INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAUIOUR
Define Organizational Behaviour.
Explain the Elements of Organizational Behaviour. OR
Explain the term 'Organizational Behaviour'. State the Elements of
Ans. Organizational Behaviour (Meaning) Organizational Behaviour' (0. B.) is
a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and
conceptual developments are constantly addition to its knowledge base. It is
an applied science, where the information about effective practices in one
organization are being extended to many other organizations.
"Organizational Behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about
the human behaviour in the organization as it relates to other system of
elements such as structure, technology and external social system." Keith
"Organizational Behaviour is a way of thinking, way of conceiving problems
and articulating research and action solutions.:
Organization behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that
individual group and structure have on the behaviour within the organization
for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an
Organizational behaviour helps in analyzing and understanding human
behaviour, directing and controlling it, and adapting it to changing
environmental conditions so as to improve the effectiveness of the
organization towards accomplishing the objectives of a business organization.
Features of Organizational Behaviour
Following are the features of organizational behaviour
Problems and questions are typically formulated within independent
variable-dependent variable framework. The models attempts to search
for cause and effect.
The field is oriented towards change as a desirable outcome for
organizations and persons within organizations.
The field has a distinctly humanistic tone, reflected in the concern selfdevelopment, personal growth and self-actualization. Another side of
th»s 'eld has emphasizes operant learning models and behaviour
modification and which reflects a concern with environment
determinism rather than with self-actualization,
The field is becoming increasingly performance -oriented.
The field is greatly influenced by norms of skepticism, caution, replication
and public exposure of knowledge based on facts. That means it follows
the scientific method.
Scope/Elements of Organizational Behaviour
In an organization, people join together in some form (i.e. formal structure* to
achieve an objective and in order to achieve the objectives, they use some
sort of technology. So, there is an interaction of people, technology and
structure. All these three elements (people, technology and structure)
influence the external social systems and in turn, they are influenced by it. A
mix of these four elements are the scope of organizationa, oehaviour and
each one of these is discussed in brief below
People The people constitute the internal social system of the
organization. They consist of individuals and groups. Groups may be
large or small, formal or informal, official or unofficial. They are dynamic.
They form, change and descent. Human organization changes
everyday. Today, it is not the same as it was yesterday. It may change
further in the coming days. People are living, thinking and humanbeings, who created the organization and try to achieve the objectives
and goals. Thus, organization exist to serve the people and not the
people exist to serve the organization.
Structure Structure defines the sole relationship of individuals, people in
an organization. Different people in an organization are given different
roles and they have certain relationship with others. It leads to division of
labour so that individuals can perform their duties or work to accomplish
the organizations goal. Thus, everybody cannot be an accountant or a
clerk. Work is complex and different duties are to be performed by
different individuals. Some may be accountants, other may be
managers, clerks, peons or workers. All are so related to each other to
accomplish the goal in a co-ordinated manner. Thus, structure relates to
powers and duties. One has the authority and the other have a duty to
Technology Technology imparts the physical and economic conditions
within which an individual work. With their bare-hands, individuals can
do nothing so they are given assistance of building, machineries, tools,
processes and resources. The nature of technology depends very much
on the nature of the organization and influences the work or working
conditions. Thus, technology brings effectiveness and at the same time,
restricts people in various ways.
Social system Social system provides external environment within which
the organization operates. A single organization cannot exist also. It is a
part of the whole. One organization cannot give everything and
therefore, there are many other organizations. All these organizations
influence each other. It influences the attitudes of people, their working
conditions and above all, provides competitions for resources and
Explain the Historical Development of Organizational Behaviour.
Describe the Evolution of Organizational Behaviour.
Ans. Historical Development/ Evolution of Organizational Behaviour
(a) During the period of Industrial Revolution (year - 1800), Robert Owen, who
was regarded as the 'Father of Personnel Administration' emphasized the
human needs of employee. He was a factory owner. He taught his workers
about cleanliness and improved their working conditions.
(b) 'Andrew Ure' published his work "The Philosophy of Manufacturers in 1935".
In his work, he recognized the value of human factor in manufacturing. He
gave facilities of tea, medical treatment, sickness payments and ventilation to
(c) "William Gilbreth", published his work titled The Psychology of Management'
in the year 1914. His work emphasized the human side of work.
(d) In the 1920's and 30s, Elton Mayo studied human behaviour at work at
Harvard University. The Study was conducted at Western Electric Company,
Hawthrone Plant. The study points out that the worker is not a simple tool but a
very complex personality interacting in a group situation.
(e) In the 1940's and 1950's, major research projects on the subject of human
relations were developed at university of Michigan and Ohio State University.
In the year 1957, Douglas McGregor presented Theory X and Theory Y.
According to these theories, management's personnel practices, decision
making, operating practices and even organizational design flow from
assumptions about human behaviour.
In the late 1970's and 80's, Organizational Behaviour research study
gained momentum and established itself as a separate branch or
management with Vast potential.
Q.3 Define Organizational Behaviour? Explain in detail the historical
Organizational Behaviour? Ans.
Refer to Q. No. 1 and 2 of this Chapter.
Q.4 Explain the Importance of Organizational Behaviour.
Why is it necessary to study Organizational Behaviour?
Ans. Importance (of the study) of Organizational Behaviour The
importance/significance of Organizational Behaviour is outlined with the help
of following points
(a) Organizational Behaviour (O.B.) with its vast knowledge is affecting the
interest of the people from all walks of life. It enhances people's awareness and
effectiveness. It improves their ability in handling conflict and stress
(b) Organizational Behaviour provides a useful set of tools at many levels of
analysis. It helps manager to look at the behaviour of individuals within an
organization. It helps the manager in understanding the various complexities
involved in the interpersonal relations.
(c) Organizational Behaviour is valuable in examining the dynamics of
relationships within small groups, both formal and informal (groups).
(d) Organizational Behaviour provides frame works for understanding
differences between national cultures, because cultural difference may
require managers to modify their practices.
(e) Organizational Behaviour offers number of challenges and opportunities
for managers, for example, how to improve quality, how to improve people's
skill, how to recognize the value of work force diversity.
Q.5 "The study of Organizational Behaviour is the study of the Behaviour of
the People in the Organization." Discuss.
Ans. Organizational Behaviour studies the behaviour of people in the
organization. Everybody interacts with each other and influence behavioural
quality of life in the organization. Managers, however have greater
responsibility because they take decisions concerning all in the organization.
Managers constitute the administrative system and in organizational
behaviour, it is their responsibility to integrate the social system with the
technical system, just to improve the "people-organization relationship" in order
to accomplish the human benefits for which it is made.
The administrative view of organizational behaviour contains a number of
ideas as follows
Organizational behaviour focuses mainly on people and technical,
economical and structural elements which are all related to people.
The environment is developed in such a way as to motivate the people
to work hard to accomplish the organizational goal. Managers motivate
the people because only they, unlike other factors, can have greater
output than the sum of their input throughout their creativity.
The direction of motivation is towards teamwork, that requires both, coordination of work and co-operation of people. Co-ordination means
effective time and sequence in performing activities while co-operation
means the willingness of people to perform the work of attaining the
The organizational behaviour seeks to fulfill both, employee's needs and
organizational objectives. Every employee in the organization wants to
fulfil his needs through organizational activities and the organization's
responsibility is to provide behavioural climate in the organization to
attain the objective. Thus, both people and the organization are
benefited in this manner.
Both, employees and the organization, gain effectively by getting higher
benefits with minimum costs. Organizational behaviour attempts to
reduce the wasteful activities through economic and psychological
means and thus increasing the effectiveness of the people and the
Q.6 What is meant by Organizational Behaviour (O. B.)? How does
knowledge of O. B. help managers to improve their effectiveness.
Ans. Refer to Q No 1 and Q. No 5 of this Chapter.
Discuss the different Models of Organizational Behaviour.
What are Various Models of Organizational Behaviour? OR
Write a note on SOBC.
Ans. Different Models of Organizational Behaviour These are as follows .
The Autocratic Model In autocratic model the main source of authority
comes from power. The persons who are in command must have the power to
demand - an employee who does not follow orders will tie penalized. The
authority is delegated by right of command over the people. Management
thinks and employees obey orders. As per this model there is a tight control on
employees at work.
Obedience rather than respect for a manager is the employee orientation.
Employees psychologically depend on their boss. Minimum wages are paid for
minimum performance. Employees work for sustenance and some give higher
performance because of internal achievement drives. Its main weakness is its
high human costs
Custodial Model In Autocratic model the employees work for substance
and obey orders of boss, because they feel insecurity. They give minimum
performance. Though they do not talk back, they show their feelings like
frustration and aggression on their families etc. To dispel in security, frustration
and aggression and improve quality of life the progressive employers need to
play a custodian or parental role. Hence, Employers Union and Government
started interacting and taking steps towards security needs of employees.
Custodial approach can be successful when the organization has sufficient
economic resources, to pay benefits like pension to employees. Then only
security can be used as a motivating factor. The result is unlike in autocratic
model the employee starts depending on the organization rather than on their
boss. Employees are now satisfied for having security and get motivated to
give better results in work. But still they are not motivated so much to give
maximum capacity to which they are capable. Hence this model is better than
The Supportive Model We have seen earlier that autocratic model
depends on power and custodial model depends on money. But the
supportive model of organizational behaviour depends on leadership to
motivate employees to perform better. The presumption here is that workers
are not by themselves passive but they are made so by inadequate support
and work. They can show higher responsibilities, given a chance. Support here
means support extended in better job performance. A drive is developed
among employees to contribute. Such type of support by management in
employees' work, psychologically they have a feeling of participation and
involvement in the organization. Their efforts are recognized.
The leader or manager's role is that of helping employees to solve their
problems and help in accomplishing their work. This model works well with
employees as well as with management. This model is helpful for the
organization in times of crisis, if it was sincerely followed in profitable times. It
has more significance and application in developed nations rather than in
(d) Colleagial Model Colleagues are those who work with a common purpose.
In colleagial model, the management orientation towards team-work
management acts as a coach and the employees respond with responsibility.
This model depends on management's building and feeling of partnership
among employees. Here the managers are found as joint contributions and
not as bosses In this approach, a spirit of mutuality is built, wnere every person
makes contribution and appreciates the contribution or efforts made by
others. The employees become self disciplined. They produce quality work as
they feel an obligation to provide high quality rather than for fear of boss.
Irrespective of the amount of contribution employees get some degree of
fulfillment, worthwhile contribution and self-actualization. This leads to
enthusiasm in performance. This type of approach is very useful in research
laboratories and others where work is unprogrammed and requires intellectual
environment and job freedom.
(e) SOBC Model This model is used to identify the major variables in OB and to
show how they relate to one another. The letters S-O-B-C stands for StimulusOrganism-Behaviour-Consequences respectively Framework of this model is
based on social learning. OB model says that internal cognition (O) lead to
behaviour (B) S-B-C model emphasizes the need to identify observable
contingencies (S and C) for the prediction and control of behaviour (B) S-O-BC is the expanded model which recognizes the interactive nature of the
environment (S and C) the person's cognition (O) and the behaviour itself (B)
in the determining behaviour. According to this model causes for the
behaviour, the behaviour itself and the effects of the behaviour can be
observable or non-observable. S-O-B-C model does not abandon the
emphasis on behaviour, it merely expands the group of variables to include
cognitive processes and observable (covert) and non-observable (overt)
behaviours. Thus S-O-B-C model is an electric modei taken from both cognitive
and behaviouristic approaches, but it is based mainly on the new social
learning approach. This model can perhaps best meet the goals of
organizational behaviour. The S-0 portion deals with understanding and the BC portion deals with prediction and control. If the organizational situation is
substituted for S, the organizational participant is substituted for O and the
dynamics and applications are put into C, the model can serve as conceptual
framework for the study of OB. The S-O-B-C model is used to identify the major
variables in OB and to show how they relate to one another.
Q, 8 Write short notes on
(A) Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behaviour. Ans Organizational
behaviour is based on fundamental concepts around which nature of people
and nature of organization revolves Nature of people depends on the
following assumptions (i) Individual differences, (u) A whole person, (iii) Caused
behaviour, (iv) Value of the person or dignity.
Theories of motivation, leadership and supervision are based on the individual
differences. Some organization believe that they employ only the brain or skill
of person but they are wrong in their approach. They employ the whole person
Motivation of people is necessary in the organization to push up the work
irrespective of the machinery and equipment in use. People shall be treated
differently as they are of the higher order in the universe and they shall be
treated with respect and dignity. Nature of organization depends on iiie
assump!ioi.s (i) Assumption of social system and (ii) Assumption of mutual
People have psychological needs as well as social roles and status. Social
system is both formal an:: normal All parts are interdependent and interconnected.
People need organization as a means to help them to reach their goals while
organizations need people to help to reach organizational goals.
Challenges and Opportunities for Organizational Behaviour.
Organizational behaviour offers insights to improve a manager's people
skill that they can use on the job.
Organizational behaviour provides framework for understanding
differences between national cultures.
Managers is to stimulate employee's creativity and tolerance for change
because organizations must maintain their flexibility,
Organizational behaviour can offer managers, guidance in creating an
ethically healthy work climate.
Organizational behaviour can help in improving quality and productivity
by including their employees, by increasing their active participation in
planning and implementing changes,
Organizational behaviour recognizes differences and helps managers to
see the value of work force diversity,
Empowerment is challenge for Organizational Behaviour. Empowerment
means putting employees in charge of what they do.
PERSONALITY AND ATTITUDES
Q.1 Explain the term 'Personality'. Discuss the Various Stages of Personality
What is Personality? Explain the Personality Development Concept.
Ans. Personality The word 'Personality' has been derived from the Latin word
'Persona' which means 'to speak through'. Personality means how people
affect others, how they understand and view themselves as well as theif
pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and person-situation interaction.
'Personality' is concerned with external appearance, behaviour, self
measurable traits and situation interactions. The concept of personality is
however quite complex. There is no universal agreement on the exact
meaning of personality.
"Personality is the dynamic organization within and individual of those
psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his
environment." -Geordon Allport
"Personality is the characteristic patterns of behaviour an modes of thinking
that determine a person's adjustment to the environment."
- E. R. Hilgard
"(Person's) Personality is like all other people's, like some other people's and like
no other people's.:
- Kluckhotn and Murry
Personality includes, how people affect others, how they understand and view
themselves, their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits, person-situation
Stages of Personality Development Psychologists have given different stages of
personality development. These are as follows
(i) Freudian Stage 'Sigmund Freud' was the first psychologist to believe that
childhood events might have a bearing on adult behaviour and
consciousness. According to him, there are four universal stages of
psychological development which are decisive for the formation of
personality, i.e. oral, anal, phallic and genital.
The following given table explains the Freud's stages of personality
Birth to One Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating,
mouthing and biting
One year to Gratification from expelling and withholding
faces, coming to terms with society's control
relating to toilet training.
