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Organizational behaviour

Organizational behaviour






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    Organizational behaviour Organizational behaviour Document Transcript

    • 7. INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAUIOUR Q.1 Define Organizational Behaviour. OR Explain the Elements of Organizational Behaviour. OR Explain the term 'Organizational Behaviour'. State the Elements of Organizational Behaviour. Ans. Organizational Behaviour (Meaning) Organizational Behaviour' (0. B.) is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly addition to its knowledge base. It is an applied science, where the information about effective practices in one organization are being extended to many other organizations. "Organizational Behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about the human behaviour in the organization as it relates to other system of elements such as structure, technology and external social system." Keith Davis "Organizational Behaviour is a way of thinking, way of conceiving problems and articulating research and action solutions.: Organization behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individual group and structure have on the behaviour within the organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizational effectiveness. Organizational behaviour helps in analyzing and understanding human behaviour, directing and controlling it, and adapting it to changing environmental conditions so as to improve the effectiveness of the organization towards accomplishing the objectives of a business organization. Features of Organizational Behaviour Following are the features of organizational behaviour (i) Problems and questions are typically formulated within independent variable-dependent variable framework. The models attempts to search for cause and effect. (ii) The field is oriented towards change as a desirable outcome for organizations and persons within organizations.
    • (iii) The field has a distinctly humanistic tone, reflected in the concern selfdevelopment, personal growth and self-actualization. Another side of th»s 'eld has emphasizes operant learning models and behaviour modification and which reflects a concern with environment determinism rather than with self-actualization, (iv) The field is becoming increasingly performance -oriented. (v) The field is greatly influenced by norms of skepticism, caution, replication and public exposure of knowledge based on facts. That means it follows the scientific method. Scope/Elements of Organizational Behaviour In an organization, people join together in some form (i.e. formal structure* to achieve an objective and in order to achieve the objectives, they use some sort of technology. So, there is an interaction of people, technology and structure. All these three elements (people, technology and structure) influence the external social systems and in turn, they are influenced by it. A mix of these four elements are the scope of organizationa, oehaviour and each one of these is discussed in brief below (a) People The people constitute the internal social system of the organization. They consist of individuals and groups. Groups may be large or small, formal or informal, official or unofficial. They are dynamic. They form, change and descent. Human organization changes everyday. Today, it is not the same as it was yesterday. It may change further in the coming days. People are living, thinking and humanbeings, who created the organization and try to achieve the objectives and goals. Thus, organization exist to serve the people and not the people exist to serve the organization. (b) Structure Structure defines the sole relationship of individuals, people in an organization. Different people in an organization are given different roles and they have certain relationship with others. It leads to division of labour so that individuals can perform their duties or work to accomplish the organizations goal. Thus, everybody cannot be an accountant or a clerk. Work is complex and different duties are to be performed by different individuals. Some may be accountants, other may be managers, clerks, peons or workers. All are so related to each other to accomplish the goal in a co-ordinated manner. Thus, structure relates to powers and duties. One has the authority and the other have a duty to obey him. (c) Technology Technology imparts the physical and economic conditions within which an individual work. With their bare-hands, individuals can do nothing so they are given assistance of building, machineries, tools, processes and resources. The nature of technology depends very much
    • on the nature of the organization and influences the work or working conditions. Thus, technology brings effectiveness and at the same time, restricts people in various ways. (d) Social system Social system provides external environment within which the organization operates. A single organization cannot exist also. It is a part of the whole. One organization cannot give everything and therefore, there are many other organizations. All these organizations influence each other. It influences the attitudes of people, their working conditions and above all, provides competitions for resources and power. Q.2 Explain the Historical Development of Organizational Behaviour. OR Describe the Evolution of Organizational Behaviour. Ans. Historical Development/ Evolution of Organizational Behaviour (a) During the period of Industrial Revolution (year - 1800), Robert Owen, who was regarded as the 'Father of Personnel Administration' emphasized the human needs of employee. He was a factory owner. He taught his workers about cleanliness and improved their working conditions. (b) 'Andrew Ure' published his work "The Philosophy of Manufacturers in 1935". In his work, he recognized the value of human factor in manufacturing. He gave facilities of tea, medical treatment, sickness payments and ventilation to workers. (c) "William Gilbreth", published his work titled The Psychology of Management' in the year 1914. His work emphasized the human side of work. (d) In the 1920's and 30s, Elton Mayo studied human behaviour at work at Harvard University. The Study was conducted at Western Electric Company, Hawthrone Plant. The study points out that the worker is not a simple tool but a very complex personality interacting in a group situation. (e) In the 1940's and 1950's, major research projects on the subject of human relations were developed at university of Michigan and Ohio State University. In the year 1957, Douglas McGregor presented Theory X and Theory Y. According to these theories, management's personnel practices, decision making, operating practices and even organizational design flow from assumptions about human behaviour. (f) In the late 1970's and 80's, Organizational Behaviour research study gained momentum and established itself as a separate branch or management with Vast potential. Q.3 Define Organizational Behaviour? Explain in detail the historical background of
    • Organizational Behaviour? Ans. Refer to Q. No. 1 and 2 of this Chapter. Q.4 Explain the Importance of Organizational Behaviour. OR Why is it necessary to study Organizational Behaviour? Ans. Importance (of the study) of Organizational Behaviour The importance/significance of Organizational Behaviour is outlined with the help of following points (a) Organizational Behaviour (O.B.) with its vast knowledge is affecting the interest of the people from all walks of life. It enhances people's awareness and effectiveness. It improves their ability in handling conflict and stress management. (b) Organizational Behaviour provides a useful set of tools at many levels of analysis. It helps manager to look at the behaviour of individuals within an organization. It helps the manager in understanding the various complexities involved in the interpersonal relations. (c) Organizational Behaviour is valuable in examining the dynamics of relationships within small groups, both formal and informal (groups). (d) Organizational Behaviour provides frame works for understanding differences between national cultures, because cultural difference may require managers to modify their practices. (e) Organizational Behaviour offers number of challenges and opportunities for managers, for example, how to improve quality, how to improve people's skill, how to recognize the value of work force diversity. Q.5 "The study of Organizational Behaviour is the study of the Behaviour of the People in the Organization." Discuss. Ans. Organizational Behaviour studies the behaviour of people in the organization. Everybody interacts with each other and influence behavioural quality of life in the organization. Managers, however have greater responsibility because they take decisions concerning all in the organization. Managers constitute the administrative system and in organizational behaviour, it is their responsibility to integrate the social system with the technical system, just to improve the "people-organization relationship" in order to accomplish the human benefits for which it is made. The administrative view of organizational behaviour contains a number of ideas as follows (a) Organizational behaviour focuses mainly on people and technical, economical and structural elements which are all related to people. (b) The environment is developed in such a way as to motivate the people
    • to work hard to accomplish the organizational goal. Managers motivate the people because only they, unlike other factors, can have greater output than the sum of their input throughout their creativity. (c) The direction of motivation is towards teamwork, that requires both, coordination of work and co-operation of people. Co-ordination means effective time and sequence in performing activities while co-operation means the willingness of people to perform the work of attaining the organizational goal. (d) The organizational behaviour seeks to fulfill both, employee's needs and organizational objectives. Every employee in the organization wants to fulfil his needs through organizational activities and the organization's responsibility is to provide behavioural climate in the organization to attain the objective. Thus, both people and the organization are benefited in this manner. (e) Both, employees and the organization, gain effectively by getting higher benefits with minimum costs. Organizational behaviour attempts to reduce the wasteful activities through economic and psychological means and thus increasing the effectiveness of the people and the organization. Q.6 What is meant by Organizational Behaviour (O. B.)? How does knowledge of O. B. help managers to improve their effectiveness. Ans. Refer to Q No 1 and Q. No 5 of this Chapter. Q.7 Discuss the different Models of Organizational Behaviour. OR What are Various Models of Organizational Behaviour? OR Write a note on SOBC. Ans. Different Models of Organizational Behaviour These are as follows . (a) The Autocratic Model In autocratic model the main source of authority comes from power. The persons who are in command must have the power to demand - an employee who does not follow orders will tie penalized. The authority is delegated by right of command over the people. Management thinks and employees obey orders. As per this model there is a tight control on employees at work. Obedience rather than respect for a manager is the employee orientation. Employees psychologically depend on their boss. Minimum wages are paid for minimum performance. Employees work for sustenance and some give higher performance because of internal achievement drives. Its main weakness is its high human costs
    • (b) Custodial Model In Autocratic model the employees work for substance and obey orders of boss, because they feel insecurity. They give minimum performance. Though they do not talk back, they show their feelings like frustration and aggression on their families etc. To dispel in security, frustration and aggression and improve quality of life the progressive employers need to play a custodian or parental role. Hence, Employers Union and Government started interacting and taking steps towards security needs of employees. Custodial approach can be successful when the organization has sufficient economic resources, to pay benefits like pension to employees. Then only security can be used as a motivating factor. The result is unlike in autocratic model the employee starts depending on the organization rather than on their boss. Employees are now satisfied for having security and get motivated to give better results in work. But still they are not motivated so much to give maximum capacity to which they are capable. Hence this model is better than autocratic model. (c) The Supportive Model We have seen earlier that autocratic model depends on power and custodial model depends on money. But the supportive model of organizational behaviour depends on leadership to motivate employees to perform better. The presumption here is that workers are not by themselves passive but they are made so by inadequate support and work. They can show higher responsibilities, given a chance. Support here means support extended in better job performance. A drive is developed among employees to contribute. Such type of support by management in employees' work, psychologically they have a feeling of participation and involvement in the organization. Their efforts are recognized. The leader or manager's role is that of helping employees to solve their problems and help in accomplishing their work. This model works well with employees as well as with management. This model is helpful for the organization in times of crisis, if it was sincerely followed in profitable times. It has more significance and application in developed nations rather than in developing nations (d) Colleagial Model Colleagues are those who work with a common purpose. In colleagial model, the management orientation towards team-work management acts as a coach and the employees respond with responsibility. This model depends on management's building and feeling of partnership among employees. Here the managers are found as joint contributions and not as bosses In this approach, a spirit of mutuality is built, wnere every person makes contribution and appreciates the contribution or efforts made by others. The employees become self disciplined. They produce quality work as they feel an obligation to provide high quality rather than for fear of boss. Irrespective of the amount of contribution employees get some degree of fulfillment, worthwhile contribution and self-actualization. This leads to enthusiasm in performance. This type of approach is very useful in research laboratories and others where work is unprogrammed and requires intellectual
    • environment and job freedom. (e) SOBC Model This model is used to identify the major variables in OB and to show how they relate to one another. The letters S-O-B-C stands for StimulusOrganism-Behaviour-Consequences respectively Framework of this model is based on social learning. OB model says that internal cognition (O) lead to behaviour (B) S-B-C model emphasizes the need to identify observable contingencies (S and C) for the prediction and control of behaviour (B) S-O-BC is the expanded model which recognizes the interactive nature of the environment (S and C) the person's cognition (O) and the behaviour itself (B) in the determining behaviour. According to this model causes for the behaviour, the behaviour itself and the effects of the behaviour can be observable or non-observable. S-O-B-C model does not abandon the emphasis on behaviour, it merely expands the group of variables to include cognitive processes and observable (covert) and non-observable (overt) behaviours. Thus S-O-B-C model is an electric modei taken from both cognitive and behaviouristic approaches, but it is based mainly on the new social learning approach. This model can perhaps best meet the goals of organizational behaviour. The S-0 portion deals with understanding and the BC portion deals with prediction and control. If the organizational situation is substituted for S, the organizational participant is substituted for O and the dynamics and applications are put into C, the model can serve as conceptual framework for the study of OB. The S-O-B-C model is used to identify the major variables in OB and to show how they relate to one another. Q, 8 Write short notes on (A) Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behaviour. Ans Organizational behaviour is based on fundamental concepts around which nature of people and nature of organization revolves Nature of people depends on the following assumptions (i) Individual differences, (u) A whole person, (iii) Caused behaviour, (iv) Value of the person or dignity. Theories of motivation, leadership and supervision are based on the individual differences. Some organization believe that they employ only the brain or skill of person but they are wrong in their approach. They employ the whole person Motivation of people is necessary in the organization to push up the work irrespective of the machinery and equipment in use. People shall be treated differently as they are of the higher order in the universe and they shall be treated with respect and dignity. Nature of organization depends on iiie assump!ioi.s (i) Assumption of social system and (ii) Assumption of mutual interest. People have psychological needs as well as social roles and status. Social system is both formal an:: normal All parts are interdependent and interconnected. People need organization as a means to help them to reach their goals while
    • organizations need people to help to reach organizational goals. (B) Challenges and Opportunities for Organizational Behaviour. Ans. (i) Organizational behaviour offers insights to improve a manager's people skill that they can use on the job. (ii) Organizational behaviour provides framework for understanding differences between national cultures. (iii) Managers is to stimulate employee's creativity and tolerance for change because organizations must maintain their flexibility, (iv) Organizational behaviour can offer managers, guidance in creating an ethically healthy work climate. (v) Organizational behaviour can help in improving quality and productivity by including their employees, by increasing their active participation in planning and implementing changes, (vi) Organizational behaviour recognizes differences and helps managers to see the value of work force diversity, (vii) Empowerment is challenge for Organizational Behaviour. Empowerment means putting employees in charge of what they do.
    • 8. PERSONALITY AND ATTITUDES Q.1 Explain the term 'Personality'. Discuss the Various Stages of Personality Development. OR What is Personality? Explain the Personality Development Concept. Ans. Personality The word 'Personality' has been derived from the Latin word 'Persona' which means 'to speak through'. Personality means how people affect others, how they understand and view themselves as well as theif pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and person-situation interaction. 'Personality' is concerned with external appearance, behaviour, self measurable traits and situation interactions. The concept of personality is however quite complex. There is no universal agreement on the exact meaning of personality. "Personality is the dynamic organization within and individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment." -Geordon Allport "Personality is the characteristic patterns of behaviour an modes of thinking that determine a person's adjustment to the environment." - E. R. Hilgard "(Person's) Personality is like all other people's, like some other people's and like no other people's.: - Kluckhotn and Murry Personality includes, how people affect others, how they understand and view themselves, their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits, person-situation interaction. Stages of Personality Development Psychologists have given different stages of personality development. These are as follows (i) Freudian Stage 'Sigmund Freud' was the first psychologist to believe that childhood events might have a bearing on adult behaviour and consciousness. According to him, there are four universal stages of psychological development which are decisive for the formation of personality, i.e. oral, anal, phallic and genital. (8.1) The following given table explains the Freud's stages of personality development
    • Stage Age Major Features Oral Birth to One Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, Year mouthing and biting Anal One year to Gratification from expelling and withholding Three Years faces, coming to terms with society's control relating to toilet training. Phallic Three to Four Interest in the genitals, coming to terms with Years Oedipal conflict leading to identification with same sex purvent. Latony Four to Six Sexual concerns largely unimportant. Years to Adolescence Genital Adolescence to Adulthood Re-emergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships. (ii) New-Freudian Stage 'Erik Erikson' gave a new dimension to the development of personality, which according to him is mere extension of Freud's Psycheosexual development. According to him, more attention should be given to the social rather than the sexual adaptations of the individual. He was of the opinion that, social problems emerged in the course of development were more important stages in which a child faces a wide range of human relationship as he grows up. Erikson states that a psycho-social crisis occurs within each of the stages and that a person in order to have a normal fulfilling personality, each crisis should be positively resolved. He considers Crisis as a turning point in individual's personality development and not as a catastrophe. (iii) Cognitive Stage 'Jean Piaget', a Swiss Phsychologist is credited with 'Cognitive Stage' of personality development. According to him, it is 'conscious' instincts which are important variables in the personality development. He identified four (4) stages of personality development, these are as follows Cognitive Stages Stage Age (a) Sensorimotor 0-2 yrs. (b) Pre-operational 2-7 yrs. (c) Concrete Operational 7-11 yrs.
