicable to work performed byemployees. These standards can be referred through a job analysis can provide guidance on the tasks that mustbe done for a position. Sometimes these goals made set through discussions between managers and employees.Then the employee to perform the duties assigned to it in accordance with the desired goals 38.The term "performance evaluation" is not an ambiguous term. It consists of two words "assessment" and"performance". When associated with an employee, the evaluation means that the employee will be measuredbased on a performance criteria set by the chief. Performance is the achievement of either employee in his dutiesunder the goal, achieving or exceeding goals39.As individuals, we must believe on the creation of the Last Day, which today is all of our practices will bereviewed and evaluated by the balance weight (Al-Mizan) Allah the Almighty and the Most Just.Gods WordS.W.T.:34 Mohd Ashari Idris (2004), op.cit., : 87.35 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continual_improvement : Diperolehi pada 4 Januari 2012.36 Ab. Aziz Yusof (2010, op.cit., : 240.37 Ahmad Zaidee Laidin (1997), “Pengurusan Berkualiti Menyeluruh Anjakan Paradigma Menuju Alaf Baru” (Kertas KerjaSeminar Kebangsaan Islam & Pengurusan Berkualiti Menyeluruh di Shah Alam, Selangor, September 1997), : 6-7.38 Zahir Mohd Makhbul, Mohd Rizal Palil & Ahmad Khairy Ahma Domil (2004), Mengurus Perniagaan, Pahang : PTSPublication Distributors Sdn. Bhd., : 230-231.39 Mohamad Yazam Sharif (2001), Asas Pengurusan Sumber Manusia, Pendekatan Proses, Utusan Publications &Distributors Sdn. Bhd., : 85.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 6
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4And do not follow what you do not know. Indeed, hearing, sight and hearts, all that will be questioned. Surah al-Isra (17): 36Another the word of God in Sura al-Nahl, which means:And if Allah had wished, he made you a single people (just), but He leads astray whom He wills and guideswhom He wills. and indeed you will be asked about what has been you do. Surah al-Nahl (16) : 93Performance evaluations can also be done through a system of supervision by the people who will evaluate theemployee. Islam emphasizes the aspect of public accountability. It can be seen at the time of Umar al-Khattabthat when an individual is appointed to hold office, all his property was recorded and documented. If there is anextraordinary increase in financial, involved officers will be called for questioning.3. ConclusionCharacteristics of quality management was introduced by the quality of teachers is very consistent with what iscontained in the values of Islam. This shows that conventional quality management has nurtured some goodvalues to the community in the organization and each of their business. If all organizations in the world thisquality management practice it will be born a strong sense of community satisfaction in all the affairs of othersand selflessness from purely driven by profit. This in turn will produce well-educated society with Islamicvalues as the efforts of the prophets over time that have been sent by God to this earth.Lokman Bin Abdul Rasol*, Siti Arni Binti Basir**,Master’s Candidate, Senior Lecturer’sDepartment of Islamic Political Science, Department of Islamic Political Science,Academy of Islamic Studies, Academy of Islamic Studies,University of Malaya University of MalayaBibliography Ab. Aziz Yusof (2010), Pengurus Bertakwa Memakmurkan Syarikat, Sintok : Penerbit Universiti Utara Malaysia. Ahmad Zaidee Laidin (1997), “Pengurusan Berkualiti Menyeluruh Anjakan Paradigma Menuju Alaf Baru” (Kertas Kerja Seminar Kebangsaan Islam & Pengurusan Berkualiti Menyeluruh di Shah Alam, Selangor, September 1997), h. 6 -7. Alauddin Sidal (2004), Kerja Berpasukan dalam Organisasi, Siri Pengurusan INTAN, Kuala Lumpur : Institut Tadbiran Awam Al-Buraey, M.A (2005), “Islamic Principles in the Management of An Organisation : A Focus on Leading “, dlm Mazilan Musa & Shaikh Mohd