Three to Four Interest in the genitals, coming to terms with
Oedipal conflict leading to identification with
same sex purvent.
Four to Six Sexual concerns largely unimportant.
Re-emergence of sexual interests and
establishment of mature sexual relationships.
(ii) New-Freudian Stage 'Erik Erikson' gave a new dimension to the
development of personality, which according to him is mere extension of
Freud's Psycheosexual development.
According to him, more attention should be given to the social rather than the
sexual adaptations of the individual. He was of the opinion that, social
problems emerged in the course of development were more important stages
in which a child faces a wide range of human relationship as he grows up.
Erikson states that a psycho-social crisis occurs within each of the stages and
that a person in order to have a normal fulfilling personality, each crisis should
be positively resolved. He considers Crisis as a turning point in individual's
personality development and not as a catastrophe.
(iii) Cognitive Stage 'Jean Piaget', a Swiss Phsychologist is credited with
'Cognitive Stage' of personality development. According to him, it is 'conscious'
instincts which are important variables in the personality development.
He identified four (4) stages of personality development, these are as follows
Cognitive Stages Stage
11 yrs. and above.
At the first stage (i.e. sensorimotor), the infant responds to stimuli directly. During
the second stage (i.e. Pre-operational), the child learns .to" separate himself
from all other surroundings (i.e. environment) and started to classify the objects
through the use of symbols and words. At the third stage (i.e. concrete
operational), the child learns about an intellectual understanding of the
concept of conservation of a mass, irrespective of its shape. At the final stage
(i.e. formal operational), reasoning can take place on abstract as well as on
(iv) Immaturity to Maturity The Harvard University Professor, C. Argyris has
recognized specific dimensions of the human personality as it develops.
According to him, human personality progresses in a continuous form, from an
infant to maturity as an adult He was of the opinion that, healthy people will
display the behaviour of the immaturity to maturity continuum.
(iii) Few-ways of Behaving
(iv) Shallow Interests
(v) Short-time Perspective
(vi) Subordinate Position
(vii) Lack of Self-Awareness
Self Awareness and Control
Explain the Various Determinants (Factors) of Personality.
Ans. Determinants of Personality
Biological The impact of hereditary on personality is a very active but still
unsettled area of understanding. The hereditary versus environment debate is
still alive but in spite of this hereditary does equip the person for survival and
growth. According to some behavioural scientists managers think differently
from general population. Senior managers have greater capacity for
differentiation and integration.
Recently physiologists and psychologists felt that certain biological functions
such as brain wave patterns, gastric secretions, fluctuations in blood pressure
and skin temperature are beyond conscious control. Many scientist believe
that these functions can be consciously controlled through bio feed back.
Biologically based approach to study of personality is to anlayse the effects of
physical features and rate of maturing. In individual's physical appearance
which is said to be vital ingredient of personality, is biologically determined.
(b) Cultural The learning process plays an important role in personality
development. Culture is the main concept in analyzing the content of learning.
Cultural events contribute significantly to personality. Culture largely,
determines attributes such as aggression, co-operation, independence,
competition etc. The method by which an infant is bathed , fed, cared etc.
and the ways in which the person makes transition from adolescence to adulthood are all culturally determined.
(c) Family: Family probably has the most significant impact on personality
formation and development. The parents play an important role in the
identification process which is important to person's early development. The
type of atmosphere that is generated for child affects personality.
(d) Social Socialisation starts with the initial contact between a mother and her
infant. After infancy, other members of family, close relatives, family friends and
then the social groups play influential roles.
(e) Situation The cultural and family impact is more concerned with historical
nature of personality development. Both the cultural or family and socialisation
processes are important to personality, but it should be recognised that
immediate situation may in final analysis predominate. It is the situation which
determines the actions of a person. A person situation interactions surfaces as
an important determinant of personality but it is mostly overlooked by people
in understanding human behaviour.
What is Attitude? State its nature. What are its functions?
Ans. Attitude 'Attitudes' are evaluative statements either favourable or
unfavourable concerning objects, people or events. They reflect one's feeling
"Attitude are evaluative statements either favourable or unfavourable
concerning objects, people or events. They reflect how one feels about
something." - Stephen P. Robbins
"Attitude are learned dispositions towards aspects of our environment. They
may be positively or negatively directed towards certain people, service or
- N. L. Munn "An attitude is predisposition to respond positively or negatively, to
a certain set of facts." Nature of Attitude
Attitudes are evaluative statement.
Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of individuals or groups of
Attitudes provide the emotional basis for one's interpersonal relations
and identification with others.
Attitudes tend to result in behaviour or action.
Attitudes are uni-dimensional variable.
All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes.
'Attitudes' are organized and are close to the core of personality.
Functions of Attitude These are as follows
(a) Utilitarian The development of attitude in one's personality helps him to
obtain rewards or avoid punishments. In some cases, the attitude is a means
to an end. For e.g., a worker finds that when he expresses a negative attitude
towards his boss, his coworkers pay attention to him and sympathize with him,
however, when he expresses a positive attitude, he is ignored.
(b) Ego-Defence Function To safeguard the self image, individuals often form
and maintain certain attitudes. For example, when the female workers are
employed in any organization, the male workers may feel threatened by their
entry. These threatened workers now developed negative attitudes towards
their female counterparts. They may develop an attitude that such newcomers
are less qualified, and they might mistrea these workers. Such an ego defensive
attitude is developed to cope up with a feeling of guilt or threat.
(c) Value Expression Function An individual's attitude shows his taste of values
and the values are the expressive attitudes that are closely related to his selfcontrol.
An individual with freedom as his central value, shows more positive attitude
than anybody else towards decentralization of authority in the work, flexible
work schedules etc.
State the dimensions of attitude.
Ans. Dimension of Attitudes
(a) Centrality The centrality means the importance of the object. The attitudes
which have high centrality for an individual will be less susceptible to change.
(b)Overt Components Overt Components are the behavioural parts or
segments which express the way of behaviour intended.
(c)Valence Valence refers to the degree of the
unfavrourableness towards the particular event or object.
(d)Attitude vary in relation to the need of an individual.
(e)Cognitive Cognitive component refers to the rational process which is used
before a set of particular action one's own beliefs, experiences and thoughts.
(f) Multiplicity Multiplicity means the number of elements constituting the
Explain the term 'Transactional Analysis'. State its Advantages.
Ans.: Transactional Analysis (Meaning) Transactional Analysis (TA) offers a
model of personality and dynamics of self and its relationship to others that
make possible a clear and meaningful discussion of behaviour. It refers to
method of analysis and understanding interpersonal behaviour.
When people interact, there is a social transaction in which one person
responds Jo. another. The study of these transactions between people is called
Transactional Analysis was originally developed
psychotherapist, for psychotherapy in 1950.
Advantages of Transactional Analysis (TA)
Developing Positive Thinking TA is applied to bring positive actions from
people because TA brings positive approach towards life and hence positive
actions. TA brings a clear change from negative feelings - confusion, defeat,
failure, fear, frustration, hesitation, loneliness, pessimism and suppression to
positive feelings - clear thinking, victory, achievement, courage, gratification,
decision, friendship, optimism and fulfillment.
Such a change from negative attitude to positive attitude is a source of
psychic energy. Dositive attitude makes people stronger and negative attitude
makes them exhausting. The whole objective of TA training programme is
directed toward positive thinking.
Thus, its application can enhance the trust and credibility felt toward the
organization which are essential for good employee relations. Some of the
specific areas for developing positive thinking through TA are stroking, positive
reinforcement, inner dialogue as related to decision making, active listening
Interpersonal Effectiveness TA improves interpersonal relationship by
providing understanding of ego states of persons involved in interaction. It
transactions which ensure complete
communication and problem-solving approach.
Since complementary transactions can be learned by individuals in the
organization, people can improve interpersonal relations through TA. The
effective managers may be able to analyze transactions with employees in
the organization. TA provides them with a theoretical framework within which
to examine the interactions with the employees.
The managers may be able to identify the ego states from which both parties
are interacting. A better understanding of themselves and of other persons will
make them more comfortable, confident and effective. The improved
interpersonal relations will bring effectiveness to the organization.
Motivation TA can be applied in motivation where it helps in satisfying
human needs through complementary transactions and positive strokes. Mai
gers can enrich jobs for people by helping them to engage in kinds of activities
that give them more positive strokes. It emphasizes strokes from the intrinsic
value of the work, rather than depending entirely on strokes from outside
(extrinsic). The job enrichment in this case means increasing the number of
intrinsic strokes gained from the work activity.
TA helps in changing the managerial styles more suitably to the emergent
situation. In this context, TA may be compared with McGregor's Theory X and
Y The theory X manager emphasizes parent-child relationship and uses terms
like 'should be', 'have to' 'must' and so on. He adopts a life position of "I am O.K.
You are not O.K." which is not a healthy position either for motivating the
employees or for the organization as a whole. On the other hand, theory Y
manager emphasizes adult-adult interaction with life position "I am O.K. You
are O.K." which is motivating for employees and beneficiai to the organization
as a whole.
(d) Organization Development Organization development applies a
humanistic value system to work behaviour and a reorientation of man's
thinking and behaviour towards his wftrk organization. The major goal of
organization development is to fight the past in the present in order to choose
freely the future. TA can help in organization development process.
Write a note on Ego States.
Ans. Ego States Transactional analysis of Eric Berne seems to be an outgrowth
of the Feudian concept of id, ego and superego. Feud, depicts that there are
three sources within the human personality that stimulate, monitor and control
behaviour. Berne suggests that all people have though in different degrees three ego-states-parent, adult and child and the behaviour of a person shows
which of these three ego-stage is operating at a particular moment.
The parent ego-state is a result of messages people receive from their parents
during their early childhood. These messages are recorded in the lead of a
childjust like on the cassette tapes The persons interacting from a parent ego
states are protective, dogmatic, evaluative and righteous.
Behaviour is evoked the adult ego stage and develops thought concepts of
life based on data gathering and data processing. The behaviour from the
adult ego state is characterized by problem solving analysis and rational
The child ego state reflects early childhood conditions and experiences. It is
dependent, rebellious, selfish and sometimes creative. The child ego state is
Write short note on The Self Concept and Self Esteem.
Ans. The self concept has been structured by the interactions of individual
with other people and emerges as a product of that social interaction. The self
concept of individual is formulated in terms of how people reacts to him; it is
the mirror of how others perceive him. The concept of self esteem means an
individual's own pride and honour in eyes of other's people.
Write a detailed note on Johari Window.
Ans. Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham developed the Johari Window. The term
'JOHAR!' represents the combination of their firit names. Psychologist give
reasons for inter-personal conflicts by examining different ways in which self
and others may interact. One such attempt to understand dynamics of
interpersonal conflict is known as Johari Window.
Johari Window includes,
(i) Open Self
(ii) Hidden Self
(iii) Blind Self
A person knows The person does The person does
himself not know about not know about
and knows about the other.
These points can help to understand and manage many interpersonal
conflicts, within or without group setting. According to Johari Window, the
strategy to solve conflict is to increase open self and decrease hidden self. By
disclosing information about oneself, the potential for conflict may be
reduced, but individual risk is also involved in self-disclosure because the other
early may use it for his advantage at the cost of the person who tries to reduce
Write short notes on
Developing the Right Attitude.
Ans. 'Developing the Right Attitude' refers to rational behaviour of an
individual in his day-to-day life. For developing the right attitude, the following
methods can be implemented by the individual, viz. (i) Maintain a log-book
(record) of your thoughts, (ii) Be aware of your thoughts, (iii) Identify negative
thoughts and replace them with positive thoughts, (iv) Controlling the
Emotions, (v) Dont react instantly.
Q.1 Define the term
OR Define Motivation. Discuss importance of motivation as a function of
Ans. Motivation (Meaning) "Motivation" is a term derived from the word
"Motive". "Motivation" means to provide someone with a motive. Motivation
includes different aspect of behaviour such as desires, needs aspiration,
Man has 'capacity to work' but no willingness to work and hence motivation is
needed. Motivation is an effective instrument for a manager in inspiring the
work-force and creating confidence in it. The manager must know that he can
buy a man's time, he can buy a man's physical presence at a given place, but
he cannot buy his initiative and loyalty.
Motivation is an important task of management but it is number one problem
of management. Motivation can be positive or negative, extrinsic or intrinsic,
financial or non-financial, primary and secondary. Motivation is the 'core of
management'. One of the consequences of motivation is 'morale'. Morale is
always connected with motivation. The presence of "tension, energy or drive"
becomes necessary in motivation. Motivation is influenced by financial
incentives like wages, bonus, retirement benefit and non-financial incentives
like participation, praise, promotion, delegation of authority, suggestion
schemes etc. important Definitions of Motivation
(i) "Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations,
needs direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings."
(ii) "Motivation is a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish
desired goals." - W. C. Scott
(iii) "Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to take a desired
course of action to get desired results."
- M. J. Jucius
Performance given by employees is explained as, Performance (P) is a function
1. A = Ability
2. K = Knowledge
3. M = Motivation
P = M(A + K)
Features or Characteristics of Motivation
Motivation is the latest force of behaviour.
Motivation is closely related with needs of an individual.
Motivation may take place with or without the awareness of the
Motives may be of two types, repetitive motives and non-repetitive
Motivation is evaluated in terms of its presence or absence or degree
only and not in terms of numerical expressions.
Motivation, as a force may act positively or negatively on the
performance of an individual.
Importance of Motivation
Motivation is an important function of management. Without it the
organization do not exist. "Motivated employees are the real asset for any
The following points highlight the importance of motivation
(a) High Performance Level Motivation makes people willing to do their work
and improves their performance. Thus, motivation results into increased
productivity, wastage and scrap will be reduced. Quality of production will be
(b) Maximum Utilization of Factors of Production Due to motivation, there is
maximum utilization of factors of production. Workers will improve their
efficiency by increasing their knowledge and skill.
(c) Reduced Labour Turnover and Absenteeism A motivated employee stays in
the organization more and their absenteeism is low. Workers do not leave the
job frequently and this saves the expenditure
organization. With reduced labour turnover, it becomes possible for (he
organization to plan it's activities on long term basis.
(d) Worker's Co-operation If workers are motivated, they give good cooperation and take interest in their job and their efficiency increased and
hence higher output.
(e) Good Industrial Relations Motivation creates good relations between the
workers and management and between workers themselves. As a result,
complaints and grievances will come down and conflicts will be reduced. This
results in smooth working of the organization.
Explain the Nature of Motivation.
Ans. Refer to Q. No. 1 for Definition and Meaning of Motivation.
Nature of Motivation Nature of motivation can be understood from the
Motivation is an Unending Process Man being a social animal has
innumerable wants to satisfy which induce him to work. All wants cannot
be satisfied at one time. One want is satisfied and the other may
emerge. Satisfaction of wants is an unending process. So, men on the
job require motivation all the time though their motives or wants may be
Motivation is a Psychological Concept Motivation is a psychological
concept that comes from inside the individual. The inner feeling
balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs
that influences the direction, volume, behaviour and limitations of efforts
of an individual. So, motivation is an inducement of under feelings of an
individual and it cannot be forced upon him from outside.