    • (d) Formal Operational 11 yrs. and above. At the first stage (i.e. sensorimotor), the infant responds to stimuli directly. During the second stage (i.e. Pre-operational), the child learns .to" separate himself from all other surroundings (i.e. environment) and started to classify the objects through the use of symbols and words. At the third stage (i.e. concrete operational), the child learns about an intellectual understanding of the concept of conservation of a mass, irrespective of its shape. At the final stage (i.e. formal operational), reasoning can take place on abstract as well as on concrete levels. (iv) Immaturity to Maturity The Harvard University Professor, C. Argyris has recognized specific dimensions of the human personality as it develops. According to him, human personality progresses in a continuous form, from an infant to maturity as an adult He was of the opinion that, healthy people will display the behaviour of the immaturity to maturity continuum. Immaturity Characteristics Maturity Characteristics (i) Passivity Activity (ii) Dependence Independence (iii) Few-ways of Behaving (iv) Shallow Interests Diverse Behaviour Deep Interests (v) Short-time Perspective Long-time Perspective (vi) Subordinate Position Super-ordinate Position (vii) Lack of Self-Awareness Self Awareness and Control Q.2 Explain the Various Determinants (Factors) of Personality. Ans. Determinants of Personality (a) Biological The impact of hereditary on personality is a very active but still unsettled area of understanding. The hereditary versus environment debate is still alive but in spite of this hereditary does equip the person for survival and growth. According to some behavioural scientists managers think differently from general population. Senior managers have greater capacity for differentiation and integration. Recently physiologists and psychologists felt that certain biological functions such as brain wave patterns, gastric secretions, fluctuations in blood pressure and skin temperature are beyond conscious control. Many scientist believe
    • that these functions can be consciously controlled through bio feed back. Biologically based approach to study of personality is to anlayse the effects of physical features and rate of maturing. In individual's physical appearance which is said to be vital ingredient of personality, is biologically determined. (b) Cultural The learning process plays an important role in personality development. Culture is the main concept in analyzing the content of learning. Cultural events contribute significantly to personality. Culture largely, determines attributes such as aggression, co-operation, independence, competition etc. The method by which an infant is bathed , fed, cared etc. and the ways in which the person makes transition from adolescence to adulthood are all culturally determined. (c) Family: Family probably has the most significant impact on personality formation and development. The parents play an important role in the identification process which is important to person's early development. The type of atmosphere that is generated for child affects personality. (d) Social Socialisation starts with the initial contact between a mother and her infant. After infancy, other members of family, close relatives, family friends and then the social groups play influential roles. (e) Situation The cultural and family impact is more concerned with historical nature of personality development. Both the cultural or family and socialisation processes are important to personality, but it should be recognised that immediate situation may in final analysis predominate. It is the situation which determines the actions of a person. A person situation interactions surfaces as an important determinant of personality but it is mostly overlooked by people in understanding human behaviour. Q.3 What is Attitude? State its nature. What are its functions? Ans. Attitude 'Attitudes' are evaluative statements either favourable or unfavourable concerning objects, people or events. They reflect one's feeling about something." "Attitude are evaluative statements either favourable or unfavourable concerning objects, people or events. They reflect how one feels about something." - Stephen P. Robbins "Attitude are learned dispositions towards aspects of our environment. They may be positively or negatively directed towards certain people, service or institutions." - N. L. Munn "An attitude is predisposition to respond positively or negatively, to a certain set of facts." Nature of Attitude (i) Attitudes are evaluative statement.
    • (ii) Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of individuals or groups of individuals. (iii) Attitudes provide the emotional basis for one's interpersonal relations and identification with others. (iv) Attitudes tend to result in behaviour or action. (v) Attitudes are uni-dimensional variable. (vi) All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes. (vii) 'Attitudes' are organized and are close to the core of personality. Functions of Attitude These are as follows (a) Utilitarian The development of attitude in one's personality helps him to obtain rewards or avoid punishments. In some cases, the attitude is a means to an end. For e.g., a worker finds that when he expresses a negative attitude towards his boss, his coworkers pay attention to him and sympathize with him, however, when he expresses a positive attitude, he is ignored. (b) Ego-Defence Function To safeguard the self image, individuals often form and maintain certain attitudes. For example, when the female workers are employed in any organization, the male workers may feel threatened by their entry. These threatened workers now developed negative attitudes towards their female counterparts. They may develop an attitude that such newcomers are less qualified, and they might mistrea these workers. Such an ego defensive attitude is developed to cope up with a feeling of guilt or threat. (c) Value Expression Function An individual's attitude shows his taste of values and the values are the expressive attitudes that are closely related to his selfcontrol. An individual with freedom as his central value, shows more positive attitude than anybody else towards decentralization of authority in the work, flexible work schedules etc. Q.4 State the dimensions of attitude. Ans. Dimension of Attitudes (a) Centrality The centrality means the importance of the object. The attitudes which have high centrality for an individual will be less susceptible to change. (b)Overt Components Overt Components are the behavioural parts or segments which express the way of behaviour intended. (c)Valence Valence refers to the degree of the unfavrourableness towards the particular event or object. favorableness or
    • (d)Attitude vary in relation to the need of an individual. (e)Cognitive Cognitive component refers to the rational process which is used before a set of particular action one's own beliefs, experiences and thoughts. (f) Multiplicity Multiplicity means the number of elements constituting the attitude. Q.5 Explain the term 'Transactional Analysis'. State its Advantages. Ans.: Transactional Analysis (Meaning) Transactional Analysis (TA) offers a model of personality and dynamics of self and its relationship to others that make possible a clear and meaningful discussion of behaviour. It refers to method of analysis and understanding interpersonal behaviour. When people interact, there is a social transaction in which one person responds Jo. another. The study of these transactions between people is called Transactional Analysis'. Transactional Analysis was originally developed psychotherapist, for psychotherapy in 1950. by 'Eric Berne', a Advantages of Transactional Analysis (TA) (a) Developing Positive Thinking TA is applied to bring positive actions from people because TA brings positive approach towards life and hence positive actions. TA brings a clear change from negative feelings - confusion, defeat, failure, fear, frustration, hesitation, loneliness, pessimism and suppression to positive feelings - clear thinking, victory, achievement, courage, gratification, decision, friendship, optimism and fulfillment. Such a change from negative attitude to positive attitude is a source of psychic energy. Dositive attitude makes people stronger and negative attitude makes them exhausting. The whole objective of TA training programme is directed toward positive thinking. Thus, its application can enhance the trust and credibility felt toward the organization which are essential for good employee relations. Some of the specific areas for developing positive thinking through TA are stroking, positive reinforcement, inner dialogue as related to decision making, active listening and time-structuring. (b) Interpersonal Effectiveness TA improves interpersonal relationship by providing understanding of ego states of persons involved in interaction. It emphasizes complementary transactions which ensure complete communication and problem-solving approach. Since complementary transactions can be learned by individuals in the organization, people can improve interpersonal relations through TA. The
    • effective managers may be able to analyze transactions with employees in the organization. TA provides them with a theoretical framework within which to examine the interactions with the employees. The managers may be able to identify the ego states from which both parties are interacting. A better understanding of themselves and of other persons will make them more comfortable, confident and effective. The improved interpersonal relations will bring effectiveness to the organization. (c) Motivation TA can be applied in motivation where it helps in satisfying human needs through complementary transactions and positive strokes. Mai gers can enrich jobs for people by helping them to engage in kinds of activities that give them more positive strokes. It emphasizes strokes from the intrinsic value of the work, rather than depending entirely on strokes from outside (extrinsic). The job enrichment in this case means increasing the number of intrinsic strokes gained from the work activity. TA helps in changing the managerial styles more suitably to the emergent situation. In this context, TA may be compared with McGregor's Theory X and Y The theory X manager emphasizes parent-child relationship and uses terms like 'should be', 'have to' 'must' and so on. He adopts a life position of "I am O.K. You are not O.K." which is not a healthy position either for motivating the employees or for the organization as a whole. On the other hand, theory Y manager emphasizes adult-adult interaction with life position "I am O.K. You are O.K." which is motivating for employees and beneficiai to the organization as a whole. (d) Organization Development Organization development applies a humanistic value system to work behaviour and a reorientation of man's thinking and behaviour towards his wftrk organization. The major goal of organization development is to fight the past in the present in order to choose freely the future. TA can help in organization development process. Q.6 Write a note on Ego States. Ans. Ego States Transactional analysis of Eric Berne seems to be an outgrowth of the Feudian concept of id, ego and superego. Feud, depicts that there are three sources within the human personality that stimulate, monitor and control behaviour. Berne suggests that all people have though in different degrees three ego-states-parent, adult and child and the behaviour of a person shows which of these three ego-stage is operating at a particular moment. The parent ego-state is a result of messages people receive from their parents during their early childhood. These messages are recorded in the lead of a childjust like on the cassette tapes The persons interacting from a parent ego states are protective, dogmatic, evaluative and righteous. Behaviour is evoked the adult ego stage and develops thought concepts of
    • life based on data gathering and data processing. The behaviour from the adult ego state is characterized by problem solving analysis and rational decision making. The child ego state reflects early childhood conditions and experiences. It is dependent, rebellious, selfish and sometimes creative. The child ego state is emotional. Q.7 Write short note on The Self Concept and Self Esteem. Ans. The self concept has been structured by the interactions of individual with other people and emerges as a product of that social interaction. The self concept of individual is formulated in terms of how people reacts to him; it is the mirror of how others perceive him. The concept of self esteem means an individual's own pride and honour in eyes of other's people. Q.8 Write a detailed note on Johari Window. Ans. Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham developed the Johari Window. The term 'JOHAR!' represents the combination of their firit names. Psychologist give reasons for inter-personal conflicts by examining different ways in which self and others may interact. One such attempt to understand dynamics of interpersonal conflict is known as Johari Window. Johari Window includes, (i) Open Self (ii) Hidden Self (iii) Blind Self (iv) Undiscovered Self A person knows The person does The person does about himself not know about not know about and knows about the other. him. the other. These points can help to understand and manage many interpersonal conflicts, within or without group setting. According to Johari Window, the strategy to solve conflict is to increase open self and decrease hidden self. By disclosing information about oneself, the potential for conflict may be reduced, but individual risk is also involved in self-disclosure because the other early may use it for his advantage at the cost of the person who tries to reduce hidden self. Q.9 Write short notes on (A) Developing the Right Attitude. Ans. 'Developing the Right Attitude' refers to rational behaviour of an
    • individual in his day-to-day life. For developing the right attitude, the following methods can be implemented by the individual, viz. (i) Maintain a log-book (record) of your thoughts, (ii) Be aware of your thoughts, (iii) Identify negative thoughts and replace them with positive thoughts, (iv) Controlling the Emotions, (v) Dont react instantly.
