Functional Groups & Alkenes

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Functional Groups & Alkenes

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Haloalkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes <ul><li>Functional Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Haloalkanes </li></ul>
  2. 2. Functional Groups <ul><li>Part of an organic molecule where chemical reactions take place </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of an atom or group of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Replace a H in the corresponding alkane </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a way to classify organic compounds </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some Types of Functional Groups <ul><li>Haloalkane -F, -Cl, -Br CH 3 Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol -OH CH 3 OH </li></ul><ul><li>Ether -O- CH 3 -O-CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Aldehyde </li></ul><ul><li>Ketone </li></ul>
  4. 4. More Functional Groups <ul><li>Carboxylic acid -COOH CH 3 COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Ester -COO- CH 3 COOCH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Amine -NH 2 CH 3 NH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Amide -CONH 2 CH 3 CONH 2 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Haloalkanes <ul><li>An alkane in which one or more H atoms is replaced with a halogen (F, Cl, Br, or I) </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 Br 1-bromomethane </li></ul><ul><li> Br (methyl bromide) </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 3 2-bromobutane </li></ul><ul><li> Cl </li></ul><ul><li> chlorocyclobutane </li></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Check HA1 <ul><li>Name the following: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solution HA1 <ul><li>Name the following: </li></ul><ul><li>bromocyclopentane </li></ul><ul><li>1,3-dichlorocyclohexane </li></ul>
  8. 8. Substituents <ul><li>List other attached atoms or group in alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><li>Br = bromo, Cl = chloro </li></ul><ul><li>Cl Br </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CHCH 2 CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>4-bromo-2-chloroheptane </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Check HA2 <ul><li>The name of this compound is: </li></ul><ul><li>Cl CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li> CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CHCH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1) 2,4-dimethylhexane </li></ul><ul><li>2) 3-chloro-5-methylhexane </li></ul><ul><li>3) 4-chloro-2-methylhexane </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solution HA2 <ul><li>The name of this compound is: </li></ul><ul><li>Cl CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li> CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CHCH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>3) 4-chloro-2-methylhexane </li></ul>
  11. 11. Haloalkanes as Anesthetics <ul><li>Halothane (Fluothane) </li></ul><ul><li> F Cl </li></ul><ul><li> F C C Br </li></ul><ul><li> F H </li></ul><ul><li>Fluothane is a haloalkane that is widely used as an anesthetic, which is a compound that decreases the ability of the nerve cells to conduct pain. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ozone Layer <ul><li>Ozone layer </li></ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>(10-30 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Above Earth) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs and the Ozone Layer <ul><li>ozone O 3 layer absorbs most of the sun’s harmful radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs - chlorofluorocarbons - are depleting that ozone layer. </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs are used as Freons in refrigeration, </li></ul><ul><li>air conditioning, and foam insulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Their use in spray cans is no longer allowed. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chlorofuorocarbons and the Ozone Layer <ul><li>In the stratosphere, the CFCs react with </li></ul><ul><li>the high-energy UV radiation from the sun </li></ul><ul><li> UV light </li></ul><ul><li>CF 2 Cl 2 CF 2 Cl  + Cl  </li></ul><ul><li>Freon-12 free radical </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chlorofuorocarbons and the Ozone Layer <ul><li>To become stable, the Cl  acquires an electron from ozone O 3 and produces ClO. </li></ul><ul><li>Cl  + O 3 ClO + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of ClO in the atmosphere is an indicator of the disappearance of ozone. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Impact of Loss of Ozone Layer <ul><li>According to the National Academy of </li></ul><ul><li>Sciences, each 1% loss of ozone increases </li></ul><ul><li>by 2% the amount of UV radiation reaching </li></ul><ul><li>the earth. More UV radiation means more </li></ul><ul><li>skin cancer and cataracts in humans, more </li></ul><ul><li>intense photochemical smog, and lower crop </li></ul><ul><li>yields. </li></ul>

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