The Whole Individual is Motivated Each individual is an integrated
organized whole and a part of him cannot be motivated because,
motivation is a psychological concept that is concerned with the whole
individual. A man's basic needs determine to a great extent what he will
try to do at any given time and all these needs are interrelated and
cannot be separated from each other.
Frustrated man cannot be Motivated If a man fails in satisfying any of his
basic needs in spite of his best efforts, he becomes frustrated and to
some extent mentally ill. Such frustrated man cannot be further
motivated until his basic need is fulfilled.
Goals are Motivators Goals and motives are inseparable. Man works to
achieve the goals. As soon as the goal is achieved he will be no longer
interested in work. Goal means satisfaction of needs. It is, therefore, very
essential for the management to know the goals or motives or needs of
each individual so that they can be pushed to work by directing them
towards achievement of their goals.
The Self- Concept as a Unifying Force Unifying forces run through each
individual's history. Unifying force means the drive to actualise his own
image. The outline of a person's self -image is fairly well -realized in his
early childhood and in his later age he acts accordingly. For example, a
child who think himself as a leader, will if possible, try to behave that way
in later life. Thus two things that an individual is always trying to do are
(i) to act like a person, he thinks he is, and
(ii) to get what he thinks he can.
Thus, self-concept is an important motivating force.
What are the Different Techniques of Motivation?
Ans.: Techniques of Motivation
(a) Provision of "Intra-mural Facility Technique' In order to motivate all the
workers in the organization to show their best, number of intramural facilities
are offered to workers in modern business organization. These facilities are
made available to the workers at the time of work. Besides the minimum
working conditions as made compulsory by provision of Factory's Act 1948, the
number of extra facilities like introduction of music at work places, centralized
air conditioned organization, entertainment arranged at the rest pauses,
library facilities, canteen facilities, recreational facilities are some of the
examples of some intramural facilities offered to the workmen.
(b) Monetary Techniques Monetary techniques based on popular belief that
man works for money. Therefore, an attraction of getting more money will
prove to be the most powerful motivator. Examples of monetary techniques
Wages, bonus, payment of extra money through various schemes, retirement
(c) Job-based Techniques The basis of job techniques is human and
Examples of Job-based Techniques job enlargement, Job enrichment, sense
of organization, responsibility achievement etc.
(d) MBO Techniques The technique has been developed by Peter Drucker,
which emphasizes on Self-Control and Self-Motivation. MBO technique is a
participatory technique of motivation whereby managers and their subordinates jointly participate in achieving the common goals of the enterprise.
(e) Supervisory Techniques Supervisory techniques have also a great role in
motivation of employees. The important styles are autocratic, democratic and
free rein style of leadership and they have their own implications for employee
motivation, morale and productivity. The management should adopt different
supervisory style in different situations for different workers/employees.
Define Motivation and discuss various types of Motives. OR
Explain different types of Motives.
How motives can be classified? Give examples of different types of Motives.
OR Define Motivation. What are the various Motives of work?
Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter.
There are two types of motives, viz. (i) Primary Motives and (ii) Secondary
(i) Primary Motives These motives arise from basic requirements of life and are
important for survival of human being. These motives are virtually universal
among people, but they vary in intensity from person to person. These motives
are physiologically based.
Examples Hunger, Thirst , Sleep, Shelter, Sex Avoidance of Pain etc.
(ii) Secondary Motives These motives are more vague, because they represent
the needs of the mind and spirit rather than of the physical body. These motives
arises after the primary motives are satisfied. These motives affects the
motivational efforts of the managers.
Examples Power, Achievement, Affiliation, Status, Security.
Let us discuss the important secondary motives,
Power Motive When feeling of inferiority is combined with an innate need
for superiority, then the person's life style is featurise by striving for power.
Power motive has significant implications for organizational leadership
and for the informal, political aspects of organizations.
The Achievement Motive Achievement motive, can be expressed as a
desire to perform in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful
in competitive situations.
The Affiliation Motive This motive relate to people on a social basis.
Persons with affiliation motives work better when they are complimented
for their favourable attitudes and co-operation. This motive is an
important part of group dynamics.
The Security Motive Security motive is based on fear and it is avoidence
oriented. Job security has a great effect on organizational behaviour.
Humans have a learned security motive to protect themselves.
The Status Motive Status can be defined as a relative ranking that a
person holds in a group. Status evolves from the capacity of people for
rewarding those with whom they interact.
(iii) General Motives General Motives lay between primary and secondary
motives. These motives are more relavant to organizational behaviour than the
(a) The Competence Motive Competence motivated people expect high
quality work from their associates.
(b) The curiosity, manipulation and active motives.
(c) The affection motive.
Explain Maslow's Theory of Need Hierarchy.
Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter.
Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory A . H. Maslow developed "Need
theory" of motivation on the concept of "hierarchy of needs". These needs are
(a) Basic Needs These are hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other body needs.
(b) Safety and Security Needs When basic needs of an individual are fulfilled,
these needs start. These needs include security and protection from physical
and emotional harm.
(c) Social Needs These needs refer to love and affection, belongingness,
acceptance, friendship. These are related to get high position and status in the
(d) Ego or Esteem Needs These included needs of self-confidence, knowledge,
recognition, prestige, self respect, etc.
(e) Self-Actualization Needs These needs include growth, self-employment
and self-development, self-fulfillment, continuous development of individual
skills and powers.
% Satisfaction in Business Units
Self Actualization 10%
Evaluation of the Theory This theory was not much concerned with motivational
studies for a long time. In modem times however, the management studies in
motivation specifically are greatly influenced by this theory. His treatment to
the human needs arranged in a hierarchical order is well accepted.
Man is continuously a wanting animal. When one need is satisfied then the new
appears, every man wants to satisfy his continuously growing needs.
According to Maslow, the first three needs are lower level needs and
remaining two are higher level needs. When all the needs are satisfied, man
loses motivation to work.
Demerits of Maslow's Theory
(i) It is a general expression not specific.
(ii) Levels in the Organization are not properly fixed.
(iii) This approach overlooks interaction of needs.
Explain F. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation. OR
Critically examine Fredrick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory.
Explain Motivation and state how Herzberg's two factors theory can be used for
Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter.
F. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation F. Herzberg developed a two factor's theory
of motivation. He says that man has two sets of needs. One is Lower level set.
It denotes hygiene, maintenance or environmental factors which do not
motivate satisfaction, but their absence causes dissatisfaction. The other high
level needs are termed as motivators because they are the real cause of job
satisfaction and they lead to better performance. The work factors, which lead
to job satisfaction and motivation (the so-called motivators) are different from
those (so-called hygiene, maintenance) which lead to job dissatisfaction.
Two kinds of needs of people at work
Hygiene or maintenance
factors Environmental needs
Needs instinsic to work itself
Motivation factors (Real Motivators)
Policies and administration.
Achievement of challenging task.
Recognition for accomplishment.
Interpersonal Relations - Boss, 4.
Money wages, salaries.
Status and security.
Enriched challenging job (positive
feelings towards the job).
Herzberg calls factors leading to dissatisfaction as 'Hygiene' or
maintenance factors. If absent, these make employees feel
exceptionally bad. Note that they are extrinsic, i.e they come from
outside the person. When they are adequate, they merely prevent
dissatisfaction. These factors correspond to Maslow's lower level needs.
Factors leading to satisfaction are termed as motivators. They are causes
of job satisfaction, if present these make employee feel exceptionally
good. Note that these factors are intrinsic, i.e. they come from inside the
person. They lead to motivation when you build them into the way you
Theory 'X' assumptions of human beings lead to Herzberg's hygiene
factors or dissatisfiers mentioned above.
Theory V assumptions of human beings lead to Herzberg's hygiene
satisfiers or motivators.
Herzberg's approach to two types of motivation is applicable to affluent
or richer countries.
According to two factors theory of motivation developed by Herzberg
money is hygienic factor and not a motivator, (g) Improving work
environment, raising wages and salaries, offering social security,
maintaining good human relations etc. cannot achieve the greater
output, efficiency and productivity under Herzberg's approach to
motivation. One may have the result in the form of peace, less conflict,
but no satisfaction of motivation. In Herzberg's words, satisfaction is
equal to motivation. No satisfaction means no motivation, un-hygienic
environment creates dissatisfaction. Hygienic environment, fall in wages
means no dissatisfaction.
Explain how Motivation affects on Morale. OR
Write a note on Morale Building and Motivation.
Give relationship between Morale and Productivity.
Ans. Morale Building and Motivation The dictionary meaning of morale is
"condition with respect to discipline and confidence". It is closely connected
with willingness to work. It is related to state of "mental health" which is related
to loyalty, egoism, enthusiasm etc. It is an identification of group interest and
that of the interest of the enterprise, fellow workers and requirements of the
job. It is the subjective feeling of the employee. If group shows an attitude of
satisfaction, it's morale will be high.
Motivation, however, should oe distinguished from morale, though these
concepts are related to both individuals and groups. Morale denotes attitudes,
judgements of individual or groups. On the other hand, motivation indicates
"propensity for particular and behaviour patterns reducing or satisfying certain
needs including tension". In words of Ralph M. Stogdill, "Motivation is a function
of drive and confirmed desirability estimates regarding various alternatives
satisfaction, whereas morale is freedom of restraint in action towards a goal".
Thus, an individual or a group, may be highly motivated but unable to act. With
freedom to act, the degree of morale may be highly related to strength of
motivation. Morale may be in a sense be thus regarded as motivation
demonstrated in over-action towards goal. Motivation then provides potential
Morale is resultant state encompassing the willingness to co-operate and
expressing the degree of integration existing between conflicting interests.
Motivation is an active force directing behaviour by
(a) causing individuals to seek one of several available goals and
(b) causing individuals to seek several goals not present at the moment.
However, it should be remembered that problems of motivating employees
and that of maintaining high morale are more or less similar. Either to change
morale or motivation, the inner behaviour of individual or group is required to
be changed but to know to what extent an employee has been motivated or
his (morale has been raised is not to be surveyed but to be observed through
) intervention of executive in the behaviour of such subordinates. In short,
motivation is intimately connected with morale. Good motivation leads to high
morale. Poor morale is the manifestations, of weak or defective motivating
Morale is frequently assumed to be associated with higher performance,
greater satisfaction and increased production. A high morale always results in
high productivity, whereas low morale automatically results in low productivity.
However, research has shown that the relation between two is not so direct
and positive as that. Morale is only one of the factors of productivity. It is
possible to find out high morale related to low productivity and low morale
associated with higher productivity. In fact, morale and productivity may be
related to each other in the following four possible ways.
A High Productivity
C High Productivity
D Low Productivity
High Productivity goes with the high morale, when the workers are motivated
and supervision is of right type (i.e. the supervisors treat the men with
consideration). In fact, high morale may push up the productivity.
This is an ideal state and makes the best possible use of human potentialities.
In practice, this state may not be very common. Since morale is a state of
human behaviour to sustain such a state of affairs. An exactly reverse situation
could be that of low morale and low productivity. High Morale and low
productivity will go together when the men are different in training and
supervisors are not. Management uses penalties and punishment and provides
better equipment to the workmen.
But it must be remembered that high productivity with low morale cannot be
sustained for long since the will to work is of great importance that shows the
worker's attitudes towards the job, the supervisors and organization and it's
policies is an important factor in productivity and management must try to
ensure favourable attitudes on the part of men while taking other steps for
raising productivity, morale may not be the only factor in raising the
productivity but it does represent the single most important variable. High
productivity cannot be suited for long without high morale.
It should be remembered that, research had not yet proved either that there
exists no positive relationship whatsoever between morale and productivity or
that the management can afford to overlook the. problem of employee
morale without producing any adverse consequence.
Explain McGregor's Theory of Work Motivation.
Ans. The management's action of motivating human beings in the
organization, according to Douglas McGregor, involves certain assumptions,
generalisation and hypotheses relating to human behaviour and human
These assumptions may be neither consciously crystallised, nor overtly stated;
however, these serve the purpose of predicting human behaviour. The basic
assumptions about human behaviour may differ considerably because of the
complexity of factors influencing this behaviour. McGregor has characterized
these assumptions in two observed points, Theory X and Theory Y.
This is the traditional theory of human behaviour. In this theory, Douglas
McGregor has certain assumptions about human behaviour. In his own words,
these assumptions are as follows
Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive
enterprises -money, material, equipment, people - in the interest of
With respect of people, this is a process of directing their efforts,
motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behvaiour to
fit the needs of the organization.
Without this active intervention by management, people would be
passive - even resistant - to organizational needs. They must be
persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled and their activities must be
directed. This is management's task. We often sum it up by saying that
management consist of getting things done through other people.
The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid
it, if he can.
The average human being is lazy and avoids responsibility.
The average human being is indifferent to organizational goals.
The average human being prefers to be directed. Wishes to avoid
responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all.
Of these assumptions, last four deal with the human nature and first three with
managerial actions. These assumptions about human nature are negative in
their approach. However, much organizational processes have developed on
these assumptions. The managers subscribing these views about human nature
attempt to structure, control and closely supervise their employees. The
managers feel that control is most appropriate for dealing with irresponsible
and immature employees. McGreogr believes that these assumptions about
human nature have not changed drastically though there is a considerable
change in behavioural pattern, he urges that this change is not because of
changes in human nature, but because of nature of individual organization,
management, philosophy, policy and practice.
The assumptions of Theory Y are described by Douglas McGregor in the
The average human being does not inherently dislike work. Depending
upon controllable conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction or a
source of punishment.
The average human being will exercise self-direction and self-control in
the service of objectives to which he is committed.
Commitment to objective is a function of the reward associated with
their achievement. The most significance of such award, e.g., the
satisfaction of ego and self-actualization needs, can be direct product
of effort directed towards organizational objectives.
The average human being learns under proper conditions not only to
accept, but to seek responsibility. Avoidance of responsibility, lack of
ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of
inherent human characteristics.
The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination
ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is
widely distributed in the population.
Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual
potentialities of the average human beings are only partially utilised.
Theory Y assumes that goals of the organization and those of the individuals
are not necessarily incongruent. The basic problem in most of the organizations
is that of securing commitment of workers to organizational goals. Worker's
commitment is directly related to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus, this
theory places emphasis on satisfaction of the needs of the workers. It does not
rely heavily on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control.
It assumes that workers exercise, self-direction and self-control in the realization
of the goals to which they feel themselves committed. Because of these
reasons, "Theory Y" is realistic and frequently used at different levels in most of
In support of the assumptions embodied in 'Theory Y', McGregor cited a few
practices wherein the subordinates are given a freedom to direct their
activities, to assume responsibility and importantly, to satisfy their egoistic
needs. These practices include decentralization and delegation of authority,
job enlargement, participation and consultative management and
management by objectives.