    • 9. MOTIVATION Q.1 Define the term Importance/Significance. 'Motivation'. State its Features and its OR Define Motivation. Discuss importance of motivation as a function of Management. Ans. Motivation (Meaning) "Motivation" is a term derived from the word "Motive". "Motivation" means to provide someone with a motive. Motivation includes different aspect of behaviour such as desires, needs aspiration, control 3tc. Man has 'capacity to work' but no willingness to work and hence motivation is needed. Motivation is an effective instrument for a manager in inspiring the work-force and creating confidence in it. The manager must know that he can buy a man's time, he can buy a man's physical presence at a given place, but he cannot buy his initiative and loyalty. Motivation is an important task of management but it is number one problem of management. Motivation can be positive or negative, extrinsic or intrinsic, financial or non-financial, primary and secondary. Motivation is the 'core of management'. One of the consequences of motivation is 'morale'. Morale is always connected with motivation. The presence of "tension, energy or drive" becomes necessary in motivation. Motivation is influenced by financial incentives like wages, bonus, retirement benefit and non-financial incentives like participation, praise, promotion, delegation of authority, suggestion schemes etc. important Definitions of Motivation (i) "Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, needs direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings." Mc Forland (ii) "Motivation is a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals." - W. C. Scott (iii) "Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to take a desired course of action to get desired results." - M. J. Jucius Performance given by employees is explained as, Performance (P) is a function of an 1. A = Ability 2. K = Knowledge 3. M = Motivation
    • P = M(A + K) Features or Characteristics of Motivation (a) Motivation is the latest force of behaviour. (b) Motivation is closely related with needs of an individual. (c) Motivation may take place with or without the awareness of the concerned person. (d) Motives may be of two types, repetitive motives and non-repetitive motives. (e) Motivation is evaluated in terms of its presence or absence or degree only and not in terms of numerical expressions. (f) Motivation, as a force may act positively or negatively on the performance of an individual. Importance of Motivation Motivation is an important function of management. Without it the organization do not exist. "Motivated employees are the real asset for any organization." The following points highlight the importance of motivation (a) High Performance Level Motivation makes people willing to do their work and improves their performance. Thus, motivation results into increased productivity, wastage and scrap will be reduced. Quality of production will be better. (b) Maximum Utilization of Factors of Production Due to motivation, there is maximum utilization of factors of production. Workers will improve their efficiency by increasing their knowledge and skill. (c) Reduced Labour Turnover and Absenteeism A motivated employee stays in the organization more and their absenteeism is low. Workers do not leave the job frequently and this saves the expenditure loss caused to the organization. With reduced labour turnover, it becomes possible for (he organization to plan it's activities on long term basis. (d) Worker's Co-operation If workers are motivated, they give good cooperation and take interest in their job and their efficiency increased and hence higher output. (e) Good Industrial Relations Motivation creates good relations between the workers and management and between workers themselves. As a result, complaints and grievances will come down and conflicts will be reduced. This
    • results in smooth working of the organization. Q.2 Explain the Nature of Motivation. Ans. Refer to Q. No. 1 for Definition and Meaning of Motivation. Nature of Motivation Nature of motivation can be understood from the following facts (a) Motivation is an Unending Process Man being a social animal has innumerable wants to satisfy which induce him to work. All wants cannot be satisfied at one time. One want is satisfied and the other may emerge. Satisfaction of wants is an unending process. So, men on the job require motivation all the time though their motives or wants may be different. (b) Motivation is a Psychological Concept Motivation is a psychological concept that comes from inside the individual. The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influences the direction, volume, behaviour and limitations of efforts of an individual. So, motivation is an inducement of under feelings of an individual and it cannot be forced upon him from outside. (c) The Whole Individual is Motivated Each individual is an integrated organized whole and a part of him cannot be motivated because, motivation is a psychological concept that is concerned with the whole individual. A man's basic needs determine to a great extent what he will try to do at any given time and all these needs are interrelated and cannot be separated from each other. (d) Frustrated man cannot be Motivated If a man fails in satisfying any of his basic needs in spite of his best efforts, he becomes frustrated and to some extent mentally ill. Such frustrated man cannot be further motivated until his basic need is fulfilled. (e) Goals are Motivators Goals and motives are inseparable. Man works to achieve the goals. As soon as the goal is achieved he will be no longer interested in work. Goal means satisfaction of needs. It is, therefore, very essential for the management to know the goals or motives or needs of each individual so that they can be pushed to work by directing them towards achievement of their goals. (f) The Self- Concept as a Unifying Force Unifying forces run through each individual's history. Unifying force means the drive to actualise his own image. The outline of a person's self -image is fairly well -realized in his early childhood and in his later age he acts accordingly. For example, a child who think himself as a leader, will if possible, try to behave that way in later life. Thus two things that an individual is always trying to do are
    • (i) to act like a person, he thinks he is, and (ii) to get what he thinks he can. Thus, self-concept is an important motivating force. Q.3 What are the Different Techniques of Motivation? Ans.: Techniques of Motivation (a) Provision of "Intra-mural Facility Technique' In order to motivate all the workers in the organization to show their best, number of intramural facilities are offered to workers in modern business organization. These facilities are made available to the workers at the time of work. Besides the minimum working conditions as made compulsory by provision of Factory's Act 1948, the number of extra facilities like introduction of music at work places, centralized air conditioned organization, entertainment arranged at the rest pauses, library facilities, canteen facilities, recreational facilities are some of the examples of some intramural facilities offered to the workmen. (b) Monetary Techniques Monetary techniques based on popular belief that man works for money. Therefore, an attraction of getting more money will prove to be the most powerful motivator. Examples of monetary techniques Wages, bonus, payment of extra money through various schemes, retirement benefits etc. (c) Job-based Techniques The basis of job techniques is human and psychological belief. Examples of Job-based Techniques job enlargement, Job enrichment, sense of organization, responsibility achievement etc. (d) MBO Techniques The technique has been developed by Peter Drucker, which emphasizes on Self-Control and Self-Motivation. MBO technique is a participatory technique of motivation whereby managers and their subordinates jointly participate in achieving the common goals of the enterprise. (e) Supervisory Techniques Supervisory techniques have also a great role in motivation of employees. The important styles are autocratic, democratic and free rein style of leadership and they have their own implications for employee motivation, morale and productivity. The management should adopt different supervisory style in different situations for different workers/employees. Q.4 Define Motivation and discuss various types of Motives. OR Explain different types of Motives. OR How motives can be classified? Give examples of different types of Motives. OR Define Motivation. What are the various Motives of work?
    • Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. There are two types of motives, viz. (i) Primary Motives and (ii) Secondary Motives. (i) Primary Motives These motives arise from basic requirements of life and are important for survival of human being. These motives are virtually universal among people, but they vary in intensity from person to person. These motives are physiologically based. Examples Hunger, Thirst , Sleep, Shelter, Sex Avoidance of Pain etc. (ii) Secondary Motives These motives are more vague, because they represent the needs of the mind and spirit rather than of the physical body. These motives arises after the primary motives are satisfied. These motives affects the motivational efforts of the managers. Examples Power, Achievement, Affiliation, Status, Security. Let us discuss the important secondary motives, (a) Power Motive When feeling of inferiority is combined with an innate need for superiority, then the person's life style is featurise by striving for power. Power motive has significant implications for organizational leadership and for the informal, political aspects of organizations. (b) The Achievement Motive Achievement motive, can be expressed as a desire to perform in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. (c) The Affiliation Motive This motive relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motives work better when they are complimented for their favourable attitudes and co-operation. This motive is an important part of group dynamics. (d) The Security Motive Security motive is based on fear and it is avoidence oriented. Job security has a great effect on organizational behaviour. Humans have a learned security motive to protect themselves. (e) The Status Motive Status can be defined as a relative ranking that a person holds in a group. Status evolves from the capacity of people for rewarding those with whom they interact. (iii) General Motives General Motives lay between primary and secondary motives. These motives are more relavant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. (a) The Competence Motive Competence motivated people expect high quality work from their associates.
    • (b) The curiosity, manipulation and active motives. (c) The affection motive. Q.5 Explain Maslow's Theory of Need Hierarchy. Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory A . H. Maslow developed "Need theory" of motivation on the concept of "hierarchy of needs". These needs are (a) Basic Needs These are hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other body needs. (b) Safety and Security Needs When basic needs of an individual are fulfilled, these needs start. These needs include security and protection from physical and emotional harm. (c) Social Needs These needs refer to love and affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship. These are related to get high position and status in the society. (d) Ego or Esteem Needs These included needs of self-confidence, knowledge, recognition, prestige, self respect, etc. (e) Self-Actualization Needs These needs include growth, self-employment and self-development, self-fulfillment, continuous development of individual skills and powers. Needs % Satisfaction in Business Units Basic 80% Safety 70% Social 50% Ego/Esteem 40% Self Actualization 10% Evaluation of the Theory This theory was not much concerned with motivational studies for a long time. In modem times however, the management studies in motivation specifically are greatly influenced by this theory. His treatment to the human needs arranged in a hierarchical order is well accepted. Man is continuously a wanting animal. When one need is satisfied then the new appears, every man wants to satisfy his continuously growing needs. According to Maslow, the first three needs are lower level needs and remaining two are higher level needs. When all the needs are satisfied, man loses motivation to work.
    • Demerits of Maslow's Theory (i) It is a general expression not specific. (ii) Levels in the Organization are not properly fixed. (iii) This approach overlooks interaction of needs. Q.6 Explain F. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation. OR Critically examine Fredrick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory. OR Explain Motivation and state how Herzberg's two factors theory can be used for work motivation. Ans. Motivation Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. F. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation F. Herzberg developed a two factor's theory of motivation. He says that man has two sets of needs. One is Lower level set. It denotes hygiene, maintenance or environmental factors which do not motivate satisfaction, but their absence causes dissatisfaction. The other high level needs are termed as motivators because they are the real cause of job satisfaction and they lead to better performance. The work factors, which lead to job satisfaction and motivation (the so-called motivators) are different from those (so-called hygiene, maintenance) which lead to job dissatisfaction. Two kinds of needs of people at work Hygiene or maintenance factors Environmental needs Needs instinsic to work itself Motivation factors (Real Motivators) 1. Policies and administration. 1. Achievement of challenging task. 2. Supervision. 2. Recognition for accomplishment. 3. Working conditions. 3. Challenging work. 4. Interpersonal Relations - Boss, 4. peers, subordinates. Increased responsibility. 5. Money wages, salaries. 5. Opportunity for growth development (inner/outer). 6. Status and security. 6. Enriched challenging job (positive feelings towards the job). Comments and
    • (a) Herzberg calls factors leading to dissatisfaction as 'Hygiene' or maintenance factors. If absent, these make employees feel exceptionally bad. Note that they are extrinsic, i.e they come from outside the person. When they are adequate, they merely prevent dissatisfaction. These factors correspond to Maslow's lower level needs. (b) Factors leading to satisfaction are termed as motivators. They are causes of job satisfaction, if present these make employee feel exceptionally good. Note that these factors are intrinsic, i.e. they come from inside the person. They lead to motivation when you build them into the way you manage. (c) Theory 'X' assumptions of human beings lead to Herzberg's hygiene factors or dissatisfiers mentioned above. (d) Theory V assumptions of human beings lead to Herzberg's hygiene satisfiers or motivators. (e) Herzberg's approach to two types of motivation is applicable to affluent or richer countries. (f) According to two factors theory of motivation developed by Herzberg money is hygienic factor and not a motivator, (g) Improving work environment, raising wages and salaries, offering social security, maintaining good human relations etc. cannot achieve the greater output, efficiency and productivity under Herzberg's approach to motivation. One may have the result in the form of peace, less conflict, but no satisfaction of motivation. In Herzberg's words, satisfaction is equal to motivation. No satisfaction means no motivation, un-hygienic environment creates dissatisfaction. Hygienic environment, fall in wages means no dissatisfaction. Q.7 Explain how Motivation affects on Morale. OR Write a note on Morale Building and Motivation. OR Give relationship between Morale and Productivity. Ans. Morale Building and Motivation The dictionary meaning of morale is "condition with respect to discipline and confidence". It is closely connected with willingness to work. It is related to state of "mental health" which is related to loyalty, egoism, enthusiasm etc. It is an identification of group interest and that of the interest of the enterprise, fellow workers and requirements of the job. It is the subjective feeling of the employee. If group shows an attitude of satisfaction, it's morale will be high. Motivation, however, should oe distinguished from morale, though these concepts are related to both individuals and groups. Morale denotes attitudes, judgements of individual or groups. On the other hand, motivation indicates
    • "propensity for particular and behaviour patterns reducing or satisfying certain needs including tension". In words of Ralph M. Stogdill, "Motivation is a function of drive and confirmed desirability estimates regarding various alternatives satisfaction, whereas morale is freedom of restraint in action towards a goal". Thus, an individual or a group, may be highly motivated but unable to act. With freedom to act, the degree of morale may be highly related to strength of motivation. Morale may be in a sense be thus regarded as motivation demonstrated in over-action towards goal. Motivation then provides potential for morale". Morale is resultant state encompassing the willingness to co-operate and expressing the degree of integration existing between conflicting interests. Motivation is an active force directing behaviour by (a) causing individuals to seek one of several available goals and (b) causing individuals to seek several goals not present at the moment. However, it should be remembered that problems of motivating employees and that of maintaining high morale are more or less similar. Either to change morale or motivation, the inner behaviour of individual or group is required to be changed but to know to what extent an employee has been motivated or his (morale has been raised is not to be surveyed but to be observed through ) intervention of executive in the behaviour of such subordinates. In short, motivation is intimately connected with morale. Good motivation leads to high morale. Poor morale is the manifestations, of weak or defective motivating process. Morale is frequently assumed to be associated with higher performance, greater satisfaction and increased production. A high morale always results in high productivity, whereas low morale automatically results in low productivity. However, research has shown that the relation between two is not so direct and positive as that. Morale is only one of the factors of productivity. It is possible to find out high morale related to low productivity and low morale associated with higher productivity. In fact, morale and productivity may be related to each other in the following four possible ways. A High Productivity C High Productivity High Morale Low Productivity Low Morale D Low Productivity B High Morale Low Morale High Productivity goes with the high morale, when the workers are motivated and supervision is of right type (i.e. the supervisors treat the men with consideration). In fact, high morale may push up the productivity.
    • This is an ideal state and makes the best possible use of human potentialities. In practice, this state may not be very common. Since morale is a state of human behaviour to sustain such a state of affairs. An exactly reverse situation could be that of low morale and low productivity. High Morale and low productivity will go together when the men are different in training and supervisors are not. Management uses penalties and punishment and provides better equipment to the workmen. But it must be remembered that high productivity with low morale cannot be sustained for long since the will to work is of great importance that shows the worker's attitudes towards the job, the supervisors and organization and it's policies is an important factor in productivity and management must try to ensure favourable attitudes on the part of men while taking other steps for raising productivity, morale may not be the only factor in raising the productivity but it does represent the single most important variable. High productivity cannot be suited for long without high morale. It should be remembered that, research had not yet proved either that there exists no positive relationship whatsoever between morale and productivity or that the management can afford to overlook the. problem of employee morale without producing any adverse consequence. Q.8 Explain McGregor's Theory of Work Motivation. Ans. The management's action of motivating human beings in the organization, according to Douglas McGregor, involves certain assumptions, generalisation and hypotheses relating to human behaviour and human nature. These assumptions may be neither consciously crystallised, nor overtly stated; however, these serve the purpose of predicting human behaviour. The basic assumptions about human behaviour may differ considerably because of the complexity of factors influencing this behaviour. McGregor has characterized these assumptions in two observed points, Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X This is the traditional theory of human behaviour. In this theory, Douglas McGregor has certain assumptions about human behaviour. In his own words, these assumptions are as follows (a) Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprises -money, material, equipment, people - in the interest of economic ends. (b) With respect of people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behvaiour to fit the needs of the organization.
    • (c) Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive - even resistant - to organizational needs. They must be persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled and their activities must be directed. This is management's task. We often sum it up by saying that management consist of getting things done through other people. (d) The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it, if he can. (e) The average human being is lazy and avoids responsibility. (f) The average human being is indifferent to organizational goals. (g) The average human being prefers to be directed. Wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. Of these assumptions, last four deal with the human nature and first three with managerial actions. These assumptions about human nature are negative in their approach. However, much organizational processes have developed on these assumptions. The managers subscribing these views about human nature attempt to structure, control and closely supervise their employees. The managers feel that control is most appropriate for dealing with irresponsible and immature employees. McGreogr believes that these assumptions about human nature have not changed drastically though there is a considerable change in behavioural pattern, he urges that this change is not because of changes in human nature, but because of nature of individual organization, management, philosophy, policy and practice. Theory Y The assumptions of Theory Y are described by Douglas McGregor in the following words (a) The average human being does not inherently dislike work. Depending upon controllable conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction or a source of punishment. (b) The average human being will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. (c) Commitment to objective is a function of the reward associated with their achievement. The most significance of such award, e.g., the satisfaction of ego and self-actualization needs, can be direct product of effort directed towards organizational objectives. (d) The average human being learns under proper conditions not only to accept, but to seek responsibility. Avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of inherent human characteristics.
