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    Final defense fyp slides Final defense fyp slides Presentation Transcript

    • “Advanced NanoCarbon Based Sorbent for CO2 Capture” Maha Yusuf (2009-NUST-BE-Chem-33) BE Chemical Engineering School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, NUST Supervisor: Dr. Habib Nasir Co-Supervisor: Dr. Wei-Yin-Chen Members: Dr. Arshad, Dr. Mohammad Mujahid
    • Introduction/Reason of Selecting the TOPIC Advanced Nano-Carbon-Based Sorbent for CO2 Capture » Need to improve CO2 capture process; one possible route is to develop new carbon-based sorbents » Need to find new routes for disposing captured CO2 ; CO2 fixation on carbonaceous compounds is the first step of many CO2 utilization processes » Nano-Carbons have a large surface area for CO2 capture and functionalization – Procedures for manipulating and functionalizing Nano-Carbons (such as graphene, CNT, GO and GOF) have been wellestablished » CO2 capture on these carbon materials have not been systematically investigated!
    • Key Concepts  Nano-Graphite  Nano-Graphene  Nano-Graphene Oxide  Nano-Graphene oxide Framework  Functionalized Nano-Graphene Oxide, its frameworks  CO2 Capture Capacity
    • Synthesis of Nano-Graphene Oxide • Single - Layer Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) sheets are prepared from graphite flakes, 450 m by a ‘new method’ which is further modification of the ‘Modified Hummer’s method’, using sonication during the oxidation process and KMnO4 as the only oxidant which was followed by freeze-drying of the product. oxidation by modified Hummers' method exfoliation ultra sonication H2SO4 NaNO3 KMnO4 graphite has an interlayer spacing of 0.335 nm graphite oxide has an interlayer spacing about 0.7 nm. It contains three major oxygen functional groups: epoxides, phenolic and carboxylic acids single-layer graphene oxide (GO) platelets. Nano-sized GO contains a rich population of oxygen functional groups that have emerged as the building blocks for many technologies 4
    • Synthesis of Nano-Graphene Oxide Frame-work   Preparation of Nano-Graphene Oxide Framework (NGOF) from ‘Methanol Solvothermal synthesis’ using freeze-dried GO prepared from Asbury Micro 450 as the base material The linker used was: B14DBA (Benzene 1,4-Diboronic Acid) Figure 2: Burress et al. (2010) showed that a) boronic ester and b) GOF formation. Idealized graphene oxide framework (GOF) materials proposed in this study are formed of layers of graphene oxide connected by benzenediboronic acid pillars. The resultant GOF can be oxidized and then grafted with an amine (just like GO mentioned in Figure 2) that serves as a potentially potent CO2-chemisorption adsorbent.
    • RESULTS i. ii. iii. iv. v. BET with N2 gas • BET Surface Area • Pore Volume SEM EDAX - SEM XRD BET with CO2 gas
    • BET with N2 Results Asbury Micro 450 Asbury 4827 Freeze-Dried GO BET Surface Area m2/g 11.6650 232.0207 102.2141 Adsorption Average Pore Size Width/ Ao 18.9948 18.7232 18.7233 3.5812 70.2121 30.9314 Quantity Adsorbed (cm3/g STP) at relative pressure of 0.250
    • XRD Spectra of Nano - Graphite
    • XRD Spectra of Freeze-dried GO
    • XRD Spectra of Nano-Graphene Oxide Framework
    • SEM Images Micro 450 Micro 850
    • SEM Images Thermally Exfoilated Graphene Freeze-Dried GO
    • SEM Images Graphene-Oxide Framework
    • BET with CO2 gas Asbury Micro 450 Quantity Adsorbed (cm3/g STP) 25 y = 36.59x + 4.583 R² = 0.984 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0.5 y = 0.034x + 0.065 R² = 0.11 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 Relative Pressure (p/po) 0.2 0.25 0.3 Relative Pressure (p/po) Nano-graphene Oxide Framework Quantity Adsorbed (cm3/g STP) Quantity Adsorbed (cm3/g STP) Freeze-Dried GO 12 y = 8.421x + 7.114 R² = 0.425 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 Relative pressure (p/po) 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
    • CO2 Adsorption Capacity Data • Calculations: Density of CO2 at 1 atm and 0 C = 1.977 kg/m3 Note: these are calculated at p/po = 0.45 Samples Mg CO2 Adsorbed per gram of sample Nano-Graphite 1.977 kg/m3 * 0.090 cm3/g sample = 0.17793 mg CO2 adsorbed/g sample Nano-Graphene Oxide 1.977 kg/m3 * 21 cm3/g sample = 41.517 mg CO2 adsorbed/g sample Nano-Graphene Oxide Framework 1.977 kg/m3 * 9.74 cm3/g sample = 19.255 mg CO2 adsorbed/g sample
    • Conclusions    Higher O/C ratio for Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) with new method of combining oxidation with sonication at the same time BET Surface area of Asbury 4827 (nano-graphite) highest – possibility of making advanced CO2 sorbent using this as the base material CO2 Adsorption capacity of single-layer nano-graphene oxide sheets is the highest even higher than the highest reported by the Chinese Group of the functionalized graphitic oxide with 50 wt% EDA = 46.55 mg CO2/g sample! Future Advancements    Functionalization of single-layer graphene-oxide sheets with amines like EDA (ethylene diamine), DETA (diethylenetriamine), and others Possibility of making composite membrane with CA by solution casting method Writing a Joint Paper with UM
    • Applications of the Project         Goal of CO2 capture CCS technology Improved Gasification Efficiency Waste (including CO2) Utilization Soil fertility New Avenue of CO2 Utilization Possible CO2 Adsorbent in Industry replacing liquid amine CO2 capture membranes
    • LITERATURE SURVEY/ REFERENCES  Burress, J.W., Gadipelli, S., Ford, J., Simmons, J.M., Zhou, W., Yildirim., T. Graphene oxide framework materials: theoretical predictions and experimental results. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 8902-8904.  Chateauneuf, J.E., Zhang, J., Foote, J., Brink, J., Perkovic, M.W., Photoche mical Fixation of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: the Production of a Carboxylic Acid from a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon, Advances in Environmental Research, 2002, 6, 487-493.  Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H.B., Kohlhaas, K.M., Zimney, E.J ., Stach, E.A., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T., Ruoff, R.S., Graphene-based composite materials. Nature. 2006, 442, 282-286.
    • Maha Yusuf FINAL YEAR PROJECT Thank You!!!!