Explain Porter and Lawler's Motivation Model.
Ans. Porter and Lawler start with the premise that motivation (effort or force)
does not equal satisfaction or performance. Motivation, satisfaction and
performance are all separate variables and relate in ways different from what
was traditionally assumed. It is important, however, that Porter and Lawler point
out that effort (force or motivation) does not lead directly to performance. It is
mediated by abilities and traits and by role perceptions. More important in the
Porter-Lawler model is what happens after the performance. The rewards that
follow and how that are perceived will determine satisfaction. In other words,
the Porter-Lawler model suggests and this is a significant turn of events from
traditional thinking - that performance leads to satisfaction.
The model has/had a fair degree of research support over the years. For
example, a recent field study found that effort level and direction of effort are
important in explaining individual performance in an organization. Also, a
comprehensive review of research verifies the importance of rewards in the
relationship between performance and satisfaction. Specifically, it was
concluded that performance and satisfaction will be more strongly related
when rewards are made contingent upon performance than when they are
Implications for Practice Although the Porter-Lawler model is more applications
-oriented than the Vroom model, it is still quite complex and has proved to be
a difficult way to bridge the gap to actual management practice. To Porter
and Lawler's credit, they have been very conscientious of putting their theory
and research into practice.
They recommend that practicing managers go beyond traditional attitude
measurement and attempt to measure variables such as the values of possible
rewards, the perceptions of effort-reward probabilities, and role perceptions.
These variables, of course, can help managers better understand what goes
into employee effort and performance. Giving attention to the consequences
of performance, Porter and Lawler also recommend that organizations
critically re-evaluate their current reward policies. They stress that
management should make a concentrated effort to measure how closely
levels of satisfaction are related to levels of performance, and recently a
practitioner-oriented article emphasized that the accurate of role perceptions
may be the missing link in improving employee performance. The interference
here is that employees need to better focus their efforts on high-impact
behaviours and activities that result in higher performance. However, both
recent studies and comprehensive analyzes continue to point out the complex
impact that the cognitive process has in relation to rewards and other
outcomes in organizations.
Q.10 Write short notes on
Indicators of Morale.
Ans. There are no hard and fast rules about the morale indicators. Morale can
be checked by considering the basic morale indicators. These indicators are
as follows (i) Labour turnover. (H) Productivity, (iii) Waste and scrap, (iv)
Absenteeism and tradiness. (v) Quality records, (vi) Grievances, (vii) Exist
Interviews, (viii) Medical records.
Direct Indicators of Morale Labour turnover, Absenteeism and tradiness,
accident reports, productivity, quality records waste and scrap.
Indirect Indicators of Morale Counselling reports, medical records, training
records, grievances, suggestions, exit interviews. Low morale is expected to
result in high turnover, but in several studies very low corelation has been
observed between these two variables. Absenteeism is expected to be
negatively corelated with morale.
All the indicators are flashing red lights, demanding a stop and look reaction.
GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM BUILDING
Define Group and Group Dynamics. Discuss the Importance of Group
Ans. 'Group' It is a collection of two or more individuals who are
interdependent and interact with one another to achieve a common goal.
Group Dynamics The term 'group dynamics' refers to the complex forces that
determine group formation, its size and structure, conflict, change and
cohesiveness, interaction and behaviour. The word 'dynamics' has been
derived from the Greek word meaning 'force'. "Hence, group dynamic refers
to the study of forces operating within a group", defines Keith Davis. He further
states that, "The social process by which people interact face to face in small
group is called group dynamics". In the organizational behaviour, group
dynamics is primarily concerned with, according to Fred Luthans, "The
interaction of forces between group members in social situations".
However, it was Kurt Lenin who coined the concept and shaped it into a
discipline in the late thirties. Lewin's conception of group dynamics centred
around the internal character and composition of groups (small groups), their
structures and process, their impact on the individual members, inter-group
interaction and organization.
In short, group dynamics may be stated as the behaviour of individuals as
members of a group in an organizational setting. Thus, in the light of the above
definitions, the concept of group dynamic may be discussed under the
(i) Why are groups formed? ( The dynamics of group formation).
(ii) What are the various types of groups?
(iii) How the group system is viewed?
(iv) What is the relation between individual and group?
(v) How the groups are developed and structured?
(vi) Group cohesiveness (collaboration) and conflicts, and so on.
Research on group dynamics over the years has produced set of techniques
like role playing, brain storming, group therapy, sensitivity, training etc. which
are useful in activating the tremendous potential of individual in groups.
Groups have their own properties, quite different from that of individuals who
make up the group. Individual behaviour of the members of the group need
not necessarily represent the behaviour of the whole group or vice versa.
Simply two members do not represent a group, the force of relationship is a
must to make them a group.
There are so many problems of human behaviour which have disturbed the
man from the very beginning. There are certain questions which are asked
about the human relations and the group; behaviour that are very difficult to
answer. Some of the questions are
How should we consider relationship between individuals and the
Are there needs of the group, the individual needs, and if so then what
are the properties of the group?
Are they formed or deformed?
Are all the properties found in individuals?
Are groups good or bad? How do individuals behave with the group?
Researches have been done to answer these related questions of human and
In this age of behavioural science, we think we should be rational and
unbiased in the study of the human behaviour, but can we? No, it is not
absolutely possible because, still there are certain prerequisites about the
realities or unrealities, qualities and evils of groups that guide us. Generally,
these preconceptions are integral parts of an individual's personal philosophy.
Such preconceptions may be positive or negative.
Negative Aspects First, we shall consider the negative view point. The people
having negative viewpoint are of the view that
(i) Groups do not exist and these are the product of distorted thought
processes generally known as abstractions (ii) Groups are not good. They
expect that their members must be loyal to the groups without using their head
Positive Aspects There is another view, i.e., positive view. Followers of positive
view say that
(i) Groups do exist. Acceptance or non-acceptance of an individual by a
group counts much to that individual and it proves the existence and
importance of groups.
(ii) Groups are not bad, they are good. They satisfy the higher order needs of
an individual such as affection, recognition and self-esteem. They stimulate
altruism and self-sacrifice. Groups provide the means to get such things
through mutual interaction that a person can never attain them individually.
Synoptic View The characteristics of the positive attitude may be called the
characteristics of so-called group dynamics movement The intention of the
promoters of group dynamics is that the work should be done in group
Individual responsibility and man to man supervision are bad. Individual
problem solving and individual theory are bad. Committee meetings, qroup
decisions, collective problem solving and group therapy are the index of the
Though group dynamics studies the relationship of individuals, yet we ''orge;
that evef*' individual in the group is different in attitude ana behaviour. The
must not forget that each member of a positive group does not have similarity
in views in i particular situation and they are quite different in views and have
their own self-respect
What are the Reasons/Causes of Group Formation?
Explain the Reasons for Joining the Group.
Ans. Reasons or Causes of Group Formation The dynamics of group
formation, 'peoples propensity' to form and join group may be understood by
the following three approaches
Psycho-analytical The instint of group formation is inherited from the
primal family which suggest the 'psycho-analytical' approach.
Cognitive People join the group because they have the expectation
that membership will benefit them, which relates to the cognitive
Operant There is a general conviction among people that by joining
group they will experience the positive reinforcement from social and
group behaviour. This relates to the operant approach.
The approach may be different, but the basic reasons for joining the groups
are as follows
Group affiliation People join group because, it provides them an
opportunity to have regular company with those, with whom they share
something in common.
Security People feel that an individual, isolated and unorganized is likely
to be exposed to different types of hazards in relation to his position as a
member of organization. So, by joining a group, he acquires a sense of
Esteem By associating himself with a group of high status the esteem of
an individual increases.
Power United we gain and divided we fall. Collectively members enjoy
greater power than individually.
Identity Group provides information about oneself and also others. Thus,
a person gets identity being with a group.
Rewards In a group, a person may get several forms of rewards such as
fnendsnip, status, recognition and even financial benefits.
Accomplishment People in group get an opportunity to share their
knowledge, pool their talents, tools, contact etc.
Explain the Various Theories of Group Formation.
Ans. Theories of Group Formation Group may be formed through accidental
or fortuitous means beyond the immediate control of their members or they
may be formed voluntarily, as a result of mutual attraction.
(a) Propinquity Theory According to this theory, individuals affiliate with one
another because of spatial or geographical proximity. For example in an
organization, employees who work in the same area of the plant or office
would more probably form into groups than those who are not physically
located together. This theory can explain group formation in better way but it
cannot explain complexities of group formation.
(b) Homan's Theory of Group Formation This theory states that persons in a
group interact with one another, not in just the physical propinquity sense, but
also to solve problems, attain goals, facilitates co-ordination, reduce tension
and achieve balance.
This theory is based on Interactions, Activities and Sentiments (I - A - S). These
three elements are directly related to one another. The more activities persons
share, the more will be their interactions and the stronger will be their
sentiments. The major element of this theory is interaction. Thus, with the help
of this theory we can understand group formation and process in a better way.
Balance Theory This theory was proposed by Newcomb. According to
this theory, persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar
attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals. This theory includes
both propinquity and interaction factors.
Common Attitudes and Values Religion Politics Life style Marriage Work
Fig. 10.1 Balance Theory of Group Formation
This figures, shows that individual X will interact and form a relationship with
individual Y, because of common attitudes and values (Z) once this
relationship is formed the participants strive to maintain a symmetrical balance
between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs an
attempt is made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored,
the relationship is dissolved.
What are the Various Types of Groups? Explain them briefly.
Discuss the Various Categories of Group.
Ans. Various types of groups are as under:
(a) Large and small groups Organization of any class is a large group. But within
any organization, there are several groups which are small groups.
(b) Primary and secondary groups All primary groups are small but the
converse is not true. The primary group has feelings of loyalty and a common
sense of values among its members. Primary groups like the family, the poor
group, the work-group, etc. are fundamental in moulding, the social nature,
behaviour and values of the individual. Thus, the primary group is regarded as
the basic building block of organizations and of society.
Secondary group is a larger entity and is made up of several primary groups.
Being big in size, large in membership, it is somewhat impersonal, remote and
does not facilitate face-to-face interaction. It is formed to achieve larger
objectives and goals.
Membership and reference groups Membership groups are formed
informally and formally through membership cards or certificates. The Institute
of Income Tax Consultants is a membership group and is a secondary group.
Reference group is one to which, individuals would like to belong or to identify
themselves The reference group's values and opinions are important to the
individual. The reference group serves a normative function to the individual, it
also serves as a source of individual's norms and attitudes.
In-groups and out-groups The 'in-group' represents a cluster of individuals
who hold the prevailing or powerful values in high esteem. Thus, 'in-group'
represents 'power circle'.
The 'out-group' is one which does not have much influence on social thinking
or powerful values.
Command and task groups The command group is formed by the
manager and his immediate subordinates. The roles of relationship among the
members of command groups are formally determined by the organization.
The task group is formed by members who work together to complete specific
tasks. Its function and structure are also formally determined. Committee is an
example to the task group.
Open and closed group This type of group has four important variables.
(i) Changing group membership An open group is constantly adding and
losing members where as the membership is stable in closed groups.
(ii) Frame reference In an open group, the frame of reference expands with
the addition of new members with new ideas and thereby the activity also
expands but it is stable in closed group.
(iii) Time perspective Due to constant changes in an open group the
perspective is limited to only near future where as in closed group, because of
its stability, it has longer time perspective.
(iv) Equilibriums It may be stated as a state of balance or stability.
(g) Formal and informal groups That which is deliberately created to perform
a specific task is a formal group where as a group, that which arises out of
interactions, attractions and needs of individuals is an informal group
Q 5 What is Formal Group in an organization? State its various types/forms.
Ans. Formal Groups Formal groups are created by management to
accomplish organizational goals. They are shown in the organizational chart.
Groups are empowered with the authority by the organization Authority is
always delegated to the position and not to the person Therefore, position is
important and not the person in the format groups. Authority in formal groups
is not acquired but delegated from the top level and it always flows
downwards and never upwards The status of a group is determined by its
position on the organizational chart or the responsibilities of the job it performs.
All communications to formal groups are sent through chain of command. The
behaviour of members is regulated through predetermined rules ana
regulations. Any violation of rules and regulations attract penalty.
Forms or Types of Formal groups The formai groups are classified as under
Permanent and Temporary Formal Groups Permanent formal groups are
formed by the organization on the permanent basis and more or less exist so
long as the organization exists. Board of Directors, departmental units, staff
groups, standing committees are some examples of formal groups.
Groups formed by the organization, to carry the particular work or to perform
the specific task are temporary formal groups. A committee or study groups,
appointed to analyze or review the pay structure in the organization are
examples of temporary formal groups. These groups come to an end as soon
as the tasks assigned to them are over.
Command Groups The authority structure forms and determines the
boundaries of divisions, departments and sections within the organization and
these departments or sections or divisions are known as command groups. The
smallest command group consists of supervisor and his subordinates and the
largest one consists of top management and the tota. personnel in the
workforce. There are so many other groups in between these two extremes.
The chain of command as expressed by authority, responsibility and
accountability, allocates the roles of each individual in the command group.
It also spells out the member-authority relationship which exists between them.
The superior of a particular group is the leader who performs important
functions for his group. He sets goals for the group, suggests ways and means
to get them and settles jurisdictional issues which arise between subordinates.
The superior is an effective instrument for downward communication and an
initiation for upward communication.
Functional Groups Functional groups are those groups whose primary
task is to carry on the operations. In many cases, the functional groups may be
congruent with the authority groups. Thus, a single department in the
organization would probably be both command group and functional group.
The department is a command group within the authority structure but the staff
working in that department engaged in a particular activity and directed and
coordinated by the same superior may form a functional group such as typists,
clerks, salesman etc. Thus, a command group may have several functional
The functional groups can be again classified into team, task and
technological groups The distinction between these groups involves the
method, role allocation and role fulfilment.
a. Team Group Team group nas no specified, fixed role to play for its
individual The general role of the group is set and the members of
the group are allocated the role according to the needs of the
goal. Thus, roles of members in a team group are interchangeable
without any clash.
(ii) Task Group Task group specifies a fixed job for each of its members
and lays down the job description. Thus, roles of the members are not
interchangeable and if superior does so, it is not without much personal
resistance and friction between superior and the member.