    • (e) The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population. (f) Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human beings are only partially utilised. Theory Y assumes that goals of the organization and those of the individuals are not necessarily incongruent. The basic problem in most of the organizations is that of securing commitment of workers to organizational goals. Worker's commitment is directly related to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus, this theory places emphasis on satisfaction of the needs of the workers. It does not rely heavily on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control. It assumes that workers exercise, self-direction and self-control in the realization of the goals to which they feel themselves committed. Because of these reasons, "Theory Y" is realistic and frequently used at different levels in most of the organizations. In support of the assumptions embodied in 'Theory Y', McGregor cited a few practices wherein the subordinates are given a freedom to direct their activities, to assume responsibility and importantly, to satisfy their egoistic needs. These practices include decentralization and delegation of authority, job enlargement, participation and consultative management and management by objectives. Q.9 Explain Porter and Lawler's Motivation Model. Ans. Porter and Lawler start with the premise that motivation (effort or force) does not equal satisfaction or performance. Motivation, satisfaction and performance are all separate variables and relate in ways different from what was traditionally assumed. It is important, however, that Porter and Lawler point out that effort (force or motivation) does not lead directly to performance. It is mediated by abilities and traits and by role perceptions. More important in the Porter-Lawler model is what happens after the performance. The rewards that follow and how that are perceived will determine satisfaction. In other words, the Porter-Lawler model suggests and this is a significant turn of events from traditional thinking - that performance leads to satisfaction. The model has/had a fair degree of research support over the years. For example, a recent field study found that effort level and direction of effort are important in explaining individual performance in an organization. Also, a comprehensive review of research verifies the importance of rewards in the relationship between performance and satisfaction. Specifically, it was concluded that performance and satisfaction will be more strongly related when rewards are made contingent upon performance than when they are not. Implications for Practice Although the Porter-Lawler model is more applications
    • -oriented than the Vroom model, it is still quite complex and has proved to be a difficult way to bridge the gap to actual management practice. To Porter and Lawler's credit, they have been very conscientious of putting their theory and research into practice. They recommend that practicing managers go beyond traditional attitude measurement and attempt to measure variables such as the values of possible rewards, the perceptions of effort-reward probabilities, and role perceptions. These variables, of course, can help managers better understand what goes into employee effort and performance. Giving attention to the consequences of performance, Porter and Lawler also recommend that organizations critically re-evaluate their current reward policies. They stress that management should make a concentrated effort to measure how closely levels of satisfaction are related to levels of performance, and recently a practitioner-oriented article emphasized that the accurate of role perceptions may be the missing link in improving employee performance. The interference here is that employees need to better focus their efforts on high-impact behaviours and activities that result in higher performance. However, both recent studies and comprehensive analyzes continue to point out the complex impact that the cognitive process has in relation to rewards and other outcomes in organizations. Q.10 Write short notes on (A) Indicators of Morale. Ans. There are no hard and fast rules about the morale indicators. Morale can be checked by considering the basic morale indicators. These indicators are as follows (i) Labour turnover. (H) Productivity, (iii) Waste and scrap, (iv) Absenteeism and tradiness. (v) Quality records, (vi) Grievances, (vii) Exist Interviews, (viii) Medical records. Direct Indicators of Morale Labour turnover, Absenteeism and tradiness, accident reports, productivity, quality records waste and scrap. Indirect Indicators of Morale Counselling reports, medical records, training records, grievances, suggestions, exit interviews. Low morale is expected to result in high turnover, but in several studies very low corelation has been observed between these two variables. Absenteeism is expected to be negatively corelated with morale. All the indicators are flashing red lights, demanding a stop and look reaction.
    • 10 GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM BUILDING Q.1 Define Group and Group Dynamics. Discuss the Importance of Group Dynamics. Ans. 'Group' It is a collection of two or more individuals who are interdependent and interact with one another to achieve a common goal. Group Dynamics The term 'group dynamics' refers to the complex forces that determine group formation, its size and structure, conflict, change and cohesiveness, interaction and behaviour. The word 'dynamics' has been derived from the Greek word meaning 'force'. "Hence, group dynamic refers to the study of forces operating within a group", defines Keith Davis. He further states that, "The social process by which people interact face to face in small group is called group dynamics". In the organizational behaviour, group dynamics is primarily concerned with, according to Fred Luthans, "The interaction of forces between group members in social situations". However, it was Kurt Lenin who coined the concept and shaped it into a discipline in the late thirties. Lewin's conception of group dynamics centred around the internal character and composition of groups (small groups), their structures and process, their impact on the individual members, inter-group interaction and organization. In short, group dynamics may be stated as the behaviour of individuals as members of a group in an organizational setting. Thus, in the light of the above definitions, the concept of group dynamic may be discussed under the following heads (i) Why are groups formed? ( The dynamics of group formation). (ii) What are the various types of groups? (iii) How the group system is viewed? (iv) What is the relation between individual and group? (v) How the groups are developed and structured? (vi) Group cohesiveness (collaboration) and conflicts, and so on. Research on group dynamics over the years has produced set of techniques like role playing, brain storming, group therapy, sensitivity, training etc. which are useful in activating the tremendous potential of individual in groups. Groups have their own properties, quite different from that of individuals who make up the group. Individual behaviour of the members of the group need
    • not necessarily represent the behaviour of the whole group or vice versa. Simply two members do not represent a group, the force of relationship is a must to make them a group. There are so many problems of human behaviour which have disturbed the man from the very beginning. There are certain questions which are asked about the human relations and the group; behaviour that are very difficult to answer. Some of the questions are (i) How should we consider relationship between individuals and the group? (ii) Are there needs of the group, the individual needs, and if so then what are the properties of the group? (iii) Are they formed or deformed? (iv) Are all the properties found in individuals? (v) Are groups good or bad? How do individuals behave with the group? Researches have been done to answer these related questions of human and group behaviour In this age of behavioural science, we think we should be rational and unbiased in the study of the human behaviour, but can we? No, it is not absolutely possible because, still there are certain prerequisites about the realities or unrealities, qualities and evils of groups that guide us. Generally, these preconceptions are integral parts of an individual's personal philosophy. Such preconceptions may be positive or negative. Negative Aspects First, we shall consider the negative view point. The people having negative viewpoint are of the view that (i) Groups do not exist and these are the product of distorted thought processes generally known as abstractions (ii) Groups are not good. They expect that their members must be loyal to the groups without using their head and brain. Positive Aspects There is another view, i.e., positive view. Followers of positive view say that (i) Groups do exist. Acceptance or non-acceptance of an individual by a group counts much to that individual and it proves the existence and importance of groups. (ii) Groups are not bad, they are good. They satisfy the higher order needs of an individual such as affection, recognition and self-esteem. They stimulate altruism and self-sacrifice. Groups provide the means to get such things
    • through mutual interaction that a person can never attain them individually. Synoptic View The characteristics of the positive attitude may be called the characteristics of so-called group dynamics movement The intention of the promoters of group dynamics is that the work should be done in group Individual responsibility and man to man supervision are bad. Individual problem solving and individual theory are bad. Committee meetings, qroup decisions, collective problem solving and group therapy are the index of the group prosperity. Though group dynamics studies the relationship of individuals, yet we ''orge; that evef*' individual in the group is different in attitude ana behaviour. The manage inisatiol must not forget that each member of a positive group does not have similarity in views in i particular situation and they are quite different in views and have their own self-respect Q.2 What are the Reasons/Causes of Group Formation? OR Explain the Reasons for Joining the Group. Ans. Reasons or Causes of Group Formation The dynamics of group formation, 'peoples propensity' to form and join group may be understood by the following three approaches (i) Psycho-analytical The instint of group formation is inherited from the primal family which suggest the 'psycho-analytical' approach. (ii) Cognitive People join the group because they have the expectation that membership will benefit them, which relates to the cognitive approach. (iii) Operant There is a general conviction among people that by joining group they will experience the positive reinforcement from social and group behaviour. This relates to the operant approach. The approach may be different, but the basic reasons for joining the groups are as follows (a) Group affiliation People join group because, it provides them an opportunity to have regular company with those, with whom they share something in common. (b) Security People feel that an individual, isolated and unorganized is likely to be exposed to different types of hazards in relation to his position as a member of organization. So, by joining a group, he acquires a sense of security.
    • (c) Esteem By associating himself with a group of high status the esteem of an individual increases. (d) Power United we gain and divided we fall. Collectively members enjoy greater power than individually. (e) Identity Group provides information about oneself and also others. Thus, a person gets identity being with a group. (f) Rewards In a group, a person may get several forms of rewards such as fnendsnip, status, recognition and even financial benefits. (g) Accomplishment People in group get an opportunity to share their knowledge, pool their talents, tools, contact etc. Q.3 Explain the Various Theories of Group Formation. Ans. Theories of Group Formation Group may be formed through accidental or fortuitous means beyond the immediate control of their members or they may be formed voluntarily, as a result of mutual attraction. (a) Propinquity Theory According to this theory, individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. For example in an organization, employees who work in the same area of the plant or office would more probably form into groups than those who are not physically located together. This theory can explain group formation in better way but it cannot explain complexities of group formation. (b) Homan's Theory of Group Formation This theory states that persons in a group interact with one another, not in just the physical propinquity sense, but also to solve problems, attain goals, facilitates co-ordination, reduce tension and achieve balance. This theory is based on Interactions, Activities and Sentiments (I - A - S). These three elements are directly related to one another. The more activities persons share, the more will be their interactions and the stronger will be their sentiments. The major element of this theory is interaction. Thus, with the help of this theory we can understand group formation and process in a better way. (c) Balance Theory This theory was proposed by Newcomb. According to this theory, persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals. This theory includes both propinquity and interaction factors. Common Attitudes and Values Religion Politics Life style Marriage Work Authority Fig. 10.1 Balance Theory of Group Formation
    • This figures, shows that individual X will interact and form a relationship with individual Y, because of common attitudes and values (Z) once this relationship is formed the participants strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs an attempt is made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship is dissolved. Q.4 What are the Various Types of Groups? Explain them briefly. OR Discuss the Various Categories of Group. Ans. Various types of groups are as under: (a) Large and small groups Organization of any class is a large group. But within any organization, there are several groups which are small groups. (b) Primary and secondary groups All primary groups are small but the converse is not true. The primary group has feelings of loyalty and a common sense of values among its members. Primary groups like the family, the poor group, the work-group, etc. are fundamental in moulding, the social nature, behaviour and values of the individual. Thus, the primary group is regarded as the basic building block of organizations and of society. Secondary group is a larger entity and is made up of several primary groups. Being big in size, large in membership, it is somewhat impersonal, remote and does not facilitate face-to-face interaction. It is formed to achieve larger objectives and goals. (c) Membership and reference groups Membership groups are formed informally and formally through membership cards or certificates. The Institute of Income Tax Consultants is a membership group and is a secondary group. Reference group is one to which, individuals would like to belong or to identify themselves The reference group's values and opinions are important to the individual. The reference group serves a normative function to the individual, it also serves as a source of individual's norms and attitudes. (d) In-groups and out-groups The 'in-group' represents a cluster of individuals who hold the prevailing or powerful values in high esteem. Thus, 'in-group' represents 'power circle'. The 'out-group' is one which does not have much influence on social thinking or powerful values. (e) Command and task groups The command group is formed by the manager and his immediate subordinates. The roles of relationship among the members of command groups are formally determined by the organization. The task group is formed by members who work together to complete specific
    • tasks. Its function and structure are also formally determined. Committee is an example to the task group. (f) Open and closed group This type of group has four important variables. (i) Changing group membership An open group is constantly adding and losing members where as the membership is stable in closed groups. (ii) Frame reference In an open group, the frame of reference expands with the addition of new members with new ideas and thereby the activity also expands but it is stable in closed group. (iii) Time perspective Due to constant changes in an open group the perspective is limited to only near future where as in closed group, because of its stability, it has longer time perspective. (iv) Equilibriums It may be stated as a state of balance or stability. (g) Formal and informal groups That which is deliberately created to perform a specific task is a formal group where as a group, that which arises out of interactions, attractions and needs of individuals is an informal group Q 5 What is Formal Group in an organization? State its various types/forms. Ans. Formal Groups Formal groups are created by management to accomplish organizational goals. They are shown in the organizational chart. Groups are empowered with the authority by the organization Authority is always delegated to the position and not to the person Therefore, position is important and not the person in the format groups. Authority in formal groups is not acquired but delegated from the top level and it always flows downwards and never upwards The status of a group is determined by its position on the organizational chart or the responsibilities of the job it performs. All communications to formal groups are sent through chain of command. The behaviour of members is regulated through predetermined rules ana regulations. Any violation of rules and regulations attract penalty. Forms or Types of Formal groups The formai groups are classified as under (a) Permanent and Temporary Formal Groups Permanent formal groups are formed by the organization on the permanent basis and more or less exist so long as the organization exists. Board of Directors, departmental units, staff groups, standing committees are some examples of formal groups. Groups formed by the organization, to carry the particular work or to perform the specific task are temporary formal groups. A committee or study groups, appointed to analyze or review the pay structure in the organization are examples of temporary formal groups. These groups come to an end as soon as the tasks assigned to them are over.
