Chapter 3: Education That isMulticulturalMulticultural education isdeveloped through:- diversity- equality- social justiceGoal of multicultural education:- to help students learn and reachtheir potential, regardless of SES,ethnicity, race,gender, religion, and ability ordisabilityCurriculum in multiculturaleducation:- value diversity, draw on culturalexperiences, support democracyand equity- all content should be presentedthrough viewpoints of differentgroups- help students understand there ismore than one perspective on theinterpretation ofevents and facts- Ex. Tasting ethnic foods,celebrating black history monthRequires that all teaching isculturally relevant- classrooms and schools aremodels of democracyAchieving equity:1. Place student at center oflearning process2. Promote human rights andrespect for cultural diff.3. Believe ALL students can learn4. Acknowledge and build onhistories and experiences ofstudentsmicroculturalmemberships5. Help students understand racism,sexism, classism,discrimination6. Critique society in the interest ofsocial justice and equality7. Participate in collective socialaction to ensure a democraticsocietyPeople fought for equal educationthroughout history- women, low income families,oppresses ethnic and religiousgroupsBrown v. Board of Education(Supreme Court, 1954)- separate-but-equal education forblack and white studentsdeclared illegalCivil Rights (1960’s)- new curriculum content aboutvarious ethnic groups- emphasis on equity for women,disabilities, limited-EnglishspeakersSocial justice and equality remaingoals for society- to be modeled in classrooms andschoolsDiscussion of multiculturalism- side 1: promotion of diversity willstrengthen the nation- side 2: promotion of diversity willdivide the nation andWestern tradition is denigrated asdiversity is highlightedOutgrowth of discussion has led toestablishment of general educationrequirements for ethnic, women’sand global studies in collegesand universitiesDiverse student body and facultyallow for interactions inauthentic settings with people fromdifferent backgroundsSocial Justice and EqualityJustice- related to fairness, moralrightness, equitySocial Justice- focuses on how we help others inthe community who are not asadvantaged as we are- ethic of social justice is essential inteaching- requires all schools to provide allstudents equal access to ahigh-quality educationSchools reflect on inequities of thebroader societySee page 110Antiracist Ed. V. MulticulturalismEd.: The critiqueSee page 110Most students are subjected to thesame curriculumTraditions in the school- regional influences, socialstructure, location of the school- sports, activities
- rural schools emphasize FutureFarmers of America,agricultural programs, 4H clubsRead Jean Anyon’s article4 types of curriculum:1. Overt curriculum2. Hidden curriculum3. Extra/ co-curriculum4. Null curriculumPreferred teaching and learningstyles- embedded in cultural backgroundsand experiencesMaking generalizations aboutculturally diverse learners is verydangerousMany differences exist amongmembers of the same groupCulturally relevant teaching iscomplexTeacher must:- listen to and observe students andparents- assess student performance todevelop the most effective teachingstrategyCulturally relevant teachingvalidates the cultures of studentsandBuilding on Cultural ContextTeachers should helps students seethe relationship between subjectmatter and the world in which theyliveUse students’ prior knowledge andexperiencesRepertoires are limited forbeginning teachers- good teachers are able to draw onmany different strategiesKnow knowledge, skills andcommitments valued in cultures- some students rebel as a form ofresistance againstthe values of dominant societyLack of understanding aboutcultural differences and nonverbalcommunication lead to student-teacher conflictTeach communication patterns ofthe dominant culture to allCentering the Cultures of StudentsCurriculum for all academic areasshould reflect integration ofprinciplesof diversity and equalityAdditive approach- including one unit on anothergroup sporadically1/3 of students in US schools do notsee themselves in the curriculum-Curriculum does not normallyinclude stories of women,disabilities, English languagelearners, poverty, elderlyInclusive curriculum reflects thereality of multicultural worldPrivate schools grounded indifferent cultures- Afrocentric, Latino, NativeAmerican, religious affiliations,single sexThe opportunity to speak and beheard as equalRespect for differences is key inaffirming student voicesIncorporation of voices requires thedevelopment of listening skills andthe validation of multipleperspectives, languages, dialectsTeachers encourage students tocontribute their own realities andexperiences- must listen to ALL voices1/3 of students in US schools arefrom ethnic groups other thanEuropeanBy 2020, more than 45% of theschool-age population will bestudentsof colorThe Challenge of Technology andEquityTechnology is important in today’ssocietyMost of the world’s populationdoes not have access to computersor theInternetOn some Native Americanreservations, only 60% of residentshave atelephone2% of low income, rural homeshave Internet access50% with income $75,000+ do haveaccessDigital divide- based on income, race, education,household type, geographiclocation- difference in access to technologytools and the Internet
