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Factors afecting feed consumption in chicken
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Factors afecting feed consumption in chicken

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  • 1. Factors influencing feedFactors influencing feed consumption in chickensconsumption in chickens Presented by :Presented by : Dr .M.G.Nikam (RVD/12-16)Dr .M.G.Nikam (RVD/12-16) PhD ScholarPhD Scholar Department of Poultry ScienceDepartment of Poultry Science C.V.Sc R’nagarC.V.Sc R’nagar HyderabadHyderabad
  • 2. POULTRY FEEDINGPOULTRY FEEDING Factors should be considered when computing ration for poultry: 1-Feed must contain all essential nutrients in right amounts & proportion required. 2-Different standards per age should be followed. 3-Palatability of the ingredients which used.
  • 3. POULTRY FEEDINGPOULTRY FEEDING 4-Unlike ruminants, poultry completely depend upon the dietary sources for all nutrients (essential AAs., vit.B groups & vit.K). 5-Include agro-industrial by-products to minimize cost of the ration. 6-Optimum level of ingredient inclusion as many of ingredients have a deleterious effect at higher levels. 7-Optimum Ca:P ratio for different purposes.
  • 4. Factors affecting feed intakeFactors affecting feed intake::  Type of Bird  Age of Bird  Growth / production rate  Energy Content of Feed  Particle Size of Feed
  • 5. Factors affecting feed intakeFactors affecting feed intake:: • Water Availability to Birds • Health Status of Birds/Diseases • Ambient temperature • Stress • Fiber content of the feed
  • 6. TYPE OF BIRDTYPE OF BIRD • Meat producing birds • Egg producing birds • Dual type birds • Hybrids-Breed cross or strain crosses • Fancy or ornamental birds
  • 7. Age of BirdAge of Bird Nutrient requirements are related to both body weight and the stage of maturity as Chick stage feed consumption is less . However later phages feed intake will increase gradually because bird requires feed for maintenance and production purposes and bird has to overcome the stress of egg/meat production
  • 8. Growth / Production rateGrowth / Production rate The growth of meat type birds is rapid as compared to egg type birds. Hence the feed intake will be more and fast in meat producing poultry. Layer birds feed consumption will increase as chicks becomes growers and grower becomes layers.
  • 9. Energy levels in the ration:Energy levels in the ration: ↑ Energy level ⇒ ↓ feed intake ↓ Energy level ⇒ ↑ feed intake
  • 10. Particle Size of FeedParticle Size of Feed It is inversely proportional to the feed consumption. Birds tend to eat larger particle size as chickens has the ability to pick the larger cereal grains. The feed consumption will improve as the particle size is reduced to medium by mash, pellet and crumble preparation compared to whole grain.
  • 11. Water Availability to BirdsWater Availability to Birds Water is the most essential although the requirement value cannot be easily determined as with other nutrients. The water requirement of the meat producing birds depends upon Environmental temperature and relative humidity, the composition of the diet, growth rate, and the efficiency of water resorption. Meat birds drink at least twice as much water as the amount of feed consumed on a weight basis.
  • 12. Cont…Cont…  Actual water consumption relative to feed intake varies depending environmental temperature and dietary factors. Increasing dietary crude protein increases water intake and : feed ratios (Marks and Pesti, 1984)  Crumbled or pelleted feed increases both water and feed intake relative to mash diets, but water: feed ratios stay relatively the same (Marks and Pesti, 1984)  Increasing dietary salt and other osmotically active Minerals increase water intake (Marks, 1987)
  • 13. Health Status of Birds/DiseasesHealth Status of Birds/Diseases Birds experiencing a disease challenge may benefit from an increase in the intake of some nutrients but not feed as a whole Healthy birds --------- Normal feed consumption Sick birds ---------------feed consumption will be less
  • 14. Ambient temperatureAmbient temperature Poultry have increased energy requirements to maintain normal body temperature in cold ambient temperatures and the opposite in hot ambient temperatures. The process of digestion of food produces body heat and the amount of heat produced will vary according to the nutrient composition of the diet. This is called the heat increment of the diet. In cold temperatures it may be desirable to formulate a diet with a higher heat increment and the opposite in hot temperatures
  • 15. StressStress Stress has adverse effects on reduced feed intake.  Elevation of the stress mounting an immune response is compromised by hormones associated with the stress response causes reduced absorption of specific nutrients. For example, body reserves to be mobilized to fuel the “fight or flight” response .
  • 16. ContCont…… Nutrient absorption and gut motility reduced substantially during the stress response . Acute stress may cause a momentary decrease in feed intake with minimal impact on performance, chronic stress will have a marked and persistently detrimental effect on nutrient absorption and utilization .
  • 17. ContCont.... Chronic stress can be influenced by three environmental stressors: Heat stress.  Poor air quality.  Poor litter quality.
  • 18. Heat stressHeat stress Heat is removed from the body by insensible heat loss . The degree of heat stress endured by a bird is dependent upon several factors, including the body size and growth rate of the bird, Ambient temperature and the amount of convective heat loss influenced by air speed the temperature must be 10-20* C ideal 15*C Panting at 29.4* C.
  • 19. Poor air qualityPoor air quality Adequate ventilation reduces air moisture, dust, ammonia, and carbon dioxide and brings in more oxygen. High air moisture decreases evaporative cooling and thus adversely affects feed intake in sensitive heat load. Excess air dust causes Inflammation of the pulmonary system, which depresses feed intake.
  • 20. Cont..Cont.. Excess ammonia not only irritates pulmonary tissues.  but it also is a metabolic stressor that causes depressed feed intake high levels of carbon dioxide or low oxygen levels in the is air results in depressed metabolic rate that ultimately causes depressed feed intake.
  • 21. Poor litter qualityPoor litter quality Poor litter quality is also a medium of many of pathogens that challenge the health status of the flock.
  • 22. Fiber content of the feedFiber content of the feed Presence of large quantity of higher polysaccharides like cellulose and lignin in chicken diet increases bulk in feed. Lignin and Cellulose cannot be digested by chicken The efforts to convert the polysaccharides in to mono or disaccharides will result in tremendous increase in food energy for chicken
  • 23. ReferencesReferences • Marks, H.L., 1987. Water and feed intake, feed efficiency, and abdominal fat levels of dwarf and normal chickens selected under different water: feed ratio environments .Poult. Sci., 66: 1895-900. • Marks, H.L. and G.M. Pesti, 1984. The role of protein and diet form in water consumption and abdominal deposition in broilers. Poult. Sci., 63: 1617-25 • Commercial chicken and Egg production fifth edition by - Donald Bell And William Weaver