Technological Group Technological group is something different. Here,
the roles are assigned by the management. The position of the job is
fixed and the methods are laid down and the speed of work is fixed by
some device Thus, members of the group have no choice over the
method and the speed of the work
Status Group Status groups involve the members of the same status in an
organization. It includes a number of different ranking of positions which
are frequently inconsistent with each other. It makes distinction of a
functional basis between manager and workers, on an authoritarian
basis between superiors and subordinates, and on a payment basis
between salary and wage earners. In some cases, status distinction is
made on the basis of facilities or amenities to be enjoyed by the
members. More often, the status distinction is made on wage and salary
structure that leads to all sorts of status reactions amongst work-groups
Q.6 What is Informal Group in an Organization? State its Various Types/
Ans. Informal Groups Men can be engaged to work as a whole and not in
parts There are number of needs which cannot be satisfied through formal
groups. So. they form other groups by interacting with each other to satisfy
some of their unsatisfied needs. Because of the social and psychological forces
operating at the work place, members create such a group for their own
satisfaction and the working of the groups are not regulated by that general
framework of organizational rules and regulation. The groups are called
'informal groups'. They are generally small and serve different interests of their
An informal group arises voluntarily It is a natural grouping of people in work
situation to get a total picture of any organization, informal group is inevitable
along with formal one Thus, it is called informal organization. Each informal
group has its own informal leader who is elected among the members of the
group not on the basis of authority he possesses m the formal group but on the
basis of age, seniority, technical knowledge, respect etc So, authority is to be
earned from members of the group. Authority in the informal group is given to
the person and not to the position As soon as the members lose their
confidence in him, he will no more be the leader of the group.
Communication in informal groups passes through informal channel, mostly
verbal or by gestures Behaviour of members are regulated by norms, values
and beliefs of the group. Violater of norms are punished through nonfinancial
modes such as social boycott, loss of prestige and status within the group.
Informal groups, unlike formal ones, cannot be abolished. Any attempt to
destroy them may cause several others to emerge. Informal groups may exist
within or outside the organization.
Forms or Types of informal Groups Mayo and Lambard have classified informal
group, on the basis of the functions of the group in determining standards of
conduct and internal structures onto three categories, natural, family and
organized. Thus, informal groups may be grouped as under
Friendship Group This kind of group involves close personalities as friends
or relatives who are well-known to each other before hand. Mostly these
groups are found in pairs and are useful in spreading influence and
Cliques: These groups consist of cliques and associates who normally
observe certain norms and standards. They are closely intimated to
each other. The number of members tends to be smaller The object of
this type of group is to provide recognition to each other and exchange
information of mutual interest. Dalton has noted three types of cliques
Vertical Clique Such cliques consists of people working in the same
department irrespective of their rank difference. Such groups develop
because of earlier acquaintance of people or the dependence of
superior upon his subordinates for some formal purposes.
Horizontal Clique This group consists of people of more or less same rank
and working more or less in the same area. Such groups are formed
cutting across organizational boundaries. Such members find some
points of commonness and keeping the objectives in mind, come
together. This is the most common form of informal group.
Random or Mixed Clique This group is a mix of vertical and horizontal
cliques. People come from different ranks, departments and locations
to form such types of cliques, having some common objective in mind.
The member may be residing in the same locality, travelling by the same
bus or train or may be member of the same club.
(iii) Sub-Cliques The group consists of some member of a clique inside the
organization along with some other person outside the clique. The members of
the clique in a sub-clique recognise but partially, members included in a subclique but who are not the members of the main clique because of their
association with them.
(iv) Isolates Actually it is not a group. An individual who is not the member of
any group is called isolate. Such isolates do not participate in any social
activity organized by the group. They avoid people and people avoid them.
(v) Classification by Sayes Another classification of informal groups by Sayes,
(Human Relations in Administration) from the stand-point of pressure tactics has
divided the informal groups into four:
(a) Apathetic Group Not sincere to their demand and numbers do not actively
engage in union activity. They always show indifferent attitude towards formal
(b) Erratic Group Very sensitive to their demand. Easily inflamed and easily
pacified. Thus, they are marked by inconsistent behaviour and centralized
autocratic leadership. Engage in union activity without working. Deep rooted
grievances exist without any reaction from the group.
(c) Strategic Group A well-planned strategy for fighting with the management
for their grievances. Build continuous pressure. They have high degree of
internal unity and good production record in the long run.
(d) Conservative Group Consists of members having critical or scarce skills.
Though they have strong position by virtue of cooperation specific objectives
and self assurance, yet they are least engaged in union activity.
Q.7 What is Team Work, Team Development, Task Group? State the
Ans. Team Work Majority of employees work in regular small groups where
their efforts fit together like the pieces of picture puzzle. Their work is
interdependent, they act as a task team and seek to develop a co-operative
state called teamwork. When the members of a task team know their
objectives contribute responsibility and enthusiastically to the task and support
one another, they are exhibiting teamwork.
Team Development Apart from group cohesion, in an organization
development technique, team building is also an effective method. In team
building technique an individual has to
(i) Learn thoroughly about himself.
(ii) Know and to respect the sentiments of others.
(iii) Learn the principle of mutuality and reciprocity in his behaviour with others,
and (iv) Learn to subordinate personal objects to group's objects.
The above principles of team-building may be acquired in the laboratory and
non-laboratory training programme. Sensitivity and group training will help the
member to acquire all the four principles necessary to forge a team on solid
For both worker and the manager to learn to accommodate each other's
viewpoint on the basis of mutuality and reciprocity principles, can be achieved
through Managerial Grid system, developed by R.R. Black and J.S. Mouton. The
manager has to learn to increase the level of his concern for people, similarly
the worker has to raise their level of concern for production. This adjustment of
labour and management to strike at 5-5 on grid scale will strengthen the forces
of team-building within the organization.
Grid consists of six phases
(i) Managerial Grid, i.e. assessing various managerial skills,
(ii) Team work development,
(iii) Intergroup development,
(iv) Developing ideal strategic corporate model,
(v) Implementing ideal strategic model and
(vi) Systematic critique.
Task Work Improving the task work of the team by (i) goal setting, (ii) decisionmaking and (iii) problem solving will also help in team building. If specific goals
are set for achievement by the team, functioning of the team will improve.
Every member will know the object of the team which will help him to adjust
his own goal with the goal of other members of the team on the one hand and
the team as a whole on the other hand. The decisions regarding mechanics of
operation in the form of procedures and methods of work should be taken
witnout any delay. This will facilitate the task of members of the team to
perform their functions within the procedures and policies of the team. All
problems relating to the tasks and other related issues should be solved without
loss of time.
Objectives of Team Development The underlying objective of team
development is to increase trust among team members because people
together work better. Team building, to be effective, the following points are
to be followed (i) Sensing problem.
(ii) Examining effects of difference in perception.
(iii) Feed back, giving and receiving.
(iv) Developing interacting skills based on constructive behaviour.
(v) Personal contracting with team members and
(vi) Follow-up .action
Members of the team may be put to training to adapt themselves as members
of the team They will learn to subordinate their own interest to the goals of the
team, understand themselves and to respond positively to the emotions and
sentiments of other members on reciprocal basis,
Intergroup Confrontation To develop team spirit within the whole organization
comprising different interest groups, it may be necessary if intergroup
confrontations under the guidance of the management consultant are
arranged not only to understand better each other's viewpoint but more
importantly to devise a programme for organization development. Each group
will get an opportunity to express it's viewpoint, problems and grievances
against the other and most of unfounded misgivings leading to conflict will be
removed on the spot.
According to Edgar Huse, events in a team or group have two dimensions;
one, the content or the topic of conversation or the agenda and two, the
process, i.e., what is happening in the group; e.g., who is talking to whom, how
the member feels about the group and one another, and the kinds of subgroups, coalitions and alliar-es that have formed.
Team-building, as already pointed out, is effected by an outsider, the
consultant. The consultant will like to know group atmosphere, degree of trust
and openness and tasks effectiveness He will also ascertain the extent to which
full use of talent has been made .
Discuss the Importance of 'Team' in Organizations.
Ans. Importance / Advantages of Teams in Organizations
(i) Effective team-building in an organization offer many advantages such as,
increased productivity, improved quality, improved customer service etc.
(ii) Effective team-building in an organization provides many advantages for
workers and/ or employees in the form of avoidance of wasteful efforts,
reduced errors, more output for each unit of input, better quality of work life,
reduced stress etc.
(iii) Effective team-building in an organization results in reduced scrap, fewer
errors, fewer remuneration claims, reduced labour turnover. All this results into
effective cost reduction. Members in the team are committed to their team's
performance. They do not want to let down their teams. Commitment to
performance makes team members cost conscious (iv) Effective teambuilding in an organization can eliminate relunctant layers of bureaucracy and
flatten the hierarchy in large organization. Employees will have direct and
better access with top management, (v) Effective team-building in an
organization enables the team members to innovate and solve problems
Explain the Process of Creation of Teams.
How Teams are Created? Discuss.
Stages of Team Formation.
Explain Group Dynamics and discuss Various Stages of Group Formation.
Ans- Group Dynamics Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. Process of Team
Creation The process of team creation consists of the following steps
(a) Planning the Change Before implementing any team to function,
considerable analysis and planning should be conducted. It involves a drastic
departure from the traditional hierarchy and authority. For this, significant
planning preparation and training are necessary. Planning is divided into two
broad categories, viz., first decision to have teams and second, implementing
the decision to have a (team) structure.
(b) Decision Making The top management appoints someone as a leader for
implementing the change effectively.
The leader may be the CEO or any prominent person in the organization The
leader shall establish a steering committee to help the organization to have
team based structure. The steering committee shall consists of plant or division
manager, union representatives, H. R. representatives and operational level
employee. The Steering Committee shall conduct a feasibility study.
Implementing the Decision Before the final decision to have team based
structure is implemented and preparatory work must be done. Preparatory
work consists of clarifying the objectives, selecting the site for first work teams,
preparing the design team, planning of delegation of authority, and drafting
of the preliminary plans. After this, implementation process actually starts.
Implementation is long and difficult process, lasting even for two to five years.
During this period, the teams have to go through the following three phases,
(i) Create performance conditions, (ii) Form and build the team and (iii) Provide
Q.10 Write short notes on
(A) Dynamics of Group Formation.
Ans. Communication, dissent and openness are the characteristics of a
matured group. A matured group will attain its goal with greater efficiency
within the stipulated period of time Once the group attains the maturity,
several structural characteristics of the group come to the surface Important
among them are
(i) Role, (ii) Morale or Status hierarchy and (iii) Cohesiveness.
They are described as under
(i) Role A set of expectations about the behaviour of someone occupying a
given position in a social unit like a group is his role. In a group, the role may be
of a leader or the roles of followers. In addition, there may be roles of an expert,
enforcer, trouble-maker or a scapegoat.
When a person performs a number of roles, it is known as a role set. For
instance, the role set of a father will include the roles for his children wife,
parents and his children's teachers
(ii) Status The measure of worth, conferred on an individual by some social
group is known as the status of a person. It may be granted by an individual.
The status, if lower is. of low value and, higher of high value. A few persons or
positions have high status. Heads of powerful countries are generally high
status even outside their countries. Similarly, certain positions in the organization
have a high status.
Sources of Status The sources of status may be three in its nature, Reward
Power, Reward-Receiving Power and Personal Investment.
Reward Power Any person having the competance of conferring award on the
people has the status. Higher the capacity of conferring the award, higher will
be the status of the individual. For example, Padma Bhushan by the President
Rewards Receiving Power People hold in high esteem even those persons who
receive the award. Anyone who receives the award acquires the status. The
award is valued by the group, class or society. A person receiving the Nobel
Prize is held very high in status in the world.
Personal Investment Let us take for example the sacrifices of Mahatma Gandhi
for the independence of India. Thus, people capable of taking high risks in life
to achieve their goals are often accorded higher status in society. This is their
personal investment which is instrumental in getting status from people, group
or society. Sometimes, sacrifice and seniority also give status to the people.
People who have made sacrifices in the past are held in very high esteem
throughout the world. In certain societies like the oriental society, seniority is
also the basis of status. An old man is held high and given a higher status in
(B) Group Cohesiveness.
Ans. Group cohesiveness may be characterised by the group situation in
which all members work together for a common goal or where everyone is
ready to take responsibility for group chores.
If group cohesion is high, the interaction between members of the group is high
and the amount of agreement in group opinion is high. The greater the group
cohesiveness, the greater will be its influence on the behaviour of the
members. All members of highly cohesive groups tend to produce at a similar
level. In groups with low cohesiveness, a wide variation is usually present.
This is so because high group cohesiveness promotes high control over the level
of production of the individual members and this reduces variation among
those members Group cohesion brings low personal absenteeism and high
personal adjustment More cohesive a group is the better the group members
seem to be able to withstand pressures emanating from outside
(D) Characteristics of Teams.
Ans. Following are the characteristics of Teams
'Teams' are deliberately structured formal groups to serve the desired
'Team' derives their authority from the organization itself and it is
delegated from top to bottom.
Teams' are not quite large in size and shape
'Teams' are not permanent. They exists only for limited duration.
The organization's top management decides about the activities of
each individual in the team.
Q.1 Define and explain the term "Conflict*. State its Features. What are its
Advantages and Disadvantages.
What is 'Conflict', state its Merits.
Ans. Conflict James D. Thomson in his Organizational Management of
Conflict defines conflict as "That behaviour by organization members which is
expended in opposition to other members".
Kenneth W. Thomas, describes Conflict and Conflict Management, as the
"Process which begins when one party perceives that the other has frustrated,
or is about to frustrate, some concern of his"
Morton Deutsch calls it as a situation "whenever incompatible activities occur,"
in his book The Resolution of Conflict, Constructive and Destructive Process.
Though various authors have defined it differently, conflict may, however be
defined as a situation in which there is a breakdown in decision-making owing
to irrational and/or incompatible stand taken by one or all parties concerned
with decision making.
By analyzing these definitions, the following characteristics of conflict comes
to the surface
(i) Conflict leads to disruption or impairing the work of organization.
(ii) Conflict is the function of opposite views held by the parties to dispute. Even
a rational stand by one party becomes incompatible to the irrational stand
taken by another party. The situation becomes all the more vulnerable when
both parties stick to their respective irrational stand
(iii) Breakdown in decision making is consequence of incompatibility in the
behaviour of the parties to certain situation existing in the organization.
However, James C March and Herbert A. Simon have ascertained much
earlier that the phenomena of conflict may be classified into three main
classes as follows
(a) Individual Conflict Conflict in individual decision-making.
(b) Organizational Conflict Within an organization, the conflicts may be
between the individuals or groups i.e., intra-organizational conflict.
(c) Inter Organizational Conflict Conflicts between two organizations.
(i) Conflict act as a binding force between members of a group when the
cause is common for all groups in organization.
(ii) It provides an individual, a chance for self-intersection.
(iii) Conflicts also help in search behaviour and leads to clarification, (iv)
Conflicts leads to innovation and new directions.
(v) Conflict involves ignoring the overall organizational goals (vi) Conflict leads
to wastage of time and promotion is reduced.
Explain 'Traditional' as well as 'Modern View' of Conflict. OR
Write a note on Traditional View of Conflict. OR
How do Traditional Assumptions about Conflict differ from the modern
Ans. (a) Traditional View of Conflict (Classical Approach) According to this
view of conflict, 'Conflict' was the result of dysfunctional outcome resulting
from poor communication, lack of openness and trust between people, faiiure
of the management to recognize the needs and aspirations of its empioyees.
