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The Spanish Empire


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  • 1. The Spanish Empire
  • 2. The conquest of the Americas • Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec territory in Mexico (1504- 1519) • Francisco Pizarro took over Inca territory in Peru (1524 – 1533) • Resources, especially gold & silver and new foods were exported to Spain
  • 3. What is this? Where is it ?
  • 4. 1519 – 1522 First circumnavigation of the Magellan globe by……..?
  • 5. stern rudder
  • 6. Masts & crow’s nest Crew cabin
  • 7. Timeline! • The 16th and 17th centuries were times of change for Spain • After the defeat of the Muslims and the conquest of the Americas, Spain became the most important country in Europe • But the road to supremacy was not easy… on the contrary! • TASK: build a timeline for the period 1516-1700
  • 8. The Habsburg dynasty What is a dynasty? Who were the Habsburgs?
  • 9. Carlos I of Spain & V of HRE 1516 - 1556 • Born in Flanders • Inherited all Spain’s and Holy Roman Empire (HRE) territories • When he first arrived in Spain,he hardly spoke the Spanish language • He put many foreign nobles in the most important government positions • He spent lots of Castilian money in wars
  • 10. Carlos´ inheritance
  • 11. European territories
  • 12. Carlos V Empire
  • 13. How did Carlos V rule? • The government of such a big empire was not easy • Many different territories, with their own laws and institutions demanded a big effort to maintain • Carlos V did not have absolute power • He governed using councils like the Catholic monarchs before him • His revenues came from taxes from Castilla and precious metals from America • BUT he spent a lot of money on expensive wars to preserve territories and influence
  • 14. The council system of government Carlos did not have absolute power. He needed the approval from the Parliaments of each state. There was no one capital city – the court moved around
  • 15. Problems at home - Revolt of the Comuneros (1520 – 1521) • Carlos angered both Castilian cities (taxes)and Castilian nobles (important positions in government) • The revolt started in Toledo and spread to other cities, with the support of the nobles in the beginning • An agreement with the nobles allowed Carlos to defeat the revolt in 1521 • Changes in the government were introduced afterwards
  • 16. Revolt of the Comuneros Put these statements into the correct column in the table: • Taxes on the Spanish bourgeoisie were spent outside Spain • He appointed Castillian nobles to the court • He spent more time in Spain • Carlos raised his son, Felipe, at the Spanish court • Government positions were given to nobles from Flanders • He spent a lot of time being Holy Roman Emperor BEFORE REVOLT AFTER REVOLT Execution of the Comuneros leaders
  • 17. Problems abroad? • Carlos fought against foreign powers to defend his authority & the Catholic religion – He defeated the French, his main rival in 1544 – He fought the Turks (1529-1541) who were invading from the east – He confronted the German princes who supported Luther & Protestantism – He continued his fight against the Moors of North Africa & defended his territory in Italy
  • 18. How did Spain change under Carlos? • The population increased • The economy was very dependent on sheep farming & the export of wool to the Netherlands • Arable farming lost land to sheep so there was less food produced • Taxes increased to finance the expensive wars
  • 19. 1556 – Carlos abdicated • Carlos divided his territories between his son Felipe & brother, Fernando. – Felipe received Spain, Low Countries, parts of Italy, colonies in North Africa, the Americas & Far East. Felipe also took over all Portuguese territories when the king died in 1580 with no heir. – Fernando received Austria, Hungary & Bohemia and became the Holy Roman Emperor
  • 20. Felipe II (1556-1598) and the organization of the empire • Carlos’ empire divided • Felipe inherited territories from Spanish and Portuguese crowns • Spain as the centre of his monarchy • Madrid becomes capital • TASK: colour map showing Philip’s empire
  • 21. Felipe II and the organization of the empire
  • 22. Felipe II and the organization of the empire Felipe’s policies 2 main objectives to defend Catholicism to preserve the Spanish Empire
  • 23. Put these statements under the correct policy • • • • • • He went to war with France, England & Turkey He used the Inquisition against non-Catholics He controlled a revolt in the Low Countries He sent new expeditions to the America He allowed no religious freedom The Spanish set up large estates(haciendas) for agriculture in the Americas • Missionaries extended Catholicism in the New World • He suppressed a Morisco revolt in 1568
  • 24. The Golden Age of Sevilla Alonso Sánchez Coello. 1531 – 1588.
  • 25. Densely populated town on both banks of the river Giralda tower of the cathedral Royal Mint – where money was made Triana Bridge across Guadal quivir shipbuilding Galleons being loaded and unloaded Local ferries
  • 26. Felipe II and the organization of the empire 1) Look at the map showing Philip’s empire and think: People used to say that the sun never set over Felipe’s empire. What did they mean? 2) Look at your diagram and answer: What was the cost of keeping such a big empire together? Did Felipe succeed?
  • 27. Financial problems COSTS > REVENUE COