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© Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 35
Volcanoes
These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in ...
© Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 35
What is a volcano?
Why do volcanoes occur?
Where are volcanoes found?
What happened in the 19...
© Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 35
A volcano is an opening or vent in the earth’s surface
through which molten material erupts a...
© Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 35
Volcanic bombs,
ash, lava, gases
Magma chamber
Parasitic cone
Crater
Main vent
Label this cro...
© Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 35
Crater
Volcanic
bombs, ash
and gases
Main vent
Parasitic
cone
Magma
chamber
Cross section of ...
© Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 35
Cross section of a volcano
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Volcanic emissions
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Volcanic emissions
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Active volcano – liable to erupt e.g. Mt Etna.
Dormant (sleeping) volcano – a volcano which
h...
© Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 35
What is a volcano?
Why do volcanoes occur?
Where are volcanoes found?
What happened in the 1...
© Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 35
A destructive plate boundary is found where a
continental plate meets an oceanic plate.
The ...
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Destructive plate boundary
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At a constructive plate boundary, two plates move apart.
As the two plates move apart, magma...
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Constructive plate boundary
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Volcano shapes
Why do volcanoes have different shapes?
© Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 35
Volcano shapes
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Volcanic activity at plate margins
© Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 35
What is a volcano?
Why do volcanoes occur?
Where are volcanoes found?
What happened in the 1...
© Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 35
Around which plate do we find most volcanoes?
Where are volcanoes found?
© Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 35
The Hawaiian islands are a chain
of volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean.
Hawaii
Look at their loc...
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Hot spot volcanoes
In the animation above, why are the volcanoes to the left of
the ‘hot spo...
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What is a volcano?
Why do volcanoes occur?
Where are volcanoes found?
What happened in the 1...
© Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 35
Mt St Helens is located on the ‘Ring of Fire’.
Mt St Helens eruption (May 1980)
Internet Lin...
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Mt St Helens is located on a destructive plate boundary
where a continental plate (North Ame...
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Mt St Helens – the eruption
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N
0 10km
Mt St Helens – consequences of the eruption
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BEFORE
AFTER
Mt St Helens – consequences of the eruption
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What damage did the eruption cause?
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What benefits might the volcanic activity have brought to
Mt St Helens?
Why do you think ani...
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What is a volcano?
Why do volcanoes occur?
Where are volcanoes found?
What happened in the 1...
© Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 35
Predicting eruptions
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The problem of prediction
Volcanologists (people who study volcanoes)
are skilled at predict...
© Boardworks Ltd 200533 of 35
What is a volcano?
Why do volcanoes occur?
Where are volcanoes found?
What happened in the 1...
© Boardworks Ltd 200534 of 35
Tourists are attracted to
areas of volcanic activity.
Geothermal energy can be
produced in m...
© Boardworks Ltd 200535 of 35
Virtual field visits
http://educeth.ethz.ch/stromboli/
The Michigan Technological University...
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Volcanoes

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  • This ‘conveyor belt’ animation is a simplified version of the formation of hot spot volcanoes/ chains of islands.
    Internet Links – US Geological Survey Hawaiian volcanoes
    http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/
    While all care is taken to ensure web links contain useful information, Boardworks does not take responsibility for the content or accuracy of external web sites.
  • While all care is taken to ensure web links contain useful information, Boardworks does not take responsibility for the content or accuracy of external web sites.
  • Animation showing the Mt St Helen’s eruption with text.
  • Other impacts of the 1980 St Helens eruption (students may be encouraged to explore how short-term impacts can have long-term consequences)
    60 people die from the eruption.
    Two million birds, animals and fish are killed.
    Damage to crops=$175million
    The post office and Lone Fir Motel shut down in Cougar.
    The US army takes 18 months to dig out the debris from the River Toutle.
  • While all care is taken to ensure web links contain useful information, Boardworks does not take responsibility for the content or accuracy of external web sites.
  • Transcript of "Volcanoes"