This view held that 'Conflict' is bad and must be avoided at all costs. If conflict
is developed, then it must be quickly and easily resolved by the management,
as conflict disrupts the smooth functioning of organization and creates chaos
and disorder in its work.
This view was consistent with the attitudes that prevailed about group
behaviour in the 1930's and 1940's
According to this view, since all conflict is to be avoided, the management of
any organization have to focus its attention on the causes of conflict and
correct these disruptions in order to improve group and organizational
(b) Modern View of Conflict (The Interactionist View) This approach has a
broader scope This approach is of the view, that, in some cases, conflict may
be helpful and functional as far as certain degree of level.
This approach encourages group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum
level of conflict to keep the group viable, self critical and creative. This
approach holds that some degree of conflict is absolutely essential for a group
to perform effectively.
This views considers the following views about conflict
Conflict is inevitable.
Conflict is neither bad nor good for any organization.
Conflict is a normal aspect of social intercourse
Conflict is integral to the nature of change.
Q, 3 Explain the Conflict Process".
Describe the Various Steps in "Conflict Process*.
Ans. Conflict Process The conflict process normally consists of four steps
"Step 1 One party plans to block the attempts of another party from achieving
a goal. In organizations, some potential danger and harm threaten the
harmonious functioning and perhaps their very existence.
Step 2 The person whose attempts are sought to be thwarted perceives the
harm that might be done to him and feels or realizes the potential damage.
Realization makes him emotionally involved in himself. Emotional environment
makes him feel frustrated, anxious and tense, all these are symptoms of
conflict. The same pattern exists in between two groups or departments in an
Step 3 In the third stage of conflict, the another party (whose efforts were
blocked in stage 1), now blocks the other party's attempts in attainment of
goals. The conflict is now, out in the open. Over conflict covers a full range of
behaviours from the subtle, indirect and highly controlled forms of interference
to direct, aggressive, violent and uncontrolled struggle.
Step 4 The conflict finally results in functional or dysfunctional conflict. If conflict
is effectively handled, there is functional conflict. If it is mismanaged, it results
in dysfunctional conflict
What is Constructive Conflict? Explain its Consequences.
What is Functional Conflict? State its Effects.
Ans. Constructive / Functional Conflict (Meaning) 'Conflict' which support the
goals of the group and improve its performance is called as constructive /
functional conflict. It refers to confrontation between two ideas, goals and
parties that improve employees and organization's performance. Well
managed conflict helps workers to feel confident, strengthen their relationships
and be committed to the organization.
Consequences of Constructive or Functional Conflict:
(a) Major Stimulant for Change Conflict initiates a search for ways to polish and
refine objectives, methods and activities.
(b) Effective Tool to Foster Creativity and Innovation Conflict can help
individuals to test their capacities to learn and develop. It prevents stagnation,
it stimulates interest and curiosity. In an atmosphere of open confrontation,
people tend to put forward more imaginative solutions to problems.
(c) Cohesion and Satisfaction Under conditions of mild inter-group conflict,
group membership can be very satisfying to the members. For example, if there
were no conflict, the whole purpose and internal unity of any team, say cricket
team, football team would disappear.
(d) Balanced Power Relationship Between Departments The occasional flare
up of intergroup conflict serves to bai< ice power relationships between various
departments. It also helps individuals in reducing accumulated ill feelings and
tensions between them.
Q.5 What is Destructive Conflict? Explain its Consequences.
What is Dysfunctional Conflict? State its Effects.
Ans. Destructive / Dysfunctional Conflict When conflict hinders group
performance, then it is called as a dysfunctional or destructive conflict.
The boundaries between constructive conflict and destructive conflict
however, is very thin and not precise. The criteria, which distinguishes
constructive conflict from destructive conflict, is group performance.
Consequences (Effects) of Destructive / Dysfunctional Conflict
(a) Conflict Gives Rise to Stress Intense conflicts generate feelings of anxiety,
guilt, frustration and hostility. The distance between people increases. A
climate of mistrust and suspicion develops. Losers indulge in non-cooperation
and pay very little attention towards the needs and interests of other group
(b) Diversion of Energy The conflicting groups waste their time, energy and
efforts towards winning the conflict by proving their views, rather than towards
achieving organizational group's. Long term goals, in the process, begin to
suffer as short-term problems become more important. In extreme cases, illegal
(c) Instability and Chaos Under intense conflicting conditions, positive
collaboration among groups, departments decreases. There is total
breakdown of communication network. The normal work flow is disrupted on a
significant level and the whole inter woven fabric of the organization is
Explain the Strategies for encouraging Constructive (Functional) Conflict.
What are the Various Conflict Stimulation Techniques for encouraging
Ans. Strategies (Measures) / Conflict Stimulation Techniques for Promoting
constructive Conflict These are as follows
(i) Managers can manipulate the messages to stimulate conflict.
(ii) Introduction of heterogeneous people into the organization helps in
disturbing the status quo and creates conflict.
(iii) Breaking up of old work groups and departments and reorganize them, to
(iv) Use of bonuses, incentives and various awards will stimulate the positive
competition and constructive conflict.
Q.7 Explain the Strategies for Discouraging Destructive (Dys-functional)
What are the Various Conflict Resolution Techniques for Discouraging
Ans. Strategies (Measures) / Conflict Resolution Techniques for Discouraging
Destructive (Dysfunctional) Conflict These are divided into two broad
categories viz.; (a) Feldman and Arnold's Techniques and (b) Other
(a) Feldman and Arnold's Techniques These are as follows
(i) Avoidance This strategy attempts to keep the conflict from surfacing at all.
This may be appropriate if the conflict is trivial or if quick action is needed to
prevent the conflict from occurring
(ii) Defusion In this strategy an attempt is made to deactivate the conflict and
cool-off the emotions and hostilities of the groups involve. This strategy is
appropriate wnere a stop gap measure is needed or when the groups have a
mutually important goal.
(iii) Containment Under this strategy, some conflict is allowed to surface, but is
carefully contained by spelling out which issues are to be discussed and how
they are to be resolved. To carry out this strategy, the problems and
procedures may be structured, and representatives from the conflicting parties
may be allowed to negotiate and bargain within the structure established. This
strategy is appropriate where open discussion have failed and conflicting
groups are of equal power.
(iv) Confrontation Under this strategy, all the issues are brought into the open,
and the conflicting groups, directly confront the issues with each other in an
attempt to reach a mutually satisfactory solution. This may involve mutual
problem solving, or even formally redesigning jobs, or responsibilities in order to
resolve the conflict. This is most appropriate when there is a minimum level of
trust, when time is not critical, and when the groups need to co-operate, to
get the job done effectively.
(b) Other Techniques These are as follows
(i) Superordinate Goals These goals need interdependence and co-operation
between various departments. It applies to all the parties involved and these
goals cannot be accomplished by the resources of any single party.
(ii) Joint Negotiating Committees Under this technique, conflicting members of
the groups agree not to take any action that is disputed, before the issue was
raised at joint negotiating committee.
(iii) Appeals Procedures Under this technique, people in disagreement ask their
higher authority to help them in arriving at a solution. Thus, here, an appeal is
made to one's boss's boss.
(iv) Member's Rotation Under this technique, peoples are exchanged between
departments. New-comers can exchange his views with others. Perceptual
distortions are reduced as a result of role reversal or empathy.
Write a short note on Conflict Management.
Ans, Conflict Management Conflict beyond certain level is dysfunctional.
Therefore, an attempt should be made to develop orgnaisational procedures
and practices through which organization functions in a co-ordinative way
and reduce conflict. However, if conflict generates in the organization for
whatever the reason, management should take effective steps to resolve it.
Thus, there can be two approaches of managing conflict preventive measures
and curative measures.
In preventative measures, attempts are made to create situations in which
conflict does not take place while curative measures deal with resolving
conflict amicably so that its dysfunctional aspect is minimized. Such preventive
and curative measures may be taken in terms of establishment of common
Change in structural arrangement, and conflict resolution actions. Application
of these techniques will depend on the nature and causes of conflict in the
organization A major part of organizational climate as relevant to conflict
management is built through common goals and proper structural
What is Intrapersonal Conflict and Interpersonal Conflict?
Ans. (a) Intrapersonal Conflict: Intrapersonal conflict is a situation where an
individual is in the problem of decision making within himself. Intrapersonal
conflict is an outcome of interpersonal conflict. This conflict can be related to
Conflict arising due to divergent goals or conflict arising from out of multiple
roles to be played daily
(i) Goal conflict occurs when a goal that an individual is attempting to achieve
has both positive and negative features or when two or more competing goal
exist, (ii) Role conflict is the result of divergent role expectations. It exists when
the expectations of a job are mutually different or opposite and the individual
cannot meet one expectation without rejecting the other. Role conflicts can
have a markedly adverse impact on satisfaction and even on mental or
(b) Interpersonal Conflict Interpersonal conflict occurs especially when a new
task of idea is being introduced.
Interpersonal conflict invovles two or more individuals rather than one
indivdiual. Causes for interpersonal conflicts are personality differences,
perceptions, clashes of values and interest, power and status differences,
scarce resources, ego states, socio-cultural, factors (such as conflicts based on
caste, religion, family background), value system, role ambiguity etc. In an
organization, there may be several forms of interpersonal conflicts, such as
hierarchical conflict between various levels of management, functional
conflict between occupational specialists, professional Vs professional conflict
and so on. These conflicts may be interpreted in two forms Vertical and
What is Stress? State its Nature. Explain the Various Sources of Stress.
Ans. Stress (Meaning and Definition) Introduction Stress has become an
inevitable part of our life. Individuals are constantly trying to reduce or
eliminate stress but are unable to succeed.
Meaning Meaning of the term Stress could be briefly categorized as follows
(a) James Haney 'Stress' is that feeling experienced by an individual at the time
to work or during the time of work, or on completion of a particular task
assigned to him by his superior from time to time.
(b) Spielberger 'Stress' is regarded as an interaction between the coping skills
possessed by an individual and the exact demands imposed by the
environment surrounding him.
(c) Matterson 'Stress' is consequence of any external action in the form of an
adaptive response which is followed by individual characteristic or
psychological factors affecting an individual during a given situation or even
that calls for special physical or psychological favours from a particular
(d) Gilbert 'Stress' is an adaptive response shown by an individual during
exceptional cases, whenever the individual tries to participate to accomplish
the objectives of a group and it is mostly accompanied by physical,
Stress is harmful to an individual hence, it has to be curtailed due to the
(a) Stress reduces the capacity of the individuals to work hard and performs
the accomplished task in the most dutiful manner.
(b) It is not possible for the individuals to concentrate on the task due to stress
which forces the individual to quit even before he had started.
(c) Stress causes anxiety due to which an individual loses confidence in his
capacity to perform the entrusted duties in the most profound manner.
(d) Stress can create damaging physiological and psychological effects on an
(e) It may affect an individual's health thus causing hindrances while
accomplishing a given task.
(f) It increases employee turnover and results in absenteeism.
(g) It results in dwindling profits and loss of business for the firm.
Nature of Stress Stress is supposed to be additive in nature but it builds up as
time passes on and subsequently begins to threaten an individual to work.
Each new and persisted stressor was presumed to add to an individual's stress
level. In short one level leads to the other.
Slowly it becomes a never ending process forcing an individual to take
extreme steps. Stress does not arise on account of one important reason alone,
it is the result of multiple factors affecting an individual at a particular point of
time. One particular individual's sufferings could also affect the performances
of his associates, hence in a way it is contagious, it has to be curtailed at the
grass root level itself.
Stress could also result physiological as well as psychological factors affecting
an individual. Now, whether a person will be successful in dealing with stress
normally depends on numerous factors like constitution, life-styles, attitudes but
still efforts are continuously-' made by individuals as well as organizations to
deal with stress.
Now-a-days lack of privacy, noise, crowding, financial loss are all factors that
may cause stress. Initially only psychological factors were taken into account,
as they were assumed to be the only factors responsible, but the complexities
of the problems of the business has nullified this myth, hence changes were
also brought out in the way of dealing with stress.
Sources of Stress These are as follows
Environmental Causes/ Sources
(i) Economic Uncertainties Changes in business cycle create economic
fluctuation and uncertainties that increases anxieties of people about job
security causing stress to them, (ii) New Innovations .Use of advanced
technologies and methods as well as various new innovations like computers,
robotics, can make an employee's skill and knowledge obsolete in a very short
period of time. This gives rise to stress of adopting to changing conditions.
Organizational Causes / Sources
(i) Heavy Responsibility The heavy work responsibilities within an organization
may give rise to severe strain on the employees.
(ii) Role Conflict This is due to conflicting formal and informal group norms. This
gives rise to stress.
(iii) Interpersonal Demand Lack of social support and poor interpersonal
relations can cause considerable stress.
(iv) Leadership Some supervisors believe in work culture of fear, tension and
anxiety causing stress to employees working within such organization.
(v) Organizational Culture Excessive rules and regulation, rigid controls also
give rise to stress for working employees in such environment.
Personal Causes / Sources
(i) Nature of Personality Some people are more stress prone than others
carrying lot of stress.
(ii) Changes in One's Life Changes, (good or bad) have a strong influence on
person's health. Some life changes like the death of spouse etc. are very
painful and stressful.
Explain the Various Consequences of Stress on Human-being. OR
What are the Adverse Effects of Stress on Human?
Ans. Consequences or Effects of Stress on Human To begin with, time has
made man to think and act more dynamically due to which he is willing to
undertake greater risks for earning something extra for his family.
For this, he is willing to sacrifice anything in order to accomplish the predetermined target or goals. Besides this, the complex business problems also
have forced human beings to put in extra effort to solve the above problems
in the most appropriate manner so that the business does not come to a
Complexities of the above problems have subsequently caused greater
tensions to businessmen and entrepreneurs due to which these businessmen
slowly started experiencing stress at work as well as at home.
Stress is not just the tension but it is something more than that due to which
experts advocated the use of sophisticated methods to eradicate them due
to the following reasons. Experts stressed that stress should be eliminated due
to the following ill effects.
(a) Physiological Effects Man tends to suffer from physiological problems due
to stress, experts from the medical world have discovered that stress could
cause hindrances in man's daily routine, increase man's pulse rate, increase his
Aldrein, increase in blood pressure etc. Besides these his capacity to perform
also falls due to stress. High level of stress also compels man to suffer from
insomnia, sleeping problem, sour-eyes, muscular problems etc.
(b) Psychological Problems After physiological factors, there are some
psychological factors which have a profound impact on the lifestyle of the
entrepreneurs. Mental health may get affected due to anger, anxiety,
depression, irritability, tension etc.