    • (b) Command Groups The authority structure forms and determines the boundaries of divisions, departments and sections within the organization and these departments or sections or divisions are known as command groups. The smallest command group consists of supervisor and his subordinates and the largest one consists of top management and the tota. personnel in the workforce. There are so many other groups in between these two extremes. The chain of command as expressed by authority, responsibility and accountability, allocates the roles of each individual in the command group. It also spells out the member-authority relationship which exists between them. The superior of a particular group is the leader who performs important functions for his group. He sets goals for the group, suggests ways and means to get them and settles jurisdictional issues which arise between subordinates. The superior is an effective instrument for downward communication and an initiation for upward communication. (c) Functional Groups Functional groups are those groups whose primary task is to carry on the operations. In many cases, the functional groups may be congruent with the authority groups. Thus, a single department in the organization would probably be both command group and functional group. The department is a command group within the authority structure but the staff working in that department engaged in a particular activity and directed and coordinated by the same superior may form a functional group such as typists, clerks, salesman etc. Thus, a command group may have several functional groups The functional groups can be again classified into team, task and technological groups The distinction between these groups involves the method, role allocation and role fulfilment. a. Team Group Team group nas no specified, fixed role to play for its individual The general role of the group is set and the members of the group are allocated the role according to the needs of the goal. Thus, roles of members in a team group are interchangeable without any clash. (ii) (ii) Task Group Task group specifies a fixed job for each of its members and lays down the job description. Thus, roles of the members are not interchangeable and if superior does so, it is not without much personal resistance and friction between superior and the member. (iii) Technological Group Technological group is something different. Here, the roles are assigned by the management. The position of the job is fixed and the methods are laid down and the speed of work is fixed by some device Thus, members of the group have no choice over the method and the speed of the work (iv) Status Group Status groups involve the members of the same status in an
    • organization. It includes a number of different ranking of positions which are frequently inconsistent with each other. It makes distinction of a functional basis between manager and workers, on an authoritarian basis between superiors and subordinates, and on a payment basis between salary and wage earners. In some cases, status distinction is made on the basis of facilities or amenities to be enjoyed by the members. More often, the status distinction is made on wage and salary structure that leads to all sorts of status reactions amongst work-groups Q.6 What is Informal Group in an Organization? State its Various Types/ Forms. Ans. Informal Groups Men can be engaged to work as a whole and not in parts There are number of needs which cannot be satisfied through formal groups. So. they form other groups by interacting with each other to satisfy some of their unsatisfied needs. Because of the social and psychological forces operating at the work place, members create such a group for their own satisfaction and the working of the groups are not regulated by that general framework of organizational rules and regulation. The groups are called 'informal groups'. They are generally small and serve different interests of their members. An informal group arises voluntarily It is a natural grouping of people in work situation to get a total picture of any organization, informal group is inevitable along with formal one Thus, it is called informal organization. Each informal group has its own informal leader who is elected among the members of the group not on the basis of authority he possesses m the formal group but on the basis of age, seniority, technical knowledge, respect etc So, authority is to be earned from members of the group. Authority in the informal group is given to the person and not to the position As soon as the members lose their confidence in him, he will no more be the leader of the group. Communication in informal groups passes through informal channel, mostly verbal or by gestures Behaviour of members are regulated by norms, values and beliefs of the group. Violater of norms are punished through nonfinancial modes such as social boycott, loss of prestige and status within the group. Informal groups, unlike formal ones, cannot be abolished. Any attempt to destroy them may cause several others to emerge. Informal groups may exist within or outside the organization. Forms or Types of informal Groups Mayo and Lambard have classified informal group, on the basis of the functions of the group in determining standards of conduct and internal structures onto three categories, natural, family and organized. Thus, informal groups may be grouped as under (i) Friendship Group This kind of group involves close personalities as friends or relatives who are well-known to each other before hand. Mostly these groups are found in pairs and are useful in spreading influence and
    • information. (ii) Cliques: These groups consist of cliques and associates who normally observe certain norms and standards. They are closely intimated to each other. The number of members tends to be smaller The object of this type of group is to provide recognition to each other and exchange information of mutual interest. Dalton has noted three types of cliques (a) Vertical Clique Such cliques consists of people working in the same department irrespective of their rank difference. Such groups develop because of earlier acquaintance of people or the dependence of superior upon his subordinates for some formal purposes. (b) Horizontal Clique This group consists of people of more or less same rank and working more or less in the same area. Such groups are formed cutting across organizational boundaries. Such members find some points of commonness and keeping the objectives in mind, come together. This is the most common form of informal group. (c) Random or Mixed Clique This group is a mix of vertical and horizontal cliques. People come from different ranks, departments and locations to form such types of cliques, having some common objective in mind. The member may be residing in the same locality, travelling by the same bus or train or may be member of the same club. (iii) Sub-Cliques The group consists of some member of a clique inside the organization along with some other person outside the clique. The members of the clique in a sub-clique recognise but partially, members included in a subclique but who are not the members of the main clique because of their association with them. (iv) Isolates Actually it is not a group. An individual who is not the member of any group is called isolate. Such isolates do not participate in any social activity organized by the group. They avoid people and people avoid them. (v) Classification by Sayes Another classification of informal groups by Sayes, (Human Relations in Administration) from the stand-point of pressure tactics has divided the informal groups into four: (a) Apathetic Group Not sincere to their demand and numbers do not actively engage in union activity. They always show indifferent attitude towards formal organization. (b) Erratic Group Very sensitive to their demand. Easily inflamed and easily pacified. Thus, they are marked by inconsistent behaviour and centralized autocratic leadership. Engage in union activity without working. Deep rooted grievances exist without any reaction from the group. (c) Strategic Group A well-planned strategy for fighting with the management
    • for their grievances. Build continuous pressure. They have high degree of internal unity and good production record in the long run. (d) Conservative Group Consists of members having critical or scarce skills. Though they have strong position by virtue of cooperation specific objectives and self assurance, yet they are least engaged in union activity. Q.7 What is Team Work, Team Development, Task Group? State the Objectives of Team Development. Ans. Team Work Majority of employees work in regular small groups where their efforts fit together like the pieces of picture puzzle. Their work is interdependent, they act as a task team and seek to develop a co-operative state called teamwork. When the members of a task team know their objectives contribute responsibility and enthusiastically to the task and support one another, they are exhibiting teamwork. Team Development Apart from group cohesion, in an organization development technique, team building is also an effective method. In team building technique an individual has to (i) Learn thoroughly about himself. (ii) Know and to respect the sentiments of others. (iii) Learn the principle of mutuality and reciprocity in his behaviour with others, and (iv) Learn to subordinate personal objects to group's objects. The above principles of team-building may be acquired in the laboratory and non-laboratory training programme. Sensitivity and group training will help the member to acquire all the four principles necessary to forge a team on solid foundations. For both worker and the manager to learn to accommodate each other's viewpoint on the basis of mutuality and reciprocity principles, can be achieved through Managerial Grid system, developed by R.R. Black and J.S. Mouton. The manager has to learn to increase the level of his concern for people, similarly the worker has to raise their level of concern for production. This adjustment of labour and management to strike at 5-5 on grid scale will strengthen the forces of team-building within the organization. Grid consists of six phases (i) Managerial Grid, i.e. assessing various managerial skills, (ii) Team work development, (iii) Intergroup development,
    • (iv) Developing ideal strategic corporate model, (v) Implementing ideal strategic model and (vi) Systematic critique. Task Work Improving the task work of the team by (i) goal setting, (ii) decisionmaking and (iii) problem solving will also help in team building. If specific goals are set for achievement by the team, functioning of the team will improve. Every member will know the object of the team which will help him to adjust his own goal with the goal of other members of the team on the one hand and the team as a whole on the other hand. The decisions regarding mechanics of operation in the form of procedures and methods of work should be taken witnout any delay. This will facilitate the task of members of the team to perform their functions within the procedures and policies of the team. All problems relating to the tasks and other related issues should be solved without loss of time. Objectives of Team Development The underlying objective of team development is to increase trust among team members because people together work better. Team building, to be effective, the following points are to be followed (i) Sensing problem. (ii) Examining effects of difference in perception. (iii) Feed back, giving and receiving. (iv) Developing interacting skills based on constructive behaviour. (v) Personal contracting with team members and (vi) Follow-up .action Members of the team may be put to training to adapt themselves as members of the team They will learn to subordinate their own interest to the goals of the team, understand themselves and to respond positively to the emotions and sentiments of other members on reciprocal basis, Intergroup Confrontation To develop team spirit within the whole organization comprising different interest groups, it may be necessary if intergroup confrontations under the guidance of the management consultant are arranged not only to understand better each other's viewpoint but more importantly to devise a programme for organization development. Each group will get an opportunity to express it's viewpoint, problems and grievances against the other and most of unfounded misgivings leading to conflict will be removed on the spot. According to Edgar Huse, events in a team or group have two dimensions; one, the content or the topic of conversation or the agenda and two, the
    • process, i.e., what is happening in the group; e.g., who is talking to whom, how the member feels about the group and one another, and the kinds of subgroups, coalitions and alliar-es that have formed. Team-building, as already pointed out, is effected by an outsider, the consultant. The consultant will like to know group atmosphere, degree of trust and openness and tasks effectiveness He will also ascertain the extent to which full use of talent has been made . Q.8 Discuss the Importance of 'Team' in Organizations. Ans. Importance / Advantages of Teams in Organizations (i) Effective team-building in an organization offer many advantages such as, increased productivity, improved quality, improved customer service etc. (ii) Effective team-building in an organization provides many advantages for workers and/ or employees in the form of avoidance of wasteful efforts, reduced errors, more output for each unit of input, better quality of work life, reduced stress etc. (iii) Effective team-building in an organization results in reduced scrap, fewer errors, fewer remuneration claims, reduced labour turnover. All this results into effective cost reduction. Members in the team are committed to their team's performance. They do not want to let down their teams. Commitment to performance makes team members cost conscious (iv) Effective teambuilding in an organization can eliminate relunctant layers of bureaucracy and flatten the hierarchy in large organization. Employees will have direct and better access with top management, (v) Effective team-building in an organization enables the team members to innovate and solve problems creatively. Q.9 Explain the Process of Creation of Teams. How Teams are Created? Discuss. Stages of Team Formation. OR OR OR Explain Group Dynamics and discuss Various Stages of Group Formation. Ans- Group Dynamics Refer to Q. No. 1 of this chapter. Process of Team Creation The process of team creation consists of the following steps (a) Planning the Change Before implementing any team to function, considerable analysis and planning should be conducted. It involves a drastic departure from the traditional hierarchy and authority. For this, significant planning preparation and training are necessary. Planning is divided into two broad categories, viz., first decision to have teams and second, implementing the decision to have a (team) structure.
    • (b) Decision Making The top management appoints someone as a leader for implementing the change effectively. The leader may be the CEO or any prominent person in the organization The leader shall establish a steering committee to help the organization to have team based structure. The steering committee shall consists of plant or division manager, union representatives, H. R. representatives and operational level employee. The Steering Committee shall conduct a feasibility study. (c) Implementing the Decision Before the final decision to have team based structure is implemented and preparatory work must be done. Preparatory work consists of clarifying the objectives, selecting the site for first work teams, preparing the design team, planning of delegation of authority, and drafting of the preliminary plans. After this, implementation process actually starts. Implementation is long and difficult process, lasting even for two to five years. During this period, the teams have to go through the following three phases, viz., (i) Create performance conditions, (ii) Form and build the team and (iii) Provide ongoing assistance Q.10 Write short notes on (A) Dynamics of Group Formation. Ans. Communication, dissent and openness are the characteristics of a matured group. A matured group will attain its goal with greater efficiency within the stipulated period of time Once the group attains the maturity, several structural characteristics of the group come to the surface Important among them are (i) Role, (ii) Morale or Status hierarchy and (iii) Cohesiveness. They are described as under (i) Role A set of expectations about the behaviour of someone occupying a given position in a social unit like a group is his role. In a group, the role may be of a leader or the roles of followers. In addition, there may be roles of an expert, enforcer, trouble-maker or a scapegoat. When a person performs a number of roles, it is known as a role set. For instance, the role set of a father will include the roles for his children wife, parents and his children's teachers (ii) Status The measure of worth, conferred on an individual by some social group is known as the status of a person. It may be granted by an individual. The status, if lower is. of low value and, higher of high value. A few persons or positions have high status. Heads of powerful countries are generally high status even outside their countries. Similarly, certain positions in the organization
    • have a high status. Sources of Status The sources of status may be three in its nature, Reward Power, Reward-Receiving Power and Personal Investment. Reward Power Any person having the competance of conferring award on the people has the status. Higher the capacity of conferring the award, higher will be the status of the individual. For example, Padma Bhushan by the President of India. Rewards Receiving Power People hold in high esteem even those persons who receive the award. Anyone who receives the award acquires the status. The award is valued by the group, class or society. A person receiving the Nobel Prize is held very high in status in the world. Personal Investment Let us take for example the sacrifices of Mahatma Gandhi for the independence of India. Thus, people capable of taking high risks in life to achieve their goals are often accorded higher status in society. This is their personal investment which is instrumental in getting status from people, group or society. Sometimes, sacrifice and seniority also give status to the people. People who have made sacrifices in the past are held in very high esteem throughout the world. In certain societies like the oriental society, seniority is also the basis of status. An old man is held high and given a higher status in society. (B) Group Cohesiveness. Ans. Group cohesiveness may be characterised by the group situation in which all members work together for a common goal or where everyone is ready to take responsibility for group chores. If group cohesion is high, the interaction between members of the group is high and the amount of agreement in group opinion is high. The greater the group cohesiveness, the greater will be its influence on the behaviour of the members. All members of highly cohesive groups tend to produce at a similar level. In groups with low cohesiveness, a wide variation is usually present. This is so because high group cohesiveness promotes high control over the level of production of the individual members and this reduces variation among those members Group cohesion brings low personal absenteeism and high personal adjustment More cohesive a group is the better the group members seem to be able to withstand pressures emanating from outside (D) Characteristics of Teams. Ans. Following are the characteristics of Teams (i) 'Teams' are deliberately structured formal groups to serve the desired organizational goals
    • (ii) 'Team' derives their authority from the organization itself and it is delegated from top to bottom. (iii) Teams' are not quite large in size and shape (iv) 'Teams' are not permanent. They exists only for limited duration. (v) The organization's top management decides about the activities of each individual in the team.
    • 11 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Q.1 Define and explain the term "Conflict*. State its Features. What are its Advantages and Disadvantages. OR What is 'Conflict', state its Merits. Ans. Conflict James D. Thomson in his Organizational Management of Conflict defines conflict as "That behaviour by organization members which is expended in opposition to other members". Kenneth W. Thomas, describes Conflict and Conflict Management, as the "Process which begins when one party perceives that the other has frustrated, or is about to frustrate, some concern of his" Morton Deutsch calls it as a situation "whenever incompatible activities occur," in his book The Resolution of Conflict, Constructive and Destructive Process. Though various authors have defined it differently, conflict may, however be defined as a situation in which there is a breakdown in decision-making owing to irrational and/or incompatible stand taken by one or all parties concerned with decision making. By analyzing these definitions, the following characteristics of conflict comes to the surface (i) Conflict leads to disruption or impairing the work of organization. (ii) Conflict is the function of opposite views held by the parties to dispute. Even a rational stand by one party becomes incompatible to the irrational stand taken by another party. The situation becomes all the more vulnerable when both parties stick to their respective irrational stand (iii) Breakdown in decision making is consequence of incompatibility in the behaviour of the parties to certain situation existing in the organization. However, James C March and Herbert A. Simon have ascertained much earlier that the phenomena of conflict may be classified into three main classes as follows (a) Individual Conflict Conflict in individual decision-making. (b) Organizational Conflict Within an organization, the conflicts may be between the individuals or groups i.e., intra-organizational conflict. (c) Inter Organizational Conflict Conflicts between two organizations.
    • Advantages ; (i) Conflict act as a binding force between members of a group when the cause is common for all groups in organization. (ii) It provides an individual, a chance for self-intersection. (iii) Conflicts also help in search behaviour and leads to clarification, (iv) Conflicts leads to innovation and new directions. (v) Conflict involves ignoring the overall organizational goals (vi) Conflict leads to wastage of time and promotion is reduced. Q.2 Explain 'Traditional' as well as 'Modern View' of Conflict. OR Write a note on Traditional View of Conflict. OR How do Traditional Assumptions about Conflict differ from the modern assumptions? Ans. (a) Traditional View of Conflict (Classical Approach) According to this view of conflict, 'Conflict' was the result of dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, lack of openness and trust between people, faiiure of the management to recognize the needs and aspirations of its empioyees. This view held that 'Conflict' is bad and must be avoided at all costs. If conflict is developed, then it must be quickly and easily resolved by the management, as conflict disrupts the smooth functioning of organization and creates chaos and disorder in its work. This view was consistent with the attitudes that prevailed about group behaviour in the 1930's and 1940's According to this view, since all conflict is to be avoided, the management of any organization have to focus its attention on the causes of conflict and correct these disruptions in order to improve group and organizational performance. (b) Modern View of Conflict (The Interactionist View) This approach has a broader scope This approach is of the view, that, in some cases, conflict may be helpful and functional as far as certain degree of level. This approach encourages group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict to keep the group viable, self critical and creative. This approach holds that some degree of conflict is absolutely essential for a group to perform effectively. This views considers the following views about conflict Conflict is inevitable.
    • Conflict is neither bad nor good for any organization. Conflict is a normal aspect of social intercourse Conflict is integral to the nature of change. Q, 3 Explain the Conflict Process". OR Describe the Various Steps in "Conflict Process*. Ans. Conflict Process The conflict process normally consists of four steps (Stages) Stages "Step 1 One party plans to block the attempts of another party from achieving a goal. In organizations, some potential danger and harm threaten the harmonious functioning and perhaps their very existence. Step 2 The person whose attempts are sought to be thwarted perceives the harm that might be done to him and feels or realizes the potential damage. Realization makes him emotionally involved in himself. Emotional environment makes him feel frustrated, anxious and tense, all these are symptoms of conflict. The same pattern exists in between two groups or departments in an organization. Step 3 In the third stage of conflict, the another party (whose efforts were blocked in stage 1), now blocks the other party's attempts in attainment of goals. The conflict is now, out in the open. Over conflict covers a full range of behaviours from the subtle, indirect and highly controlled forms of interference to direct, aggressive, violent and uncontrolled struggle. Step 4 The conflict finally results in functional or dysfunctional conflict. If conflict is effectively handled, there is functional conflict. If it is mismanaged, it results in dysfunctional conflict Q.4 What is Constructive Conflict? Explain its Consequences. OR What is Functional Conflict? State its Effects. Ans. Constructive / Functional Conflict (Meaning) 'Conflict' which support the goals of the group and improve its performance is called as constructive / functional conflict. It refers to confrontation between two ideas, goals and parties that improve employees and organization's performance. Well managed conflict helps workers to feel confident, strengthen their relationships and be committed to the organization. Consequences of Constructive or Functional Conflict: (a) Major Stimulant for Change Conflict initiates a search for ways to polish and
    • refine objectives, methods and activities. (b) Effective Tool to Foster Creativity and Innovation Conflict can help individuals to test their capacities to learn and develop. It prevents stagnation, it stimulates interest and curiosity. In an atmosphere of open confrontation, people tend to put forward more imaginative solutions to problems. (c) Cohesion and Satisfaction Under conditions of mild inter-group conflict, group membership can be very satisfying to the members. For example, if there were no conflict, the whole purpose and internal unity of any team, say cricket team, football team would disappear. (d) Balanced Power Relationship Between Departments The occasional flare up of intergroup conflict serves to bai< ice power relationships between various departments. It also helps individuals in reducing accumulated ill feelings and tensions between them. Q.5 What is Destructive Conflict? Explain its Consequences. What is Dysfunctional Conflict? State its Effects. Ans. Destructive / Dysfunctional Conflict When conflict hinders group performance, then it is called as a dysfunctional or destructive conflict. The boundaries between constructive conflict and destructive conflict however, is very thin and not precise. The criteria, which distinguishes constructive conflict from destructive conflict, is group performance. Consequences (Effects) of Destructive / Dysfunctional Conflict (a) Conflict Gives Rise to Stress Intense conflicts generate feelings of anxiety, guilt, frustration and hostility. The distance between people increases. A climate of mistrust and suspicion develops. Losers indulge in non-cooperation and pay very little attention towards the needs and interests of other group members. (b) Diversion of Energy The conflicting groups waste their time, energy and efforts towards winning the conflict by proving their views, rather than towards achieving organizational group's. Long term goals, in the process, begin to suffer as short-term problems become more important. In extreme cases, illegal activities occur. (c) Instability and Chaos Under intense conflicting conditions, positive collaboration among groups, departments decreases. There is total breakdown of communication network. The normal work flow is disrupted on a significant level and the whole inter woven fabric of the organization is shattered. Q.6 Explain the Strategies for encouraging Constructive (Functional) Conflict.
    • OR What are the Various Conflict Stimulation Techniques for encouraging Constructive Conflict? Ans. Strategies (Measures) / Conflict Stimulation Techniques for Promoting constructive Conflict These are as follows (i) Managers can manipulate the messages to stimulate conflict. (ii) Introduction of heterogeneous people into the organization helps in disturbing the status quo and creates conflict. (iii) Breaking up of old work groups and departments and reorganize them, to encourage conflict. (iv) Use of bonuses, incentives and various awards will stimulate the positive competition and constructive conflict. Q.7 Explain the Strategies for Discouraging Destructive (Dys-functional) Conflict. OR What are the Various Conflict Resolution Techniques for Discouraging Destructive Conflict. Ans. Strategies (Measures) / Conflict Resolution Techniques for Discouraging Destructive (Dysfunctional) Conflict These are divided into two broad categories viz.; (a) Feldman and Arnold's Techniques and (b) Other Techniques. (a) Feldman and Arnold's Techniques These are as follows (i) Avoidance This strategy attempts to keep the conflict from surfacing at all. This may be appropriate if the conflict is trivial or if quick action is needed to prevent the conflict from occurring (ii) Defusion In this strategy an attempt is made to deactivate the conflict and cool-off the emotions and hostilities of the groups involve. This strategy is appropriate wnere a stop gap measure is needed or when the groups have a mutually important goal. (iii) Containment Under this strategy, some conflict is allowed to surface, but is carefully contained by spelling out which issues are to be discussed and how they are to be resolved. To carry out this strategy, the problems and procedures may be structured, and representatives from the conflicting parties may be allowed to negotiate and bargain within the structure established. This strategy is appropriate where open discussion have failed and conflicting groups are of equal power.
    • (iv) Confrontation Under this strategy, all the issues are brought into the open, and the conflicting groups, directly confront the issues with each other in an attempt to reach a mutually satisfactory solution. This may involve mutual problem solving, or even formally redesigning jobs, or responsibilities in order to resolve the conflict. This is most appropriate when there is a minimum level of trust, when time is not critical, and when the groups need to co-operate, to get the job done effectively. (b) Other Techniques These are as follows (i) Superordinate Goals These goals need interdependence and co-operation between various departments. It applies to all the parties involved and these goals cannot be accomplished by the resources of any single party. (ii) Joint Negotiating Committees Under this technique, conflicting members of the groups agree not to take any action that is disputed, before the issue was raised at joint negotiating committee. (iii) Appeals Procedures Under this technique, people in disagreement ask their higher authority to help them in arriving at a solution. Thus, here, an appeal is made to one's boss's boss. (iv) Member's Rotation Under this technique, peoples are exchanged between departments. New-comers can exchange his views with others. Perceptual distortions are reduced as a result of role reversal or empathy. Q.8 Write a short note on Conflict Management. Ans, Conflict Management Conflict beyond certain level is dysfunctional. Therefore, an attempt should be made to develop orgnaisational procedures and practices through which organization functions in a co-ordinative way and reduce conflict. However, if conflict generates in the organization for whatever the reason, management should take effective steps to resolve it. Thus, there can be two approaches of managing conflict preventive measures and curative measures. In preventative measures, attempts are made to create situations in which conflict does not take place while curative measures deal with resolving conflict amicably so that its dysfunctional aspect is minimized. Such preventive and curative measures may be taken in terms of establishment of common goals. Change in structural arrangement, and conflict resolution actions. Application of these techniques will depend on the nature and causes of conflict in the organization A major part of organizational climate as relevant to conflict management is built through common goals and proper structural arrangement. Q.9 What is Intrapersonal Conflict and Interpersonal Conflict?
    • Ans. (a) Intrapersonal Conflict: Intrapersonal conflict is a situation where an individual is in the problem of decision making within himself. Intrapersonal conflict is an outcome of interpersonal conflict. This conflict can be related to two things Conflict arising due to divergent goals or conflict arising from out of multiple roles to be played daily (i) Goal conflict occurs when a goal that an individual is attempting to achieve has both positive and negative features or when two or more competing goal exist, (ii) Role conflict is the result of divergent role expectations. It exists when the expectations of a job are mutually different or opposite and the individual cannot meet one expectation without rejecting the other. Role conflicts can have a markedly adverse impact on satisfaction and even on mental or physical health. (b) Interpersonal Conflict Interpersonal conflict occurs especially when a new task of idea is being introduced. Interpersonal conflict invovles two or more individuals rather than one indivdiual. Causes for interpersonal conflicts are personality differences, perceptions, clashes of values and interest, power and status differences, scarce resources, ego states, socio-cultural, factors (such as conflicts based on caste, religion, family background), value system, role ambiguity etc. In an organization, there may be several forms of interpersonal conflicts, such as hierarchical conflict between various levels of management, functional conflict between occupational specialists, professional Vs professional conflict and so on. These conflicts may be interpreted in two forms Vertical and Horizontal Conflict.
    • 12 STRESS MANAGEMENT Q.1 What is Stress? State its Nature. Explain the Various Sources of Stress. Ans. Stress (Meaning and Definition) Introduction Stress has become an inevitable part of our life. Individuals are constantly trying to reduce or eliminate stress but are unable to succeed. Meaning Meaning of the term Stress could be briefly categorized as follows (a) James Haney 'Stress' is that feeling experienced by an individual at the time to work or during the time of work, or on completion of a particular task assigned to him by his superior from time to time. (b) Spielberger 'Stress' is regarded as an interaction between the coping skills possessed by an individual and the exact demands imposed by the environment surrounding him. (c) Matterson 'Stress' is consequence of any external action in the form of an adaptive response which is followed by individual characteristic or psychological factors affecting an individual during a given situation or even that calls for special physical or psychological favours from a particular individual. (d) Gilbert 'Stress' is an adaptive response shown by an individual during exceptional cases, whenever the individual tries to participate to accomplish the objectives of a group and it is mostly accompanied by physical, psychological factors. Stress is harmful to an individual hence, it has to be curtailed due to the following reasons (a) Stress reduces the capacity of the individuals to work hard and performs the accomplished task in the most dutiful manner. (b) It is not possible for the individuals to concentrate on the task due to stress which forces the individual to quit even before he had started. (c) Stress causes anxiety due to which an individual loses confidence in his capacity to perform the entrusted duties in the most profound manner. (d) Stress can create damaging physiological and psychological effects on an individual. (e) It may affect an individual's health thus causing hindrances while accomplishing a given task.
    • (f) It increases employee turnover and results in absenteeism. (g) It results in dwindling profits and loss of business for the firm. Nature of Stress Stress is supposed to be additive in nature but it builds up as time passes on and subsequently begins to threaten an individual to work. Each new and persisted stressor was presumed to add to an individual's stress level. In short one level leads to the other. Slowly it becomes a never ending process forcing an individual to take extreme steps. Stress does not arise on account of one important reason alone, it is the result of multiple factors affecting an individual at a particular point of time. One particular individual's sufferings could also affect the performances of his associates, hence in a way it is contagious, it has to be curtailed at the grass root level itself. Stress could also result physiological as well as psychological factors affecting an individual. Now, whether a person will be successful in dealing with stress normally depends on numerous factors like constitution, life-styles, attitudes but still efforts are continuously-' made by individuals as well as organizations to deal with stress. Now-a-days lack of privacy, noise, crowding, financial loss are all factors that may cause stress. Initially only psychological factors were taken into account, as they were assumed to be the only factors responsible, but the complexities of the problems of the business has nullified this myth, hence changes were also brought out in the way of dealing with stress. Sources of Stress These are as follows (a) Environmental Causes/ Sources (i) Economic Uncertainties Changes in business cycle create economic fluctuation and uncertainties that increases anxieties of people about job security causing stress to them, (ii) New Innovations .Use of advanced technologies and methods as well as various new innovations like computers, robotics, can make an employee's skill and knowledge obsolete in a very short period of time. This gives rise to stress of adopting to changing conditions. (b) Organizational Causes / Sources (i) Heavy Responsibility The heavy work responsibilities within an organization may give rise to severe strain on the employees. (ii) Role Conflict This is due to conflicting formal and informal group norms. This gives rise to stress. (iii) Interpersonal Demand Lack of social support and poor interpersonal relations can cause considerable stress.
    • (iv) Leadership Some supervisors believe in work culture of fear, tension and anxiety causing stress to employees working within such organization. (v) Organizational Culture Excessive rules and regulation, rigid controls also give rise to stress for working employees in such environment. (c) Personal Causes / Sources (i) Nature of Personality Some people are more stress prone than others carrying lot of stress. (ii) Changes in One's Life Changes, (good or bad) have a strong influence on person's health. Some life changes like the death of spouse etc. are very painful and stressful. Q.2 Explain the Various Consequences of Stress on Human-being. OR What are the Adverse Effects of Stress on Human? Ans. Consequences or Effects of Stress on Human To begin with, time has made man to think and act more dynamically due to which he is willing to undertake greater risks for earning something extra for his family. For this, he is willing to sacrifice anything in order to accomplish the predetermined target or goals. Besides this, the complex business problems also have forced human beings to put in extra effort to solve the above problems in the most appropriate manner so that the business does not come to a standstill. Complexities of the above problems have subsequently caused greater tensions to businessmen and entrepreneurs due to which these businessmen slowly started experiencing stress at work as well as at home. Stress is not just the tension but it is something more than that due to which experts advocated the use of sophisticated methods to eradicate them due to the following reasons. Experts stressed that stress should be eliminated due to the following ill effects. (a) Physiological Effects Man tends to suffer from physiological problems due to stress, experts from the medical world have discovered that stress could cause hindrances in man's daily routine, increase man's pulse rate, increase his Aldrein, increase in blood pressure etc. Besides these his capacity to perform also falls due to stress. High level of stress also compels man to suffer from insomnia, sleeping problem, sour-eyes, muscular problems etc. (b) Psychological Problems After physiological factors, there are some psychological factors which have a profound impact on the lifestyle of the entrepreneurs. Mental health may get affected due to anger, anxiety, depression, irritability, tension etc.