Saifuddin Shaikh Mohd Salleh (eds.), Quality Standard from the Islamic Perspective, Kuala Lumpur : Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia, h.63. Al-Habshi, S.O. (1996), “ Quality and Productivity Consciousness: An Islamic Approach”, dlm Sadeq, Abul Hasan dan Ahmad, A. Khaliq (eds.), Quality Management from Islamic Perspective, Kuala Lumpur: Leeds Publications, h. 157-159. Azizan Abdullah (2002), Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti ISO 9000:2000 Strategi Ke Arah Pensijilan, Petaling Jaya : Printice Hall. Dr. Ahmad Ibrahim Abu Sinn (2008), Manajemen Syariah : Sebuah Kajian Historis Dan Kontemporer, Jakarta : PT RajaGrafindo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continual_improvement Diperolehi pada 4 Januari 2012. http://www.epu.gov.my/gtp. Diperolehi pada 11 Januari 2012. Ibn Taymiyyah (t.t), Al-Siyāsah al-Syar’iyyah fi Iṣlaḥ al-Rai’ey wa al-Rai’yah, Beirut: Dar al-Kutb al-Arabiyyah. J.S Oakland (2007), Ke Arah Peningkatan Prestasi Pengurusan Kualiti Menyeluruh, (terj) Abdul Rahman Ibrahim, Kuala Lumpur : Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia Berhad. Jaafar Salleh (2008), Falsafah Hadhari dalam Islam Relevan Sepanjang Zaman, Batu Caves : Thinker’s Library Sdn. Bhd. John S.Oakland (1995), penterj : Muhamad Salmi Mohd Sohod, Pengurusan Kualiti Menyeluruh, Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Joseph M. Juran (2000), Juran’s Quality Handbook, 5th Edition, New York : McGraw-Hill Company. Lokman Abdul Rahman (1997), Pengurusan Islam : Etika, Komunikasi dan Motivasi, Melaka : Jabatan Agama Islam Melaka (JAIM). Mahayuddin Hj. Yahya (1984), Sejarah Awal Perpecahan Umat Islam (11-78H/632-698M), cet.1. Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Mohamad Yazam Sharif (2001), Asas Pengurusan Sumber Manusia, Pendekatan Proses, Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Mohd Ashari Idris (2004), Orientasi Kualiti : Prinsip dan Amalan Strategi, Selangor : Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Mohd Yusof Hj Othman (2000), Menjejak Kualiti Menjana Kecemerlangan, Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Muhammad Ammarah (2006), Al-Islām wa Huqūq al-Islām, Ḍharūrāt Lā Huqūq, Kaherah : Dar as-Syuruk. Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab (2008), Kecemerlangan Pengurusan Organisasi dalam Islam Siri 1, Pahang : Penerbit Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Mumtaz Begam Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim (2009), Integriti PeningkatanKualiti Organisasi, Kuala Lumpur : Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn Bhd. Mumtaz Begam Hj. Abdul Kadir, Norasiken Bakar, Norhayatee Ismail (2002), Kualiti Dalam Pengurusan Sumber Manusia, Shah Alam : Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd. Naceur Jabnoun (2008), Islam and Management, Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House. Norain Ishak, Noormala Rabu, Razali Abdul Rahim et.al (2010), Teras dan Amalan Pengurusan Islam, Melaka : Pusat Pemikiran dan Kefahaman Islam (CITU) UiTM. Panel Akademi Pengurusan (2005), Pengurusan Dalam Islam : Menghayati Prinsip Dan Nilai Qurani, Kuala Lumpur : Akademi Pengurusan YPEIM. Siti Arni Basir, Bharudin Che Pa, Raja Hisyamudin Raja Sulong (2010), “Suntikan Nilai-Nilai Islam ke atas Perlaksanaan Penambahbaikan Berterusan dalam Konteks Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti (SPK) ISO 9000”, 18(1), h. 91-122. Unit Pengurusan Prestasi dan Pelaksanaan (PEMANDU) Jabatan Perdana Menteri (2010), 1 Malaysia Program Transformasi Kerajaan Pelan Hala Tuju, Putrajaya : Jabatan Perdana Menteri.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 7
  • International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 4 Yoep Hussin Bidin (2006), Kerja Berpasukan, Selangor : PTS Profesional Publishing Sdn. Bhd. Zahir Mohd Makhbul, Mohd Rizal Palil & Ahmad Khairy Ahma Domil (2004), Mengurus Perniagaan, Pahang : PTS Publication Distributors Sdn. Bhd.ISSN: 2249-9962 April|2012 www.ijbmt.com Page | 8