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Water and landforms

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Water and landforms Water and landforms Presentation Transcript

  • Water and LandformsWater and Landforms
  • The Water CycleThe Water Cycle
  • Drainage basinDrainage basin
  • River processesRiver processes Rivers do more than carry water across theRivers do more than carry water across the land. They help shape the landscape, affectland. They help shape the landscape, affect human activity and are a valuable resourcehuman activity and are a valuable resource Key terms you need to knowKey terms you need to know:: Erosion-Erosion- Attrition, Corrasion, Corrosion, Hydraulic Action Transportation-Transportation- Traction, Saltation, Suspension, Solution DepositionDeposition Use page 6 of Key Geography to ensure you know what these words mean
  • The course of a riverThe course of a river • Rivers are split intoRivers are split into UpperUpper,, MiddleMiddle andand LowerLower coursescourses • Each stage has different characteristics-Each stage has different characteristics- UpperUpper LowerLowerMiddleMiddle The upper course is usually steep, but narrow. V- shaped valley The middle course is less steep. The river starts to meander. Valley sides are also less steep The lower course is almost flat. The valley is wide. Meanders and ox-bow lakes
  • V shaped valley River source Slopes attacked by weathering Rocks and pebbles moved along the bed River erodes downwards Gravity and rainwater move material downwards Weathered and eroded material transported by river How is a V-shaped valley made?
  • The river cuts downward to form a ‘V’shaped valley. The river starts to meander
  • River uses its meanders to cut from side to side eating into the valley Floodplain starts to form
  • Floodplain River bluffs River cliff Alluvial deposits
  • Waterfalls form when there is a sudden interruption in the course of a river. Many waterfalls form when rivers meet a band of softer, less resistant rock after flowing over relatively hard, resistant rock. The underlying softer rock is worn away more quickly, and the harder rock is undercut. In time the overlying harder rock will become unsupported and will collapse. After its collapse, some of the rock will be swirled around by the river, especially during times of high discharge, to form a deep plunge pool. This process is likely to be repeated many times, causing the waterfall to retreat upstream and leaving a steep-sided gorge. Rapids occur where the layers of hard and soft rock are very thin, and so no obvious break of slope develops as in a waterfall.
  • MeandersMeanders
  • Oxbow lakesOxbow lakes
  • FloodingFlooding You need to know about 2 case studies onYou need to know about 2 case studies on flooding-flooding- • MEDC such as Mississippi, CartagenaMEDC such as Mississippi, Cartagena • LECD such as BangladeshLECD such as Bangladesh Create a table to compare and contrast the floods. Include: •Facts & figures •Causes •Effects – social and economic •Solutions
  • Mississippi Floods 1993 Scale: Local & Regional Key Points: • 4th longest river in the world- drains 1 third of USA • Mississippi has been heavily engineered • April 1993 saw bad rain, but did the engineering make the floods worse? Background info: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
  • Economy Environment Social ++ -- Conclusions: ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Boscastle Floods 2004 Scale: Local Key Points: • Boscastle is situated on the northwest coast of Cornwall, near Bude • It is situated at the confluence of the River Valency and its tributaries • Amazingly nobody died Background info: On Monday 16th August, following a period of heavy rainfall, Boscastle was subject to flash flooding causing extensive damage to property and affecting the whole community. A torrent of water ten feet high surged through the village when around two and a half inches of rain fell in just two hours. Hundreds of people were evacuated from their homes, and people had to be rescued from roofs, trees, and vehicles. There were dozens of tourists visiting the picturesque resort at the time.
  • Economy Environment Social ++ -- Conclusions: ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ____
  • HomeworkHomework Have a go at the ‘Water and Rivers’ section on the BBC GCSE Bitesize web page http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/