African Americans, NativeAmericans, Hispanics, women holdfewtechnology jobsMore than 90% of all schools in thecountry are wired with at least oneInternet connection- Internet connections differ by theincome levels of students5 characteristics of a positiveinformation society1. Is community driven and meetsreal community needs?2. Overcomes major contentbarriers facing the underserved3. Provides people to help4. Offers online content that is easyto use5. Is sustainableThe Challenge of Gender-SensitiveEducationTraditionally, females were trainedto be wives and mothersToday, 40%+ of graduates frommedical and law schools arewomenRigid definitions limit the optionsand potential of both males andfemalesToday’s realities: See p. 122To promote gender equity, femalesshould be encouraged to beinvolvedin math, science, and computerscienceA gender-sensitive educationprovides equity to boys and girls- does not mean males and femalesare always treated the sameTeachers in gender-sensitiveclassrooms monitor interactionsamonggirls and boys and their owninteractions with the sexesThe Challenge of Language DiversityImmigrant students populatinglarge citiesLanguage differences used at homeand at school can lead todissonancebetween students, their familiesand school officialsDropout rate of English languagelearners is 2-2.5 times as great asforother students of the same ageNat.’l Assoc. for the Education ofYoung Children- urges teacher to encourage “thedevelopment of children’shome language while fostering theacquisition of EnglishAssimilationist instructionintegrates students into thedominant ormainstream culture- bilingual education, newcomerprograms, sheltered instructionTeachers as Social Activists:Thinking CriticallyCritically-thinking educators askhow and why inequities areoccurring intheir classroom and schoolTeaching equitably does not meanteaching everyone the same way- helping students functioneffectively in multiple classroomsettings and used by the students inthe classroomCritical thinkers challenge thephilosophy and practices of thedominantsociety that are not supportive ofequity, democracy, and socialjusticePracticing Equity in the ClassroomCaring and fairnessTeacher perceptions may be basedon personal characteristics of thestudent and/or group membershipMulticultural education does nottolerate unjust practices byteachersNo discriminationStudents learn to respectdifferences and to interact withinand acrossethnic and cultural groupsTeachers might praise somestudents while tending to correctanddiscipline othersEveryone has been raised in aracist, sexist, and classist society inwhich the biases are so embeddedthat it is difficult for people torecognize anything other than overtsigns.Reflecting on practice and on thepractice of those you observe- are students from differentgender, economic and ethnicgroupstreated differently?- are the fewer discipline andlearning problems among studentswho are from the same backgroundas the teacher?- Which students receive the mostassistance?
Equity is the ability to recognizeone’s own biases and makeappropriateadjustmentsCulturally relevant teaching helpsstudents struggle in class withsocialproblemsRacism, sexism, classism, prejudice,and discrimination are feltdifferently by students of color thanby members of thedominant groupAnger, denial, guilt, and affirmationof identity are critical parts oflearning about and struggling withthe pernicious practices thatpermeate most institutions.Students from the dominant grouphave never experienceddiscrimination and often believe itdoes not existIn teaching for social justice,teacher help students understandtheequalities, oppression and powerstruggles that are the realities ofsocietyMaxine Green- “To teach for social justice is toteach for enhanced perceptionand imaginative explorations, forthe recognition of socialwrongs…”Students learn to apply theknowledge and skills they arelearning to alocal, regional , or global issue- the learning becomes authenticInvolving communities and familiesParents and the community are theessential resources in the deliveryofmulticultural educationFew beginning teachers will havehad direct involvement in multiplecultural communitiesLearning to function effectively inseveral cultural communitiesrequiresparticipants to be comfortable withtheir own backgroundTeachers who are most successfulin helping students from diversecultural backgrounds learn thereare those who “struggle toconfront their own histories, hearthe dissonance in their ownprofession