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Lesson marketing reasearch1

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  • 1. Research Methodology Rebecca Pera, PhD rebecca.pera@polimi.it 1/43
  • 2. Introduction to User/Consumer behaviour Consumer behaviour, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Part 1
  • 3. Users behaviour: definition The behaviour that consumers/users display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. 7/43 Part 1: Introduction Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 1
  • 4. Personal Consumer: definition The individual who buys goods and services for his or her own use, for household use, for the use of a family member, or for a friend. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 1 8/43
  • 5. Firm’s Marketing Efforts 1. Product 2. Promotion 3. Price 4. Channels of distribution Sociocultural Environment 1. Family 2. Informal sources 3. Other noncommercial sources 4. Social class 5. Subculture and culture Output Process Input External Influence ConsumerDecision Making Post- Decision behaviour Postpurchase Evaluation Purchase 1. Trial 2. Repeat purchase Need Recognition Prepurchase Search Evaluation of Alternatives Psychological Field 1. Motivation 2. Perception 3. Learning 4. Personality 5. Attitudes Experience A Model of Consumer Decision Making Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 1 9/43 process
  • 6. Consumer/User research Consumer behaviour, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Chapter 2
  • 7. Positivism definition A consumer behaviour research approach that regards the consumer behaviour discipline as an applied science. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 11/43
  • 8. Quantitative Research • Descriptive in nature. • Enables marketers to “predict” consumer behaviour. • Research methods include experiments, survey techniques, and observation. • Findings are descriptive, empirical and generalizable. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 13/43
  • 9. definition Interpretivism A postmodernist approach to the study of consumer behaviour that focuses on the act of consuming rather than on the act of buying. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 14/43
  • 10. • Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, collage research, and projective techniques… • Administered by highly trained interviewer- analysts. • Findings tend to be subjective. • Small sample sizes. Qualitative Research Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 15/43
  • 11. PURPOSE METHODOLOGY Positivism Prediction of consumer actions Positivism Prediction of consumer actions Interpretivism Understanding consumption practices Interpretivism Understanding consumption practices Positivism Quantitative Positivism Quantitative Interpretivism Qualitative Interpretivism Qualitative Comparisons between Positivism and Interpretivism Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 16/43
  • 12. Comparisons between Positivism and Interpretivism (continued) ASSUMPTIONS Positivism •Rationality; consumers make decisions after weighing alternatives •The causes and effects of behaviour can be identified •Individuals are problem solvers •A single reality exists •Events can be objectively measured Interpretivism •No single, objective truth •Reality is subjective •Cause and effect cannot be isolated •Each consumption experience is unique •Researcher/respondent interactions affect research findings Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 17/43
  • 13. The Consumer Research Process • Six steps – defining the objectives of the research – collecting and evaluating secondary data – designing a primary research study – collecting primary data – analyzing the data – preparing a report on the findings Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 18/43
  • 14. Develop Objectives Collect Secondary Data Design Qualitative Research • Method • Screener questionnaire • Discussion guide Prepare Report Analyze Data (Subjective) Conduct Research (Using highly trained interviewers) Exploratory Study Prepare report Analyze Data (Objective) Collect Primary Data (Usually by field staff) Design Quantitative Research • Method • Sample design • Data collection instrument The Consumer/user Research Process Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 19/43 process
  • 15. Developing Research Objectives • Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design. • A statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 20/43
  • 16. Secondary Versus Primary Data • Secondary data: data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand • Primary data: data collected by the researcher for the purpose of meeting specific objectives Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 21/43
  • 17. Government Publications Internal Sources Periodicals & Books Commercial Data Major Source of Secondary Data Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 22/43
  • 18. Data Collection Methods Observation Experimentation Surveys Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 23/43
  • 19. Observational Research • Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products. • Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes. • Widely used by interpretivist researchers. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 24/43
  • 20. Experimentation • Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables. • Only one variable is manipulated at a time, keeping other elements constant. • Can be conducted in laboratories or in the field. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 25/43
  • 21. Survey Data Collection Methods Personal Interview Mail Telephone Online Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 26/43
  • 22. MAIL TELEPHONE PERSONAL INTERVIEW ONLINE Cost Low Moderate High Low Speed Slow Immediate Slow Fast Response rate Low Moderate High Self- selection Geographic flexibility Excellent Good Difficult Excellent Interviewer bias N/A Moderate Problematic N/A Interviewer supervision N/A Easy Difficult N/A Quality of response Limited Limited Excellent Excellent Comparative Advantages Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 27/43
  • 23. Attitude Scales • Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer. • Semantic differential scales: relatively easy to construct and administer. • Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 30/43
  • 24. Please place the number that best indicates how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about shopping online in the space to the left of the statement. 1 = Agree Strongly 2 = Agree 3 = Neither Agree or Disagree 4 = Disagree 5 = Disagree Strongly _____ a. It is fun to shop online. _____ b. Products often cost more online. _____ c. It is a good way to find out about new products. Example of a Likert Scale Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 31/43 exam ple
  • 25. 1 2 3 4 5 Cost Availability Numberof Titles Easeof Access Clarityof Picture DVD Digital Cable DIVX Excellent Neutral Poor Semantic Differential Profiles of Three Pay-Per-Movie Services Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 32/43 exam ple
  • 26. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 33/43 exam ple
  • 27. Rank the following computer manufacturers in terms of hotline help by placing a 1 next to the one who provides the best telephone help, a 2 next to the second best, until you have ranked all six. _____ IBM _____Hewlett Packard _____ Dell _____ Gateway _____ Compaq _____ NEC Rank-Order Scales Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 34/43 exam ple
  • 28. Qualitative Data Collection Methods DepthDepth InterviewsInterviews ProjectiveProjective TechniquesTechniques FocusFocus GroupsGroups MetaphorMetaphor AnalysisAnalysis Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 35/43
  • 29. definition Focus Group A qualitative research method in which eight to ten persons participate in an unstructured group interview about a product or service concept. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 36/43
  • 30. 1. Why did you decide to use your current cellular company? (Probe) 2. How long have you used you current cellular company? (Probe) 3. Have you ever switched services? When? What caused the change? (Probe) 4. What do you think of the overall quality of your current service? (Probe) 5. What are the important criteria in electing a cellular service? (Probe) Selected Portions of a Discussion Guide Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 37/43 exam ple
  • 31. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 38/43 exam pleCognitive Map
  • 32. definition Projective Techniques Research procedures designed to identify consumers’ subconscious feelings and motivations. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 39/43
  • 33. Metaphor Analysis Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication. Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 40/43 Collage
  • 34. Creative Cards Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 42/43 exam ple
  • 35. Collage Consumer behaviour Schiffman & Kanuk Chapter 2 43/43 exam ple