    1. 1. © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 35 Volcanoes These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2005
    2. 2. © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas? Learningobjectives
    3. 3. © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 35 A volcano is an opening or vent in the earth’s surface through which molten material erupts and solidifies as lava. Volcanic vent What is a volcano?
    4. 4. © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 35 Volcanic bombs, ash, lava, gases Magma chamber Parasitic cone Crater Main vent Label this cross section of a volcano
    5. 5. © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 35 Crater Volcanic bombs, ash and gases Main vent Parasitic cone Magma chamber Cross section of a volcano
    6. 6. © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 35 Cross section of a volcano
    7. 7. © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 35 Volcanic emissions
    8. 8. © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 35 Volcanic emissions
    9. 9. © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 35 Active volcano – liable to erupt e.g. Mt Etna. Dormant (sleeping) volcano – a volcano which has not erupted for many years. For example, Mt Pinatubo erupted in 1991 after 500 years of dormancy. Extinct volcano – a volcano which has not erupted for many thousands or millions of years e.g. Edinburgh. However, it is often very difficult to tell whether a volcano will erupt again…El Chichon, Mexico erupted in 1982 after being dormant for approximately 1200 years! Do all volcanoes erupt?
    10. 10. © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas? Learningobjectives
    11. 11. © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 35 A destructive plate boundary is found where a continental plate meets an oceanic plate. The oceanic plate descends under the continental plate because it is denser. As the plate descends it starts to melt due to the friction caused by the movement between the plates. This melted plate is now hot, liquid rock (magma). The magma rises through the gaps in the continental plate. If it reaches the surface, the liquid rock forms a volcano. Why do they happen?
    12. 12. © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 35 Destructive plate boundary
    13. 13. © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 35 At a constructive plate boundary, two plates move apart. As the two plates move apart, magma rises up to fill the gap. This causes volcanoes. However, since the magma can escape easily at the surface, the volcano does not erupt with much force. Why do they happen?
    14. 14. © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 35 Constructive plate boundary
    15. 15. © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 35 Volcano shapes Why do volcanoes have different shapes?
    16. 16. © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 35 Volcano shapes
    17. 17. © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 35 Volcanic activity at plate margins
    18. 18. © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas? Learningobjectives
    19. 19. © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 35 Around which plate do we find most volcanoes? Where are volcanoes found?
    20. 20. © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 35 The Hawaiian islands are a chain of volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii Look at their location on the map below. Why is this an unusual place for them to be located?
    21. 21. © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 35 Hot spot volcanoes In the animation above, why are the volcanoes to the left of the ‘hot spot’ extinct?
    22. 22. © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas? Learningobjectives
    23. 23. © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 35 Mt St Helens is located on the ‘Ring of Fire’. Mt St Helens eruption (May 1980) Internet Links http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/msh/msh.html
    24. 24. © Boardworks Ltd 200524 of 35 Mt St Helens is located on a destructive plate boundary where a continental plate (North American) meets an oceanic plate (Juan de Fuca). Mt St Helens – causes of the eruption Juan de Fuca plate North American plate Which plate is denser? Describe what happens when the oceanic plate descends under the continental plate.
    25. 25. © Boardworks Ltd 200525 of 35 Mt St Helens – the eruption
    26. 26. © Boardworks Ltd 200526 of 35 N 0 10km Mt St Helens – consequences of the eruption
    27. 27. © Boardworks Ltd 200527 of 35 BEFORE AFTER Mt St Helens – consequences of the eruption
    28. 28. © Boardworks Ltd 200528 of 35 What damage did the eruption cause?
    29. 29. © Boardworks Ltd 200529 of 35 What benefits might the volcanic activity have brought to Mt St Helens? Why do you think animals such as the vole and gopher survived the blast? How did their survival benefit the area? Mt St Helens – consequences of the eruption
    30. 30. © Boardworks Ltd 200530 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas? Learningobjectives
    31. 31. © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 35 Predicting eruptions
    32. 32. © Boardworks Ltd 200532 of 35 The problem of prediction Volcanologists (people who study volcanoes) are skilled at predicting the likelihood of an eruption. However, it's very difficult to pinpoint exactly when an eruption will happen. Often, moving magma doesn't result in an eruption, but instead cools below the surface. Monitoring potential eruptions is expensive. With many volcanoes erupting only every few hundred years, it's not possible to monitor every site.
    33. 33. © Boardworks Ltd 200533 of 35 What is a volcano? Why do volcanoes occur? Where are volcanoes found? What happened in the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption? Can volcanic eruptions be predicted? Why do people live in volcanic areas? Learningobjectives
    34. 34. © Boardworks Ltd 200534 of 35 Tourists are attracted to areas of volcanic activity. Geothermal energy can be produced in many volcanic areas. Can you think of any other reasons? This lava is weathered (broken down) to form a fertile soil. Why do people live in volcanic areas?
    35. 35. © Boardworks Ltd 200535 of 35 Virtual field visits http://educeth.ethz.ch/stromboli/ The Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/ Global Volcanism Program http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/ Fallout: Eye on the Volcano http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/volcanoes/ Savage earth http://www.pbs.org/wnet/savageearth/ Volcano World - a fun and informative web site http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/ Internet links

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