The System (Car) has many Components (like Wheels with Tires), which are Interrelated (Wheel and Car), so they Influence each other. They are Dynamic (Tear and wear), so there is Change . Also the System receives influences from External Environment (Nail on the Road), which causes a flat tire. Also it sends influences (Exhaust Fumes) to the External Environment .
We will take a closer look at the Components, Interrelations, Dynamics and External Environment
Tourists at a Destination Airport Dynamics: Old Tourism New Tourism Attitude of External Environment
The Tourism System : Components, Interrelations and Environment Demand Supply Intermediaries Influences from outside world Influences on outside world Transit Regions & Tourist Flows Supporting Institutions
Tourists are people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Based upon both the interaction with local population and the use of travel industry
Individual Mass Tourists
Organized Mass Tourists
Typology of E. Cohen Drifter: Adventurous, avoids other tourists, makes no use of tourist services Long-term stay, immerses completely in the local society Explorer: Independent, immerse themselves locally, but rely also on modern amenities. Backpacker, guided by the ‘Lonely Planet’. Individual Mass-Tourist: Uses services of the tourism industry, limited contact with local population Traveling individually, but stays on the ‘beaten track’ Organized Mass-Tourist: Highly dependent on tourist industry, fully organized, no or limited contacts with local population, stays in own environmental bubble; Western-style accommodations, prefers cruise or ‘all-inclusive
Creating Customer Loyalty and Sustainability should always be the guideline!
Customer Loyalty High Attachment to Destination Many Return Visits HIGH LOYALS Low Attachment to Destination Many Return Visits SPURIOUS LOYALS High Attachment to Destination Few Return Visits LATENT LOYALS Low Attachment to Destination Few Return Visits LOW LOYALS
Locals express openly irritation at behavior of tourists Antagonism Saturation, attitude of locals becomes more negative Annoyance Visitors are considered a normal thing, contact is formal Apathy Visitors are welcomed Euphoria Description Stages
What is the total impact and which impact do we want?
To reach a desired impact on a destination, a clear planning policy is needed
Aim is of course to maximize the positive impacts and to minimize the negative impacts
Tourism development must be aimed at sustainability, so that it will last
1980’s: Multilevel Segmentation: Wealthy Old People
1990’s: Niche Markets: Wealthy Old People who love to walk
2000’s: Markets of One: Long Tail
Examples of Market Segmentation Mass market 1960s – 1970s: The Tourists (No segmentation) Simple market segmentation 1980s: Older Couples – Younger Couples Multilevel segmentation 1990s: Wealthy Older Couples Ethnic Older Couples Niche markets & Markets of One 2000s: Postal Code & Mr. Johnson
Influence of Technology Trans Pacific Transport System: Range of Planes FIFTIES: 2 Stops in Nadi & Honolulu EIGHTIES: 1 Stop in Honolulu NOW: Non-stop Effects on Nadi and Honolulu? Effects on tourism between USA and Australia?