Model-driven development of learning objects                Frontiers in Education 2011 Marco Aurélio Graciotto Silva1 , E...
IntroductionModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Motivation   objects                    Development of learning objects...
IntroductionModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Method: software engineering techniques   objects                    Si...
IntroductionModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Method: software engineering techniques   objects                    Si...
Learning object developmentModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Learning object   objects                A learning obje...
Model-driven developmentModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Model-driven development   objects                Model-dri...
Model-driven developmentModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Model-driven development   objects                Model-dri...
Model-driven development of learning objectsModel-drivendevelopment of learning           Learning Object Development Meth...
Learning Object Development Method                      Conceptual modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning           Conc...
Learning Object Development Method                      Conceptual modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning           Conc...
Learning Object Development Method                      Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning           I...
Learning Object Development Method                      Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning           O...
Learning Object Development Method                      Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning           I...
Learning Object Development Method                      Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning   objects  ...
Learning Object Development Method                      TransformationsModel-drivendevelopment of learning   objects      ...
Learning Object Development Method                      TransformationsModel-drivendevelopment of learning   objects      ...
Concluding remarksModel-drivendevelopment of learning    Concluding remarks   objects                    LODM has been use...
CreditsModel-drivendevelopment     Contact information of learning   objects          Marco Aurélio Graciotto Silva       ...
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Model-driven development of learning objects

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Slides used for my presentation at FIE 2011 (full paper available at "http://fie-conference.org/fie2011/papers/1516.pdf").

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Model-driven development of learning objects