(c) Behavioural Problems Man's capacity to perform suddenly drops, his
grasping power to grasp new things decreases, his life style gets affected. The
entrepreneur finds it difficult to continue with his old eating habits due to which
he slowly starts suffering from various types of ailments like fever, stomach
ailments, viral fevers, infections, etc. Besides increased smoking, high
consumption of alcohol, etc. affect him due to which his performance at work
drops down to alarming levels.
(d) Other Effects Besides the above, the entrepreneur's emotional processes
start getting distorted and threatens to isolate himself from others. He slowly
begins to feel helpless and overwhelmed with emotions.
He slowly loses faith in himself, in his abilities to perform a given task and
subsequently falls orey to the whims and prejudices of his associates which
further reduces his capacities.
Q.3 Discuss the different strategies / methods for coping with problem of
Explain the Concept of 'Management of Stress".
Ans. Strategies for Coping with Stress / Stress Management To begin with
individuals and organizations suffer from various types of stress due to
complexities of business problems, hence to cope with such stress measures
have been adopted by them which could be briefly categorised as follows
(i) Direct Coping Direct-coping involves various types of self-awareness
programmes to avoid the far-reaching consequences of distress. Creating
positive attitudes after checking the root cause of the problem is the basic aim
of the above programme. (ii) Psychological Techniques Stress could be also
be avoided by the aid of ego-defence mechanisms in order to preserve an
individual's interests. Here individuals are thought to think rationally without
making assumptions and by enabling them to project their feelings in the most
precise as well as perfect manner. This also helps the employer to get a clear
picture of his current status.
(iii) Dysfunctional Coping Dysfunctional coping methods are suitable for
organizations which conduct speculative dealings as a result of which it's
employees may become alcoholics, drug addicts due to risks involved in
speculative dealings. Here addicts are shown a path to recover and resume
their duties once again. (A) Individual Strategies
(i) Training for Organization Individual could be given guidance to manage
their time accurately. If he can understand and utilise the basic time
management principles, then he can very easily cope with tensions caused by
the ever growing demands of the clients of the firm. Proper training ensures
planning and subsequently the individual is in a better position to plan his
activities with the main aim of accomplishing them. Thus proper training in this
area could enable them to accomplish twice as much as the person who is
(ii) Personality Development Personality development assumes very great
importance in today's hectic business world. One is attracted to a individual
due to his personality irrespective of his financial position as it induces
confidence in the minds of the employer especially in the job field. In fact
people of all ages can easily cope better with stress by doing physical
exercises to improve their personality as it exerts influence in case of failures. In
other words personality development could enable individuals to cope better
with stress. Infact some organizations even chalk out various programmes to
train its employees in sports, swimming, jogging etc. which also forms an ideal
part of the above training programmes.
(iii) Relaxation Methods Relaxation methods especially meditation, hypnosis
and other allied techniques could enable individuals to concentrate better to
accomplish the given task in a more professional manner within the stipulated
(iv) Social Support Some people experience stress if they get detached from
their relatives or from their associates. In this case they should be treated
warmly by the boss of the firm. Arrangement should also be made to
encourage them to work hard by providing incentives from time to time.
Besides this managers should als talk to them in an informal manner so as to
enable them to feel at ease. Efforts should also be make by the manager to
hold discussions with the subordinates to understand their personal problems.
(v) Self-Control Efficient representatives should enable the manager to control
the situation instead of letting the situation control the emotions of the coworkers. Proper thought should be given before sending someone on behalf
of management body to pacify the employees to calm down thus preventing
chaos. At no point of time the manager should lose his composure but should
remain calm and collective. He should let people to know their limits so that
the situation ultimately improves.
(vi) Cognitive Therapy Managers, if time permitted should hold off-line lectures
in an informal manner to reduce job stress. They should be adviced not to
indulge in self-talks or cognitions.
(vii) Accurate Selection Efforts should be made to employ employees based
on their skills and tacts possessed by them instead of just considering their
merits. Mostly individuals differ from one person to the other in their response to
stress situations hence while selecting the individual for a particular job,
management should consider factors which influence the candidates at the
spur of moment. His general attitude towards a particular problem should also
(viii) Re-designing Procedures By re-designing procedures, by improving
content factors, like responsibility recognition, opportunities etc. the
management could very easily enable individuals to cope up with stress
especially in the areas where the tasks are to be performed in the most skilful
manner. (B) Organizational Strategies
Under organizational strategies we have the following
(i) Use of realistic goal setting Employer should set only attainable goals so that
ambiguity and frustrations are reduced.
(ii) Improving job characteristics Job characteristics like skill variety, task
identity, task significance, autonomy should be improved through informal
(iii) Increased personal involvements The boss at the enterprise should make
himself available at all important meetings in order to understand the personal
problems of the employees. In other words, it should create a supportive
organizational climate for the employees to discuss.
Q.4 "Stressors are Events that Threaten or Challenge an Organization's Well
Explain the statement by critically categouring the different kinds of stressors.
Ans. Introduction To begin with stressors are basically regarded as
antecedents or forefathers of stress. Some-experts even advocate that
stressors were only responsible for stress hence they should be first eradicated
at the grass root level before proceeding further.
Types of Stressors Stressors can be of many types but only the following four are
(a) Extra-organizational stressors Gilbert identified extra organizational stressors
as social, technological, environmental personal, relaxation, recreational,
economic, financial changes etc. In other words human beings suffer from
extra-organizational stressors due to environmental changes in their office,
changes in the home atmosphere, or due to sudden fall in their financial
(b) Organizational stressors Human beings suffer from organizational stressors
due to change in the organizational policies, sudden stand taken by their
managers in the office in order to cope up with pressures etc. A sudden fall in
the economic conditions also influence human beings.
(c) Group stressors Group stressors could influence human beings in the
(i) Group cohesiveness Group stressors affect individual entrepreneurs at their
work while performing tasks. Straineous personal relationships due to lack of
group cohesiveness slowly retards the progress of the group.
Previously confident entrepreneurs slowly begin to lose their confidence on
their abilities to perform the entrusted task in the most appropriate manner.
Now if the entrepreneurs start living separately after being in a group for long
time then there is every chance that the entrepreneur might suffer from
inadequacy of group cohesiveness. (ii) Lack of social support The
entrepreneur might suffer from further woes if he does not receive social
support or support from his family members form time to time. Moral support is
very important for the success of the above entrepreneur.
(iii) Conflicts Mutual conflicts could also increase stress in entrepreneurs.
Individual Stressors Individual stressors could also affect entrepreneurs in the
(a) Role Role and responsibilities also sometimes lead to further stress in
individuals or entrepreneurs. If a person is unable to understand the role which
he is supposed to play in his office as well as at his home then there is a great
chance that he might still suffer from stress even if he has made arrangements
to combat other forms of stress.
(b) Personal problems An individual's ability to shoulder responsibilities also has
important bearing in this regard. In other words the person's capacity to
perform the duties entrusted to him by the society also affect him. A person
who has the tact to shoulder the responsibilities of the head of the family will
be able to eradicate stress at the first junction itself.
Poor attitudes, low profile, low self-esteem, negative thinking, pessimism ail
could further increase stress in entrepreneurs.
Explain the Main Factors influencing Stress.
Ans. Main Factors Influencing Stress
Environmental Factors Every human being irrespective of his financial
position and irrespective of his position at the job front, has tensions. Today's
technology no doubt has benefited mankind in number of ways, yet it also
brought untold miseries for mankind. The new technology not only brought
pace but also tensions and subsequently man was forced to get rid of those
tensions in order to enable him to accomplish the objectives in the most
appropriate manner. Besides this, as the business flourished he slowly started
suffering from stress but he was not able to get rid of it using the appropriate
measures, but there were some which could not be eradicated by human
beings for which some experts gave the following important reasons.
Environmental factors are such that it still influences a person's lifestyle even
after the person has made arrangements to get rid of stress. In short, these
factors influence stress to the greatest extent due to .which man is still forced
to suffer from the same problems as before.
Organizations are worst affected by the environmental factors due to which
the employees lose the will power to work hard and pursue their goals in the
right earnest. The employees suffer from depression when there is downward
swings in the economy. They also become immune to stress as a result of
anxiousness about job security due to layoffs as the profits of the companies
slowly start dwindling.
Organizational Problems Organizational factors within the organization
could also sometimes cause stress to the employees. Working atmospheres
within the orgranisation could also lead to stress. Inter-dependence and poor
personal relationships generally cause worries and tensions, thus leading to
conflicts of opinions. Undesirable and dangerous working conditions like overcrowding, bad heat and light conditions etc. also could aggravate the
problems of the employees further.
(c) Individual Problems Individual factors normally are from the employee's
own personal life. Matrimonial issues, family issues, personal economic
problems and personality characteristics happen to threaten the progress of
an individual. Sometimes it so happens that an individual is quite happy at the
job field but personal problems at the domestic front force him to quit the
current job and look for better opportunities elsewhere.
Give Classification of Stress in Different Category.
Ans.: Classification of Stress Stress can be classified into following categories
According to Effect Under this category, an individual experiences
positive or negative vibrations. He might either become eccentric or might end
up having depression. So either way this stress is supposed to be harmful. Under
this kind of stress individuals experience three types of feelings which are as
(i) Eustress - Positive Stress
(ii) Distress - Negative Stress
(iii) Neustress - Indifference to Stress
According to Availability The type of stress is again divided into two
(i) Avoidable Stress Stress due to past reasons forcing individual to hide or
refrain from meeting others or when the individual had just decided not to
meet a particular person, even if he had noticed him from a distance.
(ii) Non-avoidable Stress This stress affects an individual when he breaks down
after receiving the news that his dearest friend had departed due to accident.
(iii) According to intensity Intensity stress is supported to be very harmful but
there are very rare methods to curb them. This occurs in the following two kinds
(1) To that person who had received news of death of close relative.
(2) To that person who is going to give an examination.
(iv) According to levels Here we normally take the case of job stress Job stress
occurs in individuals as well as organizations.
(v) According to Emergence Under this we have the following sources of stress
(1) When an individual is trying to adjust in the given surroundings.
(2) When he is trying to adapt himself to the new atmosphere at the office.
(3) When an individual is confused.
(4) When an individual is convicted after he has been proved guilty.
(5) When an individual is egoist.
(6) When an individual suffers from dejection, depressions.
(7) When the individual's place of work, is not according to his liking or when it
is situated at a place not as per his liking.
State the Different Types of Stress for Managers at Work.
Ans. Stress for Managers at Work Following are some factors which may cause
stress for managers at work
(a) Pressures Factors intrinsic to the job namely time pressure, duty pressures,
decision-making pressure, responsibilities.
(b) Responsibilities They also suffer due to the responsibilities such as roleambiguity, conflicts of opinions, role-conflicts tc.
(c) Poor Interaction Due to existing atmosphere at the job. Poor interactions
with the colleagues could also result in stress.
(d) Heavy Work Load Managers, if possible should try to delegate authority to
the right subordinate in case of heavy work load and if the nature of work
happens to be a routine one. Efforts should be made to avoid duplication of
simple functions by use of sophisticated tools and equipments to save time.
Otherwise it may so happen that managers are able to cut the cost of an
overhead but as a result have to spend in other areas resulting into stress to the
manager, when he .is not able to maintain the costs to minimum. Besides this
the manager may also suffer from stress when the allowances are too nominal
but the expenses are exorbitant. Such a situation should be tackled skillfully by
devicing a proper plan to accomplish the objectives with minimum cost
without sacrificing quality.
Tension and Conflicts Tensions and mutual conflicts of opinions prevailing
in a group headed by a disciplined manager could add to stress for the
remaining managers if they continue to perform the entrusted task without
changing their ways of pursuing it.
(f) Lack of Support Lack of support at the crucial moments could also be
increasing a manager's tensions and subsequently would suffer from stress thus
ruining his career.
Clibert and Paker have conducted in depth research on the topic of "Stress"
and found that middle managers have greater problems to suffer due to stress.
In fact they show more psychological and physical stress symptoms.
Q.1 What do you mean by 'Organizational Change"? Explain its effect on
Individual/Groups working in the Organization.
Ans. Change (Meaning) Change is the law of nature. Change is a natural rule.
Change has become a significant feature of modem environment. Change is
the process by which future invades our life.
An organization also have changes. Management is the controller
administration of the business organsiation. Hence, it has to face resistance to
change from employees who are human beings.
Organizational Change Organizational change may be defined as any type
of the modification or alteration of the existing system of the organization.
Organizational Change and its Effect Organizational change implies the
creation of imbalances in the existing pattern of situation. Change
occasionally results in dis-equilibrium in the environment conditions of the
organsiations. In order to remove this dis-equilibrium and to return to a normal
state of balance, people take time for adaptation and adjustment to change.
Man being dynamic, adjusts himself according to the environmental situation.
If the change is beneficial to parties affected, it may be immediately
accepted. If, on the other hand, change affects no one, the people will be
quite indifferent. But, if change hurts anyone's interest, they will resist the
change with their full strength.
Q.2 What Steps should the Manager Take before Introducing Changes in the
How would you Introduce a Change successfully in an Organization?
What Steps would you Take to Overcome "Resistance to Change".
Ans.: Steps to Implement to Overcome Resistance to Change The following
steps can be taken by management to facilitate change acceptance
Consultation on the changes with workers/employees Before
introducing any change, the employees should be fully consulted and
they must be made a party to any sucn decision. The meaning and
purpose of the change must be fully communicated to those who will
be affected by it. Sufficient time should be allowed for discussion and for
inviting their suggestions.
Planning for change Changes should not be forced at once They should
be planned. People should get an opportunity to participate both in
planning the change and installing it. This will help the group of the
affected people to recognise the need for change and thus, prepare
themselves for receiving it without any fear. The time, place and
quantum of change should be determined and the mode of
introduction of change should also be planned.
Protection of employees' interests Management should ensure that
employees will be protected from economic loss, in status or personal
dignity. If these things are protected, the degree of resistance to change
will be very low.
Group dynamics Group dynamics refers to the ever changing
interactions and adjustments in the mutual perceptions and relationship
among members of the groups. Such group interactions are the most
powerful instruments which facilitate or inhibit adaptation to change.
Phased programme for change The management should not introduce
any change at once and abruptly. It must create awareness of change
and develop ability to be introduced in parts. This will not overload the
management with responsibility and the whole system of change can
be introduced with tested results at each stage.
Training In order to bring firmness in the changed order, the concerned
employees should be properly trained. They should be able to know new
techniques and knowledge. The concerning employees should be given
orientation training. The policy of positive motivation should be used.
Income sharing Extra income desired from changes should not be taken
away by the management only, but should be shared with all the
Explain the Process of Planned Change.
Ans. Process of Planned Change The following are the steps of Planned
Identifying the need for change The first basic step in planned change is
to identify when change in the organization is required. It is because change
for the sake of change may produce much stronger resistance. Useful and
necessary changes may get support from people.
