Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animals. Sociology: Whereas psychologists focus on the individual, sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is, sociology studies people in relation to other human beings. Social psychology is an area within psychology, but it blends concepts from psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. One of the major areas receiving considerable investigation from social psychologists has been change--how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. processes. Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments, for instance, has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behaviour between people in different countries and within different organizations. Political science studies the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment. Specific topics of concern include structuring of conflict, allocation of power, and the manipulation of power for individual self-interest.
Introduction to the Field of Organizational Behavior
Any structured activity that improves an organization’s capacity to acquire, share, and use knowledge for its survival and success
Intellectual Capital Structural Capital Relationship Capital Knowledge captured in systems and structures Values derived from satisfied customers, reliable suppliers, etc. Human Capital Knowledge that people possess and generate
. . . a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization ’ s effectiveness.
Challenges at Workplace Workplace Organizational Level • Productivity • Developing Effective Employees • Global Competition • Managing in the Global Village Group Level • Working With Others • Workforce Diversity Individual Level • Job Satisfaction • Empowerment • Behaving Ethically
Facilitated job specialization and mass production.
Demonstrated to managers their role in enhancing performance and productivity.
Labor opposed scientific management because its explicit goal was to get more output from workers.
Critics argued that Taylor’s methods and ideas would dehumanize the workplace and reduce workers to little more than drones.
Theorists later argued that Taylor’s views of employee motivation were inadequate and narrow.
The Historical Roots of Organizational Behavior
Classical Organization Theory
This perspective was concerned with structuring organizations effectively.
Whereas scientific management studied how individual workers could be made more efficient, organization theory focused on how a large number of workers and managers could be organized most effectively into an overall structure.
Major Contributors to Classical Organization Theory
French executive and engineer.
Proposed a “bureaucratic” form of structure based on logic, rationality, and efficiency that was assumed to be the most efficient (universal) approach to structuring for all organizations.
Contextual Perspectives on Organizational Behavior
Interactionalism: People and Situations
First presented in terms of interactional psychology, this view assumes that individual behavior results from a continuous and multidirectional interaction between the characteristics of the person and the characteristics of the situation.
Interactionalism attempts to explain how people select, interpret, and change various situations
There Are Few Absolutes in OB Contingency Variables x y