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Functional Groups & Alkenes

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Haloalkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes
    • Functional Groups
    • Haloalkanes
  • 2. Functional Groups
    • Part of an organic molecule where chemical reactions take place
    • Composed of an atom or group of atoms
    • Replace a H in the corresponding alkane
    • Provide a way to classify organic compounds
  • 3. Some Types of Functional Groups
    • Haloalkane -F, -Cl, -Br CH 3 Cl
    • Alcohol -OH CH 3 OH
    • Ether -O- CH 3 -O-CH 3
    • Aldehyde
    • Ketone
  • 4. More Functional Groups
    • Carboxylic acid -COOH CH 3 COOH
    • Ester -COO- CH 3 COOCH 3
    • Amine -NH 2 CH 3 NH 2
    • Amide -CONH 2 CH 3 CONH 2
  • 5. Haloalkanes
    • An alkane in which one or more H atoms is replaced with a halogen (F, Cl, Br, or I)
    • CH 3 Br 1-bromomethane
    • Br (methyl bromide)
    • CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 3 2-bromobutane
    • Cl
    • chlorocyclobutane
  • 6. Learning Check HA1
    • Name the following:
  • 7. Solution HA1
    • Name the following:
    • bromocyclopentane
    • 1,3-dichlorocyclohexane
  • 8. Substituents
    • List other attached atoms or group in alphabetical order
    • Br = bromo, Cl = chloro
    • Cl Br
    • CH 3 CHCH 2 CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 3
    • 4-bromo-2-chloroheptane
  • 9. Learning Check HA2
    • The name of this compound is:
    • Cl CH 3
    • CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CHCH 3
    • 1) 2,4-dimethylhexane
    • 2) 3-chloro-5-methylhexane
    • 3) 4-chloro-2-methylhexane
  • 10. Solution HA2
    • The name of this compound is:
    • Cl CH 3
    • CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CHCH 3
    • 3) 4-chloro-2-methylhexane
  • 11. Haloalkanes as Anesthetics
    • Halothane (Fluothane)
    • F Cl
    • F C C Br
    • F H
    • Fluothane is a haloalkane that is widely used as an anesthetic, which is a compound that decreases the ability of the nerve cells to conduct pain.
  • 12. Ozone Layer
    • Ozone layer
    • Stratosphere
    • (10-30 miles
    • Above Earth)
  • 13. Chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs and the Ozone Layer
    • ozone O 3 layer absorbs most of the sun’s harmful radiation.
    • CFCs - chlorofluorocarbons - are depleting that ozone layer.
    • CFCs are used as Freons in refrigeration,
    • air conditioning, and foam insulation.
    • Their use in spray cans is no longer allowed.
  • 14. Chlorofuorocarbons and the Ozone Layer
    • In the stratosphere, the CFCs react with
    • the high-energy UV radiation from the sun
    • UV light
    • CF 2 Cl 2 CF 2 Cl  + Cl 
    • Freon-12 free radical
  • 15. Chlorofuorocarbons and the Ozone Layer
    • To become stable, the Cl  acquires an electron from ozone O 3 and produces ClO.
    • Cl  + O 3 ClO + O 2
    • The presence of ClO in the atmosphere is an indicator of the disappearance of ozone.
  • 16. Impact of Loss of Ozone Layer
    • According to the National Academy of
    • Sciences, each 1% loss of ozone increases
    • by 2% the amount of UV radiation reaching
    • the earth. More UV radiation means more
    • skin cancer and cataracts in humans, more
    • intense photochemical smog, and lower crop
    • yields.

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