  1. 1. Model-driven development of learning objects Frontiers in Education 2011 Marco Aurélio Graciotto Silva1 , Ellen Francine Barbosa1 , José Carlos Maldonado1 1 Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Computing University of São Paulo (USP) São Carlos, SP, Brazil October 2011
  2. 2. IntroductionModel-drivendevelopment of learning Motivation objects Development of learning objects is a laborious process:Introduction define learning goals,Learning design learning objects,objectdevelopment develop content,Model-driven deploy in a learning management system.developmentModel-driven How to keep the pace of stringent requirements for thedevelopment development of (high) quality learning objects:of learningobjects fulfill learning goals, as usual;Concludingremarks foster self-paced education, using rich media, connected and interactive devices; feasibility (time and cost) under real scenarios.
  3. 3. IntroductionModel-drivendevelopment of learning Method: software engineering techniques objects Since 2002, we research the systematic development ofIntroduction learning objects using software engineering techniques.Learning The first major solution was IMA-CID:objectdevelopment Considers different perspectives (conceptual, instructional,Model-driven and didactic).development Employs a formal description technique (HMBS).Model-drivendevelopmentof learningobjects Model-driven development as a solutionConcludingremarks LODM builds upon IMA-CID: Provides better representations for conceptual, instructional and didactic models. From a computational point of view. Aims to be scalable. Learning objects must be reliably developed.
  4. 4. IntroductionModel-drivendevelopment of learning Method: software engineering techniques objects Since 2002, we research the systematic development ofIntroduction learning objects using software engineering techniques.Learning The first major solution was IMA-CID:objectdevelopment Considers different perspectives (conceptual, instructional,Model-driven and didactic).development Employs a formal description technique (HMBS).Model-drivendevelopmentof learningobjects Model-driven development as a solutionConcludingremarks LODM builds upon IMA-CID: Provides better representations for conceptual, instructional and didactic models. From a computational point of view. Aims to be scalable. Learning objects must be reliably developed.
  5. 5. Learning object developmentModel-drivendevelopment of learning Learning object objects A learning object is a reusable digital entity, composed of (se-Introduction quenced) educational content and learning activities descrip-Learning tions.objectdevelopmentModel-driven Learning object developmentdevelopment Learning objects development consists of the progressiveModel-drivendevelopment development of artifacts.of learningobjects Tacit or explicit knowledge models.Concludingremarks Although models are strong related, most often we do not make good use of these relations: Or at least we do not make it as frequently as we would like to.
  6. 6. Model-driven developmentModel-drivendevelopment of learning Model-driven development objects Model-driven development adopts models augmentation, weav-Introduction ing and transformation for the entire software/learning objectLearning life cicle.objectdevelopmentModel-driven Modifications are done in the model that captures thedevelopment relevant knowledge regarding the change/requirement.Model-drivendevelopment Models are represented by domain-specific languages.of learningobjects Language which is understood by the domain expert (andConcluding not just the computing expert).remarks Models are woven and transformed by mapping functions that represents knowledge once retained just by the expert. Transformation are (semi-)automatically executed.
  7. 7. Model-driven developmentModel-drivendevelopment of learning Model-driven development objects Model-driven development adopts models augmentation, weav-Introduction ing and transformation for the entire software/learning objectLearning life cicle.objectdevelopmentModel-driven Modifications are done in the model that captures thedevelopment relevant knowledge regarding the change/requirement.Model-drivendevelopment Models are represented by domain-specific languages.of learningobjects Language which is understood by the domain expert (andConcluding not just the computing expert).remarks Models are woven and transformed by mapping functions that represents knowledge once retained just by the expert. Transformation are (semi-)automatically executed.
  8. 8. Model-driven development of learning objectsModel-drivendevelopment of learning Learning Object Development Method objects LODM (Learning Object Development Method) is a model-Introduction driven development approach for learning objects.Learningobjectdevelopment Main featuresModel-driven Build upon IMA-CID models: conceptual, instructional,development didactic.Model-drivendevelopment And our experience developing learning objects using it.of learningobjectsConceptual model Adopt commercially (and open source) supported tools toInstructional model design each model.Didactic modelTransformations UML + profilesConcludingremarks Transformations are (partially) implemented by a tool (LODE).
  9. 9. Learning Object Development Method Conceptual modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning Conceptual model objects Conceptual models defines learning objectives by means of aIntroduction concept map. It realizes the knowledge regarding a given topicLearning area.objectdevelopment Concept model creationModel-drivendevelopment It can be created from scratch or from existing educationalModel-drivendevelopment material.of learningobjects Usage of existing material is strongly encouraged, as itsConceptual model data can be reused in later models.Instructional modelDidactic modelTransformations Most often used technique: annotation.Concluding Identification of important topics (nouns) and sentences.remarks However, it is error-prone and demands too much effort. Automatic extraction of relevant data seems proming. Captures main terms/concepts quickly.
  10. 10. Learning Object Development Method Conceptual modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning Concept model creation objects For now, just one document and plain term frequency.Introduction Each term is (probably) a concept.Learning Relations are extracted from text too:objectdevelopment Sentences which contains terms defined in the conceptModel-drivendevelopment map.Model-drivendevelopmentof learningobjectsConceptual model RelationshipsInstructional modelDidactic model Relations can be related toTransformations structure/hierarchy (is a),Concludingremarks composition (has a), or to an specific domain. Such information can be used later (instructional model).
  11. 11. Learning Object Development Method Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning Instructional model objects Instructional model defines information items and instructionalIntroduction elements regarding concepts identified in the conceptual model.Learningobjectdevelopment Information itemModel-driven An information item describes the concept identified in thedevelopment conceptual model.Model-drivendevelopment Currently we represent it as a concept, fact, procedure orof learningobjects principle.Conceptual modelInstructional modelDidactic modelTransformations Instructional elementConcluding Anything that is instructionally important but cannot beremarks defined as an information item.
  12. 12. Learning Object Development Method Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning Organization objects Information items and instructional elements are organizedIntroduction in a Statechart model.LearningobjectdevelopmentModel-drivendevelopmentModel-drivendevelopmentof learningobjectsConceptual modelInstructional modelDidactic modelTransformations Instructional model creationConcludingremarks Structural and composition relationships (from conceptual model) are realized using nested-states. Information items and instructional elements are represented by (orthogonal) regions within each state.
  13. 13. Learning Object Development Method Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning IMA-CID Profile: Information item and instructional element objects Any model element with a instructional role should be assigned with, at least, one stereotype:Introduction Mandatory: stereotype that is a concrete type of IMA-CIDLearningobject element.development Optional for information item, required for instructionalModel-drivendevelopment element: Educational goal stereotype.Model-drivendevelopmentof learningobjectsConceptual modelInstructional modelDidactic modelTransformationsConcludingremarks
  14. 14. Learning Object Development Method Instructional modelModel-drivendevelopment of learning objects Didactic modelIntroduction Didactic model establishes the prereq-Learning uisistes and sequences of presentationobjectdevelopment among instructional model elements.Model-drivendevelopment Transitions and DD stateModel-drivendevelopment Considering a state, the reachable states are siblings,of learningobjects parent and child (nested) ones.Conceptual modelInstructional model Transitions define which reachable sibling-state and nestedDidactic modelTransformations state can be accessed.Concluding When all reachable states can be accessed, you can set theremarks state as a DD state It defines an implicit transition between every sibling-state. Stereotype DD state.
  15. 15. Learning Object Development Method TransformationsModel-drivendevelopment of learning objects TransformationsIntroduction For each model, we define a setLearning of transformations.objectdevelopment From nothing to the conceptualModel-driven model, we extracted a (rough)development model that defines concepts andModel-driven relations.developmentof learning CXL document.objectsConceptual modelInstructional model From conceptual model, weDidactic model create the instructional model.TransformationsConcluding CXL to XMI document.remarks Extracted data can be used as information items and instructional elements.
  16. 16. Learning Object Development Method TransformationsModel-drivendevelopment of learning objects TransformationsIntroduction From the instructional model, we create the didactic one.Learningobjectdevelopment XMI to XMI.Model-driven Define transitions anddevelopment DD-states.Model-drivendevelopment From the didactic model, weof learningobjects generate the learning object.Conceptual modelInstructional model Each state is a sequence ofDidactic model slides (LaTeX and PDF).TransformationsConcluding Navigation between slidesremarks reflects the sequencing of the didactic model.
  17. 17. Concluding remarksModel-drivendevelopment of learning Concluding remarks objects LODM has been used to develop several software testing courses.IntroductionLearning http://143.107.183.152/Apps/Moodle/objectdevelopment Systematic development of learning objects is feasible.Model-driven LODE (tool supports LODM) is under development.developmentModel-driven Better learning objects and productivitydevelopmentof learning Benefits for learners and instructors.objectsConcludingremarks Further work Improve data extraction (concept map) Abstract away the adopted pedagogical approach (used to create instructional and didactic models). Generate outputs other than PDF, assembling a product family.
  18. 18. CreditsModel-drivendevelopment Contact information of learning objects Marco Aurélio Graciotto Silva magsilva@icmc.usp.brContact info Research group Laboratory of Software Engineering http://www.labes.icmc.usp.br Educational modules/learning objects development http://www.labes.icmc.usp.br/moduloeducacional Funding support CNPq (Grant 142381/2009-8) University of São Paulo (PrPG) CAPES FAPESP

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