Elements & Principles of ArtWhat’s the difference between the two? The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up an artwork (the ingredients). The principles of design are ways to organize the elements of design. How we apply the principles of design determines how successful we are in creating a work of art.
Elements of Art Line an elongated mark Types of Line: horizontal/ vertical / diagonal/ jagged / smooth / squiggly/ calligraphic (varying thickness) In your sketchbook, draw 5 different types of lines.
Elements of Art Value amount of light (tint) and dark (shade) Variety light dark white black Demonstrate a range of 10 values in your sketchbook.
Elements of Art Colour reflected light Types of Colour:primary (red, blue, yellow) secondary (purple, green, orange) tertiary (red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green, yellow-green) Colour Relationships: analogous (neighbours; blue & blue-green, yellow & yellow-orange) complementary (opposites; blue-orange, red-green, purple-yellow) monochromatic (using tints and shades of one colour)
Elements of ArtMaking your Colour Wheel:1. Draw a circle, using a guide.2. Divide the circle into three.3. Divide each third into four.4. Before colouring mark where each colour will be placed. Make sure the primary colours are equally spread out around the circle (one primary colour in each third).5. Make sure you have room for primary, secondary, & tertiary colours, with no extra space remaining.6. Use only primary colours to mix secondary & tertiary colours. This will help your Colour Wheel to look like a continuous blend.7. Label analogous & complementary colours.
Elements of Art Shape a two-dimensional enclosed area Types of Shape: geometric (controlled, regular) / organic (natural, free-flowing) / symmetrical (same on both sides) / asymmetrical In your sketchbook, draw 4 different shapes:a symmetrical geometric shape, an asymmetrical geometric shape, a symmetrical organic shape, and
Elements of Art Form three-dimensional shape; enclosed volume How can you create the illusion of form on a 2D surface?
Elements of ArtCreating Form on Paper:Use shading to . . .• create a sphere.• create a cone.• create a cylinder.• create an open cup.
Elements of Art Texture the way an object feels How can you create the illusion of texture on a 2D surface?
Elements of ArtCreating Texture on Paper:• Draw an outline of a simple creature (an animal, a monster, an alien).• Fill in your outline using at least 3 different textures. Use a variety of lines to achieve different textures.
Elements of Art Space the area an object takes up, or the distance between objects Types of Space: positive space (filled in) negative space (empty)
Elements of ArtShowing Space:• Draw an object of your choice.• Colour/shade in the object.• In a new space, draw a different object.• Colour/shade in the space around it.• Underneath your drawings, identify what type of space is filled in (negative or positive).
Principles of Design The principles of design are ways to organize the elements of design. Ex. – you can place different colours next to each other to create a specific effect. When used well, an artist creates an interesting composition (arrangement of things).
Principles of Art Balance spreading things out evenly Types of Balance:Formal (symmetrical), informal (asymmetrical), and radial (growing from a centre point)
Principles of ArtTypes of Balance:Create 3 drawings that show: Formal balance Informal balance Radial balance
Principles of Art Contrast clashing; placing different elements next to each other What are some types of contrast?
Principles of Art Proportion comparative size; relative size
Principles of Art Pattern - evenly repeated images
Principles of Art Rhythm/Movement movement caused by unevenly repeating an element
Principles of ArtCreate different types of rhythm/ movement by repeating lines:• Calm – horizontal lines• Excited – vertical lines• Dynamic movement – diagonal lines
Principles of Art Emphasis/Focus - creating a centre of attention How can you do that?
Principles of Art Unity - matching, harmony, likeness, similarity How can you create unity in an artwork?
Principles of Art Variety - having different types of one element Types of variety?
Composition the plan, placement or arrangement in an art work Any work of art from music to writing is arranged or put together using conscious thought . Do it on purpose! Composition causes a response from the viewer. There are artists whose sole aim is to disrupt traditional composition, and challenge the viewer to think differently.
Composition Orientation/Direction: 1. Horizontal – calming effect 2. Vertical – stressful effect 3. Diagonal – dynamic, creates a sense of movement 4. Curved lines - create a sense of flow within an image. 5. Blurred images can also create a reaction (confusion?).
Composition Viewpoint: 1. viewing the subject from above makes it seem weak and small (bird’s eye view) 2. viewing the subject from below makes it seem strong and large (worm’s eye view) 3. A subject can seem more dramatic when it fills the frame; this also reduces distractions.
Composition Rule of Thirds 1. Place the important things at the intersections. 2. Avoid centering the subject – it’s boring!
Composition Simplicity 1. By limiting the extras, the viewer is more likely to focus on the important stuff. 2. Reduce clutter by using lighting. The brighter areas of the image tend to draw attention. 3. Fade in - use less detail towards the edges of the picture. 4. Point to your focal point - using lines, shapes, and colour.
Composition The Rule of Odds 1. an odd number of objects in an image is more interesting than an even number 2. triangles are pleasing shapes within an image. For example, in the face, the mouth and eyes make a triangle.
Critique An analysis of artwork Discuss the elements & principles of design used in the artwork. BE SPECIFIC! GIVE EXAMPLES!
Critiques1. What do you see? Describe your first impression of the artwork. (does it remind you of something?...)2. Describe three elements of design in the artwork.3. Identify the most obvious principle of design in the artwork. Explain how the artist achieved it.4. Describe the mood of the artwork. (sad, happy, nervous, excited, bored …)