Identification of need for change depends on 'gap analysis'. It is a study of
difference between what the organization is achieving and what it should
Elements to be changed The process of identification of change will
provide clue why change should take place. This stage takes the
analysis further by diagnosing the problems caused by the change. It is
to determine which change is necessary to remove the problem.
Planning for change Planning for change includes, who will bring the
change and how to bring the change? The first question relates to the
persons who will work as "change agent" The second question is related
with time dimension of change.
Assessing change forces There are many forces which affect change in
either way. Management should assess every individual or group in
relation to result of the change.
Therefore, unless the major forces resisting change agree to change, it is
impossible for the management to implement the changes successfully.
Implementation of change If the driving forces are stronger than the
restraining forces, management can implement the change
programme. The implementation of change programme requires the
application of various techniques and interventions suitable for the
Feedback and follow-up action Management should receive the
feedback of the staff members on the implementation of change
programme. From the gathered feedback/ reactions , a follow-up
action should be taken by the management.
What are the Objectives of Planned Change? Explain.
Ans. Objectives of Planned Change Planned change is required for meeting
the overall objectives of the enterprise. The enterprise has to make suitable
changes in the internal and external forces in order to meet its objectives.
Objectives of a planned change are as follows
a. Environmental Adaptation An organization has to work in
environment which is marked by dynamic characteristics. It is
essential for the organization to maintain equilibrium. The
organizational equilibrium is affected due to changes in the
environment. Minor changes can be easily accommodated by
the organization. But if the changes are not within the purview of
existing framework then, it affects organizational equilibrium and
its effectiveness. Under such circumstances, some innovation is
essential for the organization. This innovation is in the form of
different types of changes which the organization has to
incorporate. Due to this reason every organization has adaptive
sub-system like research and development department, market
research department, training department, etc.
Individual Adaptation This is the second objective of the planned
change. Unless and until some basic internal adaptation is achieved the
objective of environmental adaptation cannot be achieved. Internal
factors normally include individual, structure of the organization, tasks
undertaken, technology etc. In order to have organizational
effectiveness, the changes are required to be introduced in the people
i.e. people have to change according to changing circumstances their
skills, attitudes, behaviour, working methods,communication system,
leadership etc. Such changes should be introduced according to the
need and requirement of the situation.
Structural Adaptation The organization structure is directly related to the
attainment of the organizational objectives. Organization structure is the
pattern of relationships among various positions and position holders.
Structural adaptation involves making changes in the internal structure
of the organization. Such as changes in the work assignment, structure
of authority, pattern of relationships etc. Such changes are necessary as
traditional relationships and interactions may become outdated, useless
Technology Adaptation Due to ever increasing growth and importance
of modern technology , an organization has to introduce the changes
in the organization to cope with the changing environment.
Technological changes include changes in plant and equipment,
techniques of job performance, methods of production, etc.
Task Adaptation Technological changes result in introducing many types
of changes in the organizational task. The existing job techniques may
not be suitable for new types of jobs and job enlargement. Thus, a new
equilibrium has to be found out which will suitably adjust people with
their jobs. Many problems may arise in this process which will have to be
encountered by planned change.
What are the Reasons for Organizational Change?
What are the Types of Change? Discuss each one of them.
Ans. Reasons for Organizational Change Following are some of the causes of
organizational changes which lead to disequilibrium and resistance
Change in Tools, Machines and Equipments Technological or
mechanical changes in machines, tools and equipments may bring
change in the organization, i ">r example, installation of an automatic
machinery in place of old machinery may result in displacement or
replacement of people or loss of job to people and may create
Change in Methods and Procedure Man is a creature of habits. He feels
irritated when change occurs in methods and procedures of work of
which he is accustomed to. As it takes time to adjust to the new
environment, it creates disequilibrium till the complete adjustment to the
Change in Business Condition Changes in business conditions such as
change in the quality of product, change in the marketing system or
practices, business cycles, changes in industrial policies, etc. will create
disequilibrium in the work environment.
Change in Managerial Personnel Change in the managerial personnel
in the organization may result in disequilibrium A personnel may retire or
change place or may be appointed a fresh, this will all affect the
policies, practices, procedures and programmes of the organization
and the people are to adjust themselves accordingly.
Change in Formal Organization Structure The Formal organization
structure establish a formal line of command of authority and
responsibility in an organization. Along with these lines, channels of
communication and interpersonal rei~ ons are established. If there is a
change in this formal organization structure, there will be a change in
the formal relationship which creates disequilibrium.
Change in Informal Organization Informal organization is a must in every
formal organization. It is a very important part of our existence because
many of our motivational forces find satisfaction in these relationship
Consequently, when management likes to introduce any change that
disturbs the informal relationship established among people, there is
bond to be a state of imbalance.
Deficiencies in Existing Organization Organizations once are established
cannot be said to be good for all times. Many defects may appear with
the passage of time such as extention of plant, change in managerial
functions, evolution of complex organization relationship, etc. They
cause imbalance and need correction. So change is necessary to
remove such deficiencies.
Thus, the above reasons emphasis change in the organization which create
imbalance in the relationship between employer and employee and between
employee, and employee. So generally people resist towards change.
What are the Causes of 'Resistance to Change'? OR
Why do People Resist Change?
Write a note on "Resistance to Change".
Ans. Resistance to Change There is a common thinking that every change in
the organization is resisted either by the employees or by the management. It
is because psychologically a man is not prepared to change of the situation
in which he is accustomed to work. But, all changes are not resisted. Some
changes are beneficial to the people and are liked and accepted. Some
other changes are routine, that resistance is too small to be evident. But those
changes harm the interest of any individual or group, it is likely to be resisted.
The reason why changes are resisted by the people may be analyzed under
the following heads (a) Resistance by employees (b) Resistance by employer
(I) Causes of 'Resistance to Change' by Employees
Disturbance in existing equilibrium Workers are habitual to work in a
particular situation and the change disturbs that situation of the
environment in which the individuals and the groups exist.
Insecurity to jobs A quick and violent resistance is possible where the
change threatens either the status or job security to employees. If some
employees are unemployed, even a minor change or revision of policies
and procedure may evoke disturbing reactions. Introduction of new
machinery or new technology may threaten job security and therefore,
workers will resist the change.
Fear of economic loss Some changes may cause economic loss to most
of the people such as stoppage of overtime, reduction of wage rates,
abolition of promotional avenues, etc. In such cases, people do resist
because of economic loss.
Change affects emotions and sentiments People are emotionally and
sentimentally disturbed only with the name of change. Some people
develop attachment towards certain things and they are
psychologically disturbed when they fear detachment from them.
Disturbance of social relationship Change is likely to disturb the social
relationship. Some persons are very loyal to their group. Change may
affect group, norms, customs, etc. or even the composition itself. When
a group is broken --nd a new group is to be formed, it is a very frustrating
situation. This type of disturbance occurs where jobs are transferable.
Family life of a person, who is transferred to some other place of the
same organization, is disturbed and he is to start as a fresh in a new
Lack of clarification Different people will see different meaning and
interpretations in the proposed change. Some people may realize the
change as an indication of their poor performance on the job while
some others may assume that their branch would soon be closed. Thus,
lack of clarification regarding the nature of change invites resistance
from the workers.
Opposition only for the sake of opposition This kind of situation is found
when a change is resisted emotionally and sentimentally without going
into logic of it.
Change may decrease
(II) Causes of 'Resistance to Change' by Employers
Employers or men in management resist the change on the following grounds
Increase in responsibility Any change which brings out a problem of
readjustment of equilibrium of situation and environment is opposed fav
the employer. Any responsibility of training employees, rescheduling -the
work procedure, etc. may increase work load and so it is resisted.
Change proposed by Government and Labour Union .Changes'
proposed by Government and labour union increase the financiaf
"burden on the company, and therefore it is resisted.
Change on experimental basis Some men in the management does not
favour temporary changes and oppose it, if they do not suit them.
Q.7 What is the Role of Change Agents in Overcoming the Problems of
Ans. Change Agent The change agent is the Management Consultant whose
services are hired by the management while implementing any organizational
changes. Change is a delicate as well as a difficult task to be accomplished
in an organization The task is generally executed by the change agents who
are either in power or those who seek to replace persons in power as stated by
Wilson Siney, in his book Effective Use of Business Consultants.
The change agent has to perform a difficult task to effect the needed change
to achieve the organization's objective. He has to face resistance from
different quarters to prevent change but he has to tread his way by removing
those impediments. He may have to change (i) individual, (ii) structure, (iii)
technology and (iv) even the organization process.
Therefore, it is always safe to rely on an outsider rather than inside agent.
The inside agent, i.e. the manager, may not be as effective as the
management consultant due to non acceptability of direction of one peer by
Anyhow, the change agent may decide about his own role Larry E. Short, while
discussing the subject 'Planned Organizational Change' states that, a change
agent may, "view his role as boss with absolute authority and responsibility for
making and implementing decisions or as a partnership collaborating jointly
with other employees in deciding on solutions to problems." The change agent
may assume unilateral role at the instance of management. Only then he can
assume absolute authority for making decisions. If the climate within the
organization is congential he may assume collaborative role as the change
agent which will prove effective in implementing change.
The object of change agents is to bring desired change in organization, a
special role is required to be performed by them both internally and as an
outsider. Hence, their role may also be different.
Role of External Agent Edgar H. Schein while analyzing 'Process of
Consultation' observes that the consultant has a role in teaching, diagnostic
and problem solving skills but he should not work on the actual concrete
problem by himself. S. L. Maheshwari has identified the role of consultant in
installing MBO, a programme for organizational change as follows
(i) Education of the top management, (ii) Organizational diagnosis, (iii)
Formulation of implementation strategy, (iv) Selection, training and supervision
of MBO advisers, (v) Training of managers, (vi) Process consultants on the top
level, (vii) Advice to the chief and top executives, (viii) Evolution and
innovation, (ix) Integration of MBO process.
Role of Internal Agents They are more likely to accept the system as
given and try to accommodate their change tactics to the need of the,
organization. These internal agents are of two types chief executives and
change adviser to chief executives, sponsor the change programmes and
provides supports and leadership for its success of change adviser's role
concerned with the organization to accept the change programme and is
essentially educational. Thus, the advisor becomes socio-therapist, trying to
help the system to help itself.
Explain Learning Organization. State its Characteristics.
Ans. The Learning Organization is a concept that is becoming an increasingly
widespread philosophy in modern companies, from the largest multinationals
to the smallest ventures. What is achieved by this philosophy depends
considerably on one's interpretation of it and commitment to it. The quote
below gives a simple definition that we felt was the true ideology behind the
"A Learning Organization is one in which people at all levels, individuals and
collectively, are continually increasing their capacity to produce results they
really care about." Learning Organization
The 'Learning Organization' has its origins in companies like Shell, where Ane de
Geus described learning as the only sustainable competitive advantage. The
Learning Organization is seen as a response to an increasingly unpredictable
and dynamic business environment. Here are some definitions by key writers.
"The essence of organizational learning is the organsiation's ability to use the
amazing mental capacity of all its members to create the kind of processes
that will improve its own" (Nancy Dixon 1994).
"A Learning Company is an organsiation that facilitates the learning of all its
members and continually transforms itself (M. Pedler, J. Burgoyne and Tom
"Organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the
results they truly desire, where new and expensive patterns of thinking are
nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free and where people are
continually learning to learn together". (Peter Senge, 1990).
We have drawn on these and more to develop a definition to help guide
managers warding to develop LO capabilities.
Learning organizations are those that have in place systems, mechanisms and
probesses, that are used continually to enhance their capabilities and those
who work with it or for it, to achieve sustainable objectives - for themselves and
the communities in which they participate.
The important points to note about this definition are that learning
organizations Are adaptive to their external environmeht. • • Continually
enhance their capability to change/adapt. Develop collective as well as
individual learning. Use the results of learning to achieve better results. A
learning organization is not about 'mere training'. While training does help
develop certain types of skill, a learning organization involves the development
of higher levels of knowledge and skill. We have developed a 4-level model
Level 1 Learning facts, knowledge, processes and procedures. Applies to
known situations where changes are minor.
Level 2 Learning new job skills that are transferable to other situations. Applies
to new situations where existing responses need to be changed. Bringing in
outside expertise is a useful tool here.
Level 3 Learning to adapt. Applies to more dynamic situations where the
solutions need developing. Experimentation, and deriving lessons from success
and failure is the mode of learning here.
Level 4 Learning to learn Is about innovation and creativity; designing the
future rather than merely adapting to it. This is where assumptions are
challenged and knowledge is reframed
Furthermore this model (or adoption of it) can be applied at three levels - to
the learning of individuals, of teams and of organizations. Organization that
achieve learning to Level 4 will "reinvent not just their organization but their
industry" (Hamei and Prahaled in Competing for the Future).
Characteristics of Learning Organization
Learning Culture An organizational climate that nurtures learning. There
is a strong similarity with those characteristics associated with innovation.
Processes Processes that encourage interaction across boundaries.
These are infrastructure, development and management processes, as
opposed to business operational processes (the typical focus of many
Tools and Techniques Methods that aid individual and group learning,
such as creativity and problem solving techniques.
Skills and Motivation To learn and adapt
Explain the Concept of Learning. State its Features.
Ans. The term learning is frequently used in various context. The acquired skill,
knowledge, attitude can be termed as learning in general context. Personal
characteristics, job related performance can be learned. Therefore the
question arises what is actual learning? What we get by learning etc. Is there
any difference between academic learning, social learning, organizational
learning? For getting detailed idea of learning, we have to take into
consideration the definition of learning, approaches and methods of learning.
Definition of Learning
Learning can be defined as 'a relatively permanent change in the behaviour
of an individual as a result of experience, practice and efforts'.
Many attempts have been made to define learning 'as modification of one's
Learning Means 'change in response of modification of behaviour, caused fully
or partly by experience. It includes acquisition of skills, knowledge, symbolic
behaviour, motor skills etc.
According to Hull "The essential nature of learning process may however be
stated quite simply as the process of learning consists in strengthening certain
actions and behaviour skills."
Kindly and Gray says learning is a process by which an organism is satisfying it's
motivation, adopts and adjusts it's behaviour in order to overcome obstacles
Hunter and Higard defines learning is the process by which behaviour is
originated or changed through practice or training.
Garret defines learning is an organization of behaviour. Learning is the activity
by virtue of which we organize our responses with new styles or habits.
Murphy describes learning as a modification of both behaviour and the way
13.10 Change Management
Characteristics of Learning
(i) Learning is a fundamental process of life to progress ourselves.
(ii) Learning is a continuous process, it starts from the birth itself and continue
for the life.
(iii) Learning involves change, improvement in one's behaviour.
(iv) Learning is purposive or directed, it's not aimless activity.
(v) Change through learning is not temporary but it is relative permanent in
(vi) Learning may be a change which is favourable or unfavourable
(vii) Learning is caused by training in experiences, conscious as well as
unconscious experiences, (viii) Learning is creating response of an organism,
result of modified behaviours.