    • (c) Behavioural Problems Man's capacity to perform suddenly drops, his grasping power to grasp new things decreases, his life style gets affected. The entrepreneur finds it difficult to continue with his old eating habits due to which he slowly starts suffering from various types of ailments like fever, stomach ailments, viral fevers, infections, etc. Besides increased smoking, high consumption of alcohol, etc. affect him due to which his performance at work drops down to alarming levels. (d) Other Effects Besides the above, the entrepreneur's emotional processes start getting distorted and threatens to isolate himself from others. He slowly begins to feel helpless and overwhelmed with emotions. He slowly loses faith in himself, in his abilities to perform a given task and subsequently falls orey to the whims and prejudices of his associates which further reduces his capacities. Q.3 Discuss the different strategies / methods for coping with problem of Stress. OR Explain the Concept of 'Management of Stress". Ans. Strategies for Coping with Stress / Stress Management To begin with individuals and organizations suffer from various types of stress due to complexities of business problems, hence to cope with such stress measures have been adopted by them which could be briefly categorised as follows (i) Direct Coping Direct-coping involves various types of self-awareness programmes to avoid the far-reaching consequences of distress. Creating positive attitudes after checking the root cause of the problem is the basic aim of the above programme. (ii) Psychological Techniques Stress could be also be avoided by the aid of ego-defence mechanisms in order to preserve an individual's interests. Here individuals are thought to think rationally without making assumptions and by enabling them to project their feelings in the most precise as well as perfect manner. This also helps the employer to get a clear picture of his current status. (iii) Dysfunctional Coping Dysfunctional coping methods are suitable for organizations which conduct speculative dealings as a result of which it's employees may become alcoholics, drug addicts due to risks involved in speculative dealings. Here addicts are shown a path to recover and resume their duties once again. (A) Individual Strategies (i) Training for Organization Individual could be given guidance to manage their time accurately. If he can understand and utilise the basic time management principles, then he can very easily cope with tensions caused by the ever growing demands of the clients of the firm. Proper training ensures planning and subsequently the individual is in a better position to plan his activities with the main aim of accomplishing them. Thus proper training in this
    • area could enable them to accomplish twice as much as the person who is poorly organized. (ii) Personality Development Personality development assumes very great importance in today's hectic business world. One is attracted to a individual due to his personality irrespective of his financial position as it induces confidence in the minds of the employer especially in the job field. In fact people of all ages can easily cope better with stress by doing physical exercises to improve their personality as it exerts influence in case of failures. In other words personality development could enable individuals to cope better with stress. Infact some organizations even chalk out various programmes to train its employees in sports, swimming, jogging etc. which also forms an ideal part of the above training programmes. (iii) Relaxation Methods Relaxation methods especially meditation, hypnosis and other allied techniques could enable individuals to concentrate better to accomplish the given task in a more professional manner within the stipulated time. (iv) Social Support Some people experience stress if they get detached from their relatives or from their associates. In this case they should be treated warmly by the boss of the firm. Arrangement should also be made to encourage them to work hard by providing incentives from time to time. Besides this managers should als talk to them in an informal manner so as to enable them to feel at ease. Efforts should also be make by the manager to hold discussions with the subordinates to understand their personal problems. (v) Self-Control Efficient representatives should enable the manager to control the situation instead of letting the situation control the emotions of the coworkers. Proper thought should be given before sending someone on behalf of management body to pacify the employees to calm down thus preventing chaos. At no point of time the manager should lose his composure but should remain calm and collective. He should let people to know their limits so that the situation ultimately improves. (vi) Cognitive Therapy Managers, if time permitted should hold off-line lectures in an informal manner to reduce job stress. They should be adviced not to indulge in self-talks or cognitions. (vii) Accurate Selection Efforts should be made to employ employees based on their skills and tacts possessed by them instead of just considering their merits. Mostly individuals differ from one person to the other in their response to stress situations hence while selecting the individual for a particular job, management should consider factors which influence the candidates at the spur of moment. His general attitude towards a particular problem should also be considered. (viii) Re-designing Procedures By re-designing procedures, by improving
    • content factors, like responsibility recognition, opportunities etc. the management could very easily enable individuals to cope up with stress especially in the areas where the tasks are to be performed in the most skilful manner. (B) Organizational Strategies Under organizational strategies we have the following (i) Use of realistic goal setting Employer should set only attainable goals so that ambiguity and frustrations are reduced. (ii) Improving job characteristics Job characteristics like skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy should be improved through informal discussions. (iii) Increased personal involvements The boss at the enterprise should make himself available at all important meetings in order to understand the personal problems of the employees. In other words, it should create a supportive organizational climate for the employees to discuss. Q.4 "Stressors are Events that Threaten or Challenge an Organization's Well being". Explain the statement by critically categouring the different kinds of stressors. Ans. Introduction To begin with stressors are basically regarded as antecedents or forefathers of stress. Some-experts even advocate that stressors were only responsible for stress hence they should be first eradicated at the grass root level before proceeding further. Types of Stressors Stressors can be of many types but only the following four are worth noting (a) Extra-organizational stressors Gilbert identified extra organizational stressors as social, technological, environmental personal, relaxation, recreational, economic, financial changes etc. In other words human beings suffer from extra-organizational stressors due to environmental changes in their office, changes in the home atmosphere, or due to sudden fall in their financial position. (b) Organizational stressors Human beings suffer from organizational stressors due to change in the organizational policies, sudden stand taken by their managers in the office in order to cope up with pressures etc. A sudden fall in the economic conditions also influence human beings. (c) Group stressors Group stressors could influence human beings in the following ways (i) Group cohesiveness Group stressors affect individual entrepreneurs at their work while performing tasks. Straineous personal relationships due to lack of
    • group cohesiveness slowly retards the progress of the group. Previously confident entrepreneurs slowly begin to lose their confidence on their abilities to perform the entrusted task in the most appropriate manner. Now if the entrepreneurs start living separately after being in a group for long time then there is every chance that the entrepreneur might suffer from inadequacy of group cohesiveness. (ii) Lack of social support The entrepreneur might suffer from further woes if he does not receive social support or support from his family members form time to time. Moral support is very important for the success of the above entrepreneur. (iii) Conflicts Mutual conflicts could also increase stress in entrepreneurs. Individual Stressors Individual stressors could also affect entrepreneurs in the following ways (a) Role Role and responsibilities also sometimes lead to further stress in individuals or entrepreneurs. If a person is unable to understand the role which he is supposed to play in his office as well as at his home then there is a great chance that he might still suffer from stress even if he has made arrangements to combat other forms of stress. (b) Personal problems An individual's ability to shoulder responsibilities also has important bearing in this regard. In other words the person's capacity to perform the duties entrusted to him by the society also affect him. A person who has the tact to shoulder the responsibilities of the head of the family will be able to eradicate stress at the first junction itself. Poor attitudes, low profile, low self-esteem, negative thinking, pessimism ail could further increase stress in entrepreneurs. Q.5 Explain the Main Factors influencing Stress. Ans. Main Factors Influencing Stress (a) Environmental Factors Every human being irrespective of his financial position and irrespective of his position at the job front, has tensions. Today's technology no doubt has benefited mankind in number of ways, yet it also brought untold miseries for mankind. The new technology not only brought pace but also tensions and subsequently man was forced to get rid of those tensions in order to enable him to accomplish the objectives in the most appropriate manner. Besides this, as the business flourished he slowly started suffering from stress but he was not able to get rid of it using the appropriate measures, but there were some which could not be eradicated by human beings for which some experts gave the following important reasons. Environmental factors are such that it still influences a person's lifestyle even after the person has made arrangements to get rid of stress. In short, these factors influence stress to the greatest extent due to .which man is still forced to suffer from the same problems as before.
    • Organizations are worst affected by the environmental factors due to which the employees lose the will power to work hard and pursue their goals in the right earnest. The employees suffer from depression when there is downward swings in the economy. They also become immune to stress as a result of anxiousness about job security due to layoffs as the profits of the companies slowly start dwindling. (b) Organizational Problems Organizational factors within the organization could also sometimes cause stress to the employees. Working atmospheres within the orgranisation could also lead to stress. Inter-dependence and poor personal relationships generally cause worries and tensions, thus leading to conflicts of opinions. Undesirable and dangerous working conditions like overcrowding, bad heat and light conditions etc. also could aggravate the problems of the employees further. (c) Individual Problems Individual factors normally are from the employee's own personal life. Matrimonial issues, family issues, personal economic problems and personality characteristics happen to threaten the progress of an individual. Sometimes it so happens that an individual is quite happy at the job field but personal problems at the domestic front force him to quit the current job and look for better opportunities elsewhere. Q.6 Give Classification of Stress in Different Category. Ans.: Classification of Stress Stress can be classified into following categories (a) According to Effect Under this category, an individual experiences positive or negative vibrations. He might either become eccentric or might end up having depression. So either way this stress is supposed to be harmful. Under this kind of stress individuals experience three types of feelings which are as follows (i) Eustress - Positive Stress (ii) Distress - Negative Stress (iii) Neustress - Indifference to Stress (b) According to Availability The type of stress is again divided into two categories (i) Avoidable Stress Stress due to past reasons forcing individual to hide or refrain from meeting others or when the individual had just decided not to meet a particular person, even if he had noticed him from a distance. (ii) Non-avoidable Stress This stress affects an individual when he breaks down after receiving the news that his dearest friend had departed due to accident. (iii) According to intensity Intensity stress is supported to be very harmful but
    • there are very rare methods to curb them. This occurs in the following two kinds of persons (1) To that person who had received news of death of close relative. (2) To that person who is going to give an examination. (iv) According to levels Here we normally take the case of job stress Job stress occurs in individuals as well as organizations. (v) According to Emergence Under this we have the following sources of stress (1) When an individual is trying to adjust in the given surroundings. (2) When he is trying to adapt himself to the new atmosphere at the office. (3) When an individual is confused. (4) When an individual is convicted after he has been proved guilty. (5) When an individual is egoist. (6) When an individual suffers from dejection, depressions. (7) When the individual's place of work, is not according to his liking or when it is situated at a place not as per his liking. Q.7 State the Different Types of Stress for Managers at Work. Ans. Stress for Managers at Work Following are some factors which may cause stress for managers at work (a) Pressures Factors intrinsic to the job namely time pressure, duty pressures, decision-making pressure, responsibilities. (b) Responsibilities They also suffer due to the responsibilities such as roleambiguity, conflicts of opinions, role-conflicts tc. (c) Poor Interaction Due to existing atmosphere at the job. Poor interactions with the colleagues could also result in stress. (d) Heavy Work Load Managers, if possible should try to delegate authority to the right subordinate in case of heavy work load and if the nature of work happens to be a routine one. Efforts should be made to avoid duplication of simple functions by use of sophisticated tools and equipments to save time. Otherwise it may so happen that managers are able to cut the cost of an overhead but as a result have to spend in other areas resulting into stress to the manager, when he .is not able to maintain the costs to minimum. Besides this the manager may also suffer from stress when the allowances are too nominal
    • but the expenses are exorbitant. Such a situation should be tackled skillfully by devicing a proper plan to accomplish the objectives with minimum cost without sacrificing quality. (e) Tension and Conflicts Tensions and mutual conflicts of opinions prevailing in a group headed by a disciplined manager could add to stress for the remaining managers if they continue to perform the entrusted task without changing their ways of pursuing it. (f) Lack of Support Lack of support at the crucial moments could also be increasing a manager's tensions and subsequently would suffer from stress thus ruining his career. Clibert and Paker have conducted in depth research on the topic of "Stress" and found that middle managers have greater problems to suffer due to stress. In fact they show more psychological and physical stress symptoms.
    • 13 CHANGE MANAGEMENT Q.1 What do you mean by 'Organizational Change"? Explain its effect on Individual/Groups working in the Organization. Ans. Change (Meaning) Change is the law of nature. Change is a natural rule. Change has become a significant feature of modem environment. Change is the process by which future invades our life. An organization also have changes. Management is the controller administration of the business organsiation. Hence, it has to face resistance to change from employees who are human beings. Organizational Change Organizational change may be defined as any type of the modification or alteration of the existing system of the organization. Organizational Change and its Effect Organizational change implies the creation of imbalances in the existing pattern of situation. Change occasionally results in dis-equilibrium in the environment conditions of the organsiations. In order to remove this dis-equilibrium and to return to a normal state of balance, people take time for adaptation and adjustment to change. Man being dynamic, adjusts himself according to the environmental situation. If the change is beneficial to parties affected, it may be immediately accepted. If, on the other hand, change affects no one, the people will be quite indifferent. But, if change hurts anyone's interest, they will resist the change with their full strength. Q.2 What Steps should the Manager Take before Introducing Changes in the Industry? OR How would you Introduce a Change successfully in an Organization? OR What Steps would you Take to Overcome "Resistance to Change". Ans.: Steps to Implement to Overcome Resistance to Change The following steps can be taken by management to facilitate change acceptance (a) Consultation on the changes with workers/employees Before introducing any change, the employees should be fully consulted and they must be made a party to any sucn decision. The meaning and purpose of the change must be fully communicated to those who will be affected by it. Sufficient time should be allowed for discussion and for inviting their suggestions. (b) Planning for change Changes should not be forced at once They should be planned. People should get an opportunity to participate both in
    • planning the change and installing it. This will help the group of the affected people to recognise the need for change and thus, prepare themselves for receiving it without any fear. The time, place and quantum of change should be determined and the mode of introduction of change should also be planned. (c) Protection of employees' interests Management should ensure that employees will be protected from economic loss, in status or personal dignity. If these things are protected, the degree of resistance to change will be very low. (d) Group dynamics Group dynamics refers to the ever changing interactions and adjustments in the mutual perceptions and relationship among members of the groups. Such group interactions are the most powerful instruments which facilitate or inhibit adaptation to change. (e) Phased programme for change The management should not introduce any change at once and abruptly. It must create awareness of change and develop ability to be introduced in parts. This will not overload the management with responsibility and the whole system of change can be introduced with tested results at each stage. (f) Training In order to bring firmness in the changed order, the concerned employees should be properly trained. They should be able to know new techniques and knowledge. The concerning employees should be given orientation training. The policy of positive motivation should be used. (g) Income sharing Extra income desired from changes should not be taken away by the management only, but should be shared with all the employees. Q.3 Explain the Process of Planned Change. Ans. Process of Planned Change The following are the steps of Planned Change (a) Identifying the need for change The first basic step in planned change is to identify when change in the organization is required. It is because change for the sake of change may produce much stronger resistance. Useful and necessary changes may get support from people. Identification of need for change depends on 'gap analysis'. It is a study of difference between what the organization is achieving and what it should achieve. (b) Elements to be changed The process of identification of change will provide clue why change should take place. This stage takes the analysis further by diagnosing the problems caused by the change. It is to determine which change is necessary to remove the problem.
    • (c) Planning for change Planning for change includes, who will bring the change and how to bring the change? The first question relates to the persons who will work as "change agent" The second question is related with time dimension of change. (d) Assessing change forces There are many forces which affect change in either way. Management should assess every individual or group in relation to result of the change. Therefore, unless the major forces resisting change agree to change, it is impossible for the management to implement the changes successfully. (e) Implementation of change If the driving forces are stronger than the restraining forces, management can implement the change programme. The implementation of change programme requires the application of various techniques and interventions suitable for the change programme. (f) Feedback and follow-up action Management should receive the feedback of the staff members on the implementation of change programme. From the gathered feedback/ reactions , a follow-up action should be taken by the management. Q.4 What are the Objectives of Planned Change? Explain. Ans. Objectives of Planned Change Planned change is required for meeting the overall objectives of the enterprise. The enterprise has to make suitable changes in the internal and external forces in order to meet its objectives. Objectives of a planned change are as follows a. Environmental Adaptation An organization has to work in environment which is marked by dynamic characteristics. It is essential for the organization to maintain equilibrium. The organizational equilibrium is affected due to changes in the environment. Minor changes can be easily accommodated by the organization. But if the changes are not within the purview of existing framework then, it affects organizational equilibrium and its effectiveness. Under such circumstances, some innovation is essential for the organization. This innovation is in the form of different types of changes which the organization has to incorporate. Due to this reason every organization has adaptive sub-system like research and development department, market research department, training department, etc. (b) Individual Adaptation This is the second objective of the planned change. Unless and until some basic internal adaptation is achieved the objective of environmental adaptation cannot be achieved. Internal factors normally include individual, structure of the organization, tasks
    • undertaken, technology etc. In order to have organizational effectiveness, the changes are required to be introduced in the people i.e. people have to change according to changing circumstances their skills, attitudes, behaviour, working methods,communication system, leadership etc. Such changes should be introduced according to the need and requirement of the situation. (c) Structural Adaptation The organization structure is directly related to the attainment of the organizational objectives. Organization structure is the pattern of relationships among various positions and position holders. Structural adaptation involves making changes in the internal structure of the organization. Such as changes in the work assignment, structure of authority, pattern of relationships etc. Such changes are necessary as traditional relationships and interactions may become outdated, useless and invalid. (d) Technology Adaptation Due to ever increasing growth and importance of modern technology , an organization has to introduce the changes in the organization to cope with the changing environment. Technological changes include changes in plant and equipment, techniques of job performance, methods of production, etc. (e) Task Adaptation Technological changes result in introducing many types of changes in the organizational task. The existing job techniques may not be suitable for new types of jobs and job enlargement. Thus, a new equilibrium has to be found out which will suitably adjust people with their jobs. Many problems may arise in this process which will have to be encountered by planned change. Q.5 What are the Reasons for Organizational Change? OR What are the Types of Change? Discuss each one of them. Ans. Reasons for Organizational Change Following are some of the causes of organizational changes which lead to disequilibrium and resistance (a) Change in Tools, Machines and Equipments Technological or mechanical changes in machines, tools and equipments may bring change in the organization, i ">r example, installation of an automatic machinery in place of old machinery may result in displacement or replacement of people or loss of job to people and may create disequilibrium. (b) Change in Methods and Procedure Man is a creature of habits. He feels irritated when change occurs in methods and procedures of work of which he is accustomed to. As it takes time to adjust to the new environment, it creates disequilibrium till the complete adjustment to the new environment.
    • (c) Change in Business Condition Changes in business conditions such as change in the quality of product, change in the marketing system or practices, business cycles, changes in industrial policies, etc. will create disequilibrium in the work environment. (d) Change in Managerial Personnel Change in the managerial personnel in the organization may result in disequilibrium A personnel may retire or change place or may be appointed a fresh, this will all affect the policies, practices, procedures and programmes of the organization and the people are to adjust themselves accordingly. (e) Change in Formal Organization Structure The Formal organization structure establish a formal line of command of authority and responsibility in an organization. Along with these lines, channels of communication and interpersonal rei~ ons are established. If there is a change in this formal organization structure, there will be a change in the formal relationship which creates disequilibrium. (f) Change in Informal Organization Informal organization is a must in every formal organization. It is a very important part of our existence because many of our motivational forces find satisfaction in these relationship Consequently, when management likes to introduce any change that disturbs the informal relationship established among people, there is bond to be a state of imbalance. (g) Deficiencies in Existing Organization Organizations once are established cannot be said to be good for all times. Many defects may appear with the passage of time such as extention of plant, change in managerial functions, evolution of complex organization relationship, etc. They cause imbalance and need correction. So change is necessary to remove such deficiencies. Thus, the above reasons emphasis change in the organization which create imbalance in the relationship between employer and employee and between employee, and employee. So generally people resist towards change. Q.6 What are the Causes of 'Resistance to Change'? OR Why do People Resist Change? OR Write a note on "Resistance to Change". Ans. Resistance to Change There is a common thinking that every change in the organization is resisted either by the employees or by the management. It is because psychologically a man is not prepared to change of the situation in which he is accustomed to work. But, all changes are not resisted. Some changes are beneficial to the people and are liked and accepted. Some other changes are routine, that resistance is too small to be evident. But those changes harm the interest of any individual or group, it is likely to be resisted.
    • The reason why changes are resisted by the people may be analyzed under the following heads (a) Resistance by employees (b) Resistance by employer or management. (I) Causes of 'Resistance to Change' by Employees (a) Disturbance in existing equilibrium Workers are habitual to work in a particular situation and the change disturbs that situation of the environment in which the individuals and the groups exist. (b) Imbalance in satisfaction. (c) Insecurity to jobs A quick and violent resistance is possible where the change threatens either the status or job security to employees. If some employees are unemployed, even a minor change or revision of policies and procedure may evoke disturbing reactions. Introduction of new machinery or new technology may threaten job security and therefore, workers will resist the change. (d) Fear of economic loss Some changes may cause economic loss to most of the people such as stoppage of overtime, reduction of wage rates, abolition of promotional avenues, etc. In such cases, people do resist because of economic loss. (e) Change affects emotions and sentiments People are emotionally and sentimentally disturbed only with the name of change. Some people develop attachment towards certain things and they are psychologically disturbed when they fear detachment from them. (f) Disturbance of social relationship Change is likely to disturb the social relationship. Some persons are very loyal to their group. Change may affect group, norms, customs, etc. or even the composition itself. When a group is broken --nd a new group is to be formed, it is a very frustrating situation. This type of disturbance occurs where jobs are transferable. Family life of a person, who is transferred to some other place of the same organization, is disturbed and he is to start as a fresh in a new environment. (g) Lack of clarification Different people will see different meaning and interpretations in the proposed change. Some people may realize the change as an indication of their poor performance on the job while some others may assume that their branch would soon be closed. Thus, lack of clarification regarding the nature of change invites resistance from the workers. (h) Opposition only for the sake of opposition This kind of situation is found when a change is resisted emotionally and sentimentally without going into logic of it. need satisfaction Change may decrease need
    • (II) Causes of 'Resistance to Change' by Employers Employers or men in management resist the change on the following grounds (a) Increase in responsibility Any change which brings out a problem of readjustment of equilibrium of situation and environment is opposed fav the employer. Any responsibility of training employees, rescheduling -the work procedure, etc. may increase work load and so it is resisted. (b) Change proposed by Government and Labour Union .Changes' proposed by Government and labour union increase the financiaf "burden on the company, and therefore it is resisted. (c) Change on experimental basis Some men in the management does not favour temporary changes and oppose it, if they do not suit them. Q.7 What is the Role of Change Agents in Overcoming the Problems of Organizational Changes? Ans. Change Agent The change agent is the Management Consultant whose services are hired by the management while implementing any organizational changes. Change is a delicate as well as a difficult task to be accomplished in an organization The task is generally executed by the change agents who are either in power or those who seek to replace persons in power as stated by Wilson Siney, in his book Effective Use of Business Consultants. The change agent has to perform a difficult task to effect the needed change to achieve the organization's objective. He has to face resistance from different quarters to prevent change but he has to tread his way by removing those impediments. He may have to change (i) individual, (ii) structure, (iii) technology and (iv) even the organization process. Therefore, it is always safe to rely on an outsider rather than inside agent. The inside agent, i.e. the manager, may not be as effective as the management consultant due to non acceptability of direction of one peer by another peer. Anyhow, the change agent may decide about his own role Larry E. Short, while discussing the subject 'Planned Organizational Change' states that, a change agent may, "view his role as boss with absolute authority and responsibility for making and implementing decisions or as a partnership collaborating jointly with other employees in deciding on solutions to problems." The change agent may assume unilateral role at the instance of management. Only then he can assume absolute authority for making decisions. If the climate within the organization is congential he may assume collaborative role as the change agent which will prove effective in implementing change. The object of change agents is to bring desired change in organization, a
    • special role is required to be performed by them both internally and as an outsider. Hence, their role may also be different. (a) Role of External Agent Edgar H. Schein while analyzing 'Process of Consultation' observes that the consultant has a role in teaching, diagnostic and problem solving skills but he should not work on the actual concrete problem by himself. S. L. Maheshwari has identified the role of consultant in installing MBO, a programme for organizational change as follows (i) Education of the top management, (ii) Organizational diagnosis, (iii) Formulation of implementation strategy, (iv) Selection, training and supervision of MBO advisers, (v) Training of managers, (vi) Process consultants on the top level, (vii) Advice to the chief and top executives, (viii) Evolution and innovation, (ix) Integration of MBO process. (b) Role of Internal Agents They are more likely to accept the system as given and try to accommodate their change tactics to the need of the, organization. These internal agents are of two types chief executives and change adviser to chief executives, sponsor the change programmes and provides supports and leadership for its success of change adviser's role concerned with the organization to accept the change programme and is essentially educational. Thus, the advisor becomes socio-therapist, trying to help the system to help itself. Q.8 Explain Learning Organization. State its Characteristics. Ans. The Learning Organization is a concept that is becoming an increasingly widespread philosophy in modern companies, from the largest multinationals to the smallest ventures. What is achieved by this philosophy depends considerably on one's interpretation of it and commitment to it. The quote below gives a simple definition that we felt was the true ideology behind the Learning Organization. "A Learning Organization is one in which people at all levels, individuals and collectively, are continually increasing their capacity to produce results they really care about." Learning Organization The 'Learning Organization' has its origins in companies like Shell, where Ane de Geus described learning as the only sustainable competitive advantage. The Learning Organization is seen as a response to an increasingly unpredictable and dynamic business environment. Here are some definitions by key writers. "The essence of organizational learning is the organsiation's ability to use the amazing mental capacity of all its members to create the kind of processes that will improve its own" (Nancy Dixon 1994). "A Learning Company is an organsiation that facilitates the learning of all its members and continually transforms itself (M. Pedler, J. Burgoyne and Tom Boydell, 1991).
    • "Organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expensive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free and where people are continually learning to learn together". (Peter Senge, 1990). We have drawn on these and more to develop a definition to help guide managers warding to develop LO capabilities. Learning organizations are those that have in place systems, mechanisms and probesses, that are used continually to enhance their capabilities and those who work with it or for it, to achieve sustainable objectives - for themselves and the communities in which they participate. The important points to note about this definition are that learning organizations Are adaptive to their external environmeht. • • Continually enhance their capability to change/adapt. Develop collective as well as individual learning. Use the results of learning to achieve better results. A learning organization is not about 'mere training'. While training does help develop certain types of skill, a learning organization involves the development of higher levels of knowledge and skill. We have developed a 4-level model Level 1 Learning facts, knowledge, processes and procedures. Applies to known situations where changes are minor. Level 2 Learning new job skills that are transferable to other situations. Applies to new situations where existing responses need to be changed. Bringing in outside expertise is a useful tool here. Level 3 Learning to adapt. Applies to more dynamic situations where the solutions need developing. Experimentation, and deriving lessons from success and failure is the mode of learning here. Level 4 Learning to learn Is about innovation and creativity; designing the future rather than merely adapting to it. This is where assumptions are challenged and knowledge is reframed Furthermore this model (or adoption of it) can be applied at three levels - to the learning of individuals, of teams and of organizations. Organization that achieve learning to Level 4 will "reinvent not just their organization but their industry" (Hamei and Prahaled in Competing for the Future). Characteristics of Learning Organization (a) Learning Culture An organizational climate that nurtures learning. There is a strong similarity with those characteristics associated with innovation. (b) Processes Processes that encourage interaction across boundaries. These are infrastructure, development and management processes, as opposed to business operational processes (the typical focus of many
    • BPR initiatives). (c) Tools and Techniques Methods that aid individual and group learning, such as creativity and problem solving techniques. (d) Skills and Motivation To learn and adapt Q.9 Explain the Concept of Learning. State its Features. Ans. The term learning is frequently used in various context. The acquired skill, knowledge, attitude can be termed as learning in general context. Personal characteristics, job related performance can be learned. Therefore the question arises what is actual learning? What we get by learning etc. Is there any difference between academic learning, social learning, organizational learning? For getting detailed idea of learning, we have to take into consideration the definition of learning, approaches and methods of learning. Definition of Learning Learning can be defined as 'a relatively permanent change in the behaviour of an individual as a result of experience, practice and efforts'. Many attempts have been made to define learning 'as modification of one's behaviour.' Learning Means 'change in response of modification of behaviour, caused fully or partly by experience. It includes acquisition of skills, knowledge, symbolic behaviour, motor skills etc. According to Hull "The essential nature of learning process may however be stated quite simply as the process of learning consists in strengthening certain actions and behaviour skills." Kindly and Gray says learning is a process by which an organism is satisfying it's motivation, adopts and adjusts it's behaviour in order to overcome obstacles and barriers. Hunter and Higard defines learning is the process by which behaviour is originated or changed through practice or training. Garret defines learning is an organization of behaviour. Learning is the activity by virtue of which we organize our responses with new styles or habits. Murphy describes learning as a modification of both behaviour and the way of perceiving'. 13.10 Change Management Characteristics of Learning (i) Learning is a fundamental process of life to progress ourselves.
    • (ii) Learning is a continuous process, it starts from the birth itself and continue for the life. (iii) Learning involves change, improvement in one's behaviour. (iv) Learning is purposive or directed, it's not aimless activity. (v) Change through learning is not temporary but it is relative permanent in nature. (vi) Learning may be a change which is favourable or unfavourable performance. (vii) Learning is caused by training in experiences, conscious as well as unconscious experiences, (viii) Learning is creating response of an organism, result of modified behaviours.