Why 1789?


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Why 1789?

  1. 1. Events of 1789Short-term causes and main events of the French Revolution
  2. 2. Food shortages and poverty• Bad harvest in 1788• Price of bread shot up• Urban workers forced to spend more money on food• Decline in trade (nobody had money to buy manufactures)• Lower wages and unemployment
  3. 3. A bankrupt stateThe only way to avoidbankruptcy was to raisethe taxes.The nobles and theclergy refused to paytaxes and asked the kingto call theEstates General
  4. 4. Cahiers de Doléances• 1789: elections to choose deputies for the Estates General• People were invited to write down all their complaints (Cahiers de Doléances) so that the Estates General would discuss them• Over 60,000 cahiers were drawn up all over France
  5. 5. The Estates General• People in France had different ideas on how the Estates would come out – the King hoped it would agree to raise new taxes – the nobles hoped they would control it – the 3rd Estate had great hopes that it would solve all their problems• When the Estates General met in May 1789, Louis made a mistake: he did not propose major reforms
  6. 6. The Third Estate defies the King• Representatives of the 3rd Estate wanted greater freedom. They suggested that the Estates General meet together.• The nobility wanted the Estates to meet separately and vote by order – so the 1st and 2nd Estates would outvote the 3rd Estate• Frustrated at the strong possibility of being shut out by the other two Estates, the Third Estate declared themselves as the National Assembly on June 17, 1789
  7. 7. The Tennis Court Oath• All members of the Assembly (3rd Estate and a few members of the Clergy) swore that they would not leave until they had achieved their aims (Constitution for France)• The King was unwilling to use force and eventually ordered the first and second estates to join the new National Assembly. The Third Estate had won. Tennis Court Oath
  8. 8. Revolution!• People were afraid the King might use his army to destroy the Assembly• On July 14th, 1789 people in Paris stormed in Bastille -political prison for those who were considered enemies of the king jailed without proper trial.• The fall of the Bastille became a symbol of the fight against the tyranny and injustices of France’s absolute monarchy
  9. 9. The Great Fear• After the siege of the Bastille, a series of riots continued to break out amongst the peasants in the countryside.• Targets of the riots included nobles’ châteaux, monasteries, a nd buildings that housed public records—especially those containing records of their feudal obligations.
  10. 10. The End of the Ancien Régime• August 4th: the National Assembly abolishes the Feudal System (Estates, feudal dues, privileges, labou r services, tithe, tolls, c orvée)
  11. 11. Back to Paris, Louis!• People –mostly women- marched to Versailles in October to force the King and his family to return with them to Paris• Louis was now surrounded by ordinary people
  12. 12. The End of the Ancien Régime• October 26th: the National Assembly agreed to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen that set out exactly how the people of France were to be treated equally and fairly -only men though: women and slaves were not included• Louis XVI refused to give his consent to the end of Feudalism or the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
  13. 13. The events of 1789 5-6 October Draw the boxes with the dates 26 August 4 August 14 July19 – 20 June
  14. 14. Task – look at the pictures & put the events into the correct box• Storming of the Bastille prison. The Great Fear – riots & attacks on nobles• National Assembly forms. Tennis Court oath• Women march on Versailles & force Louis to return to Paris• Feudal system abolished• Declaration of the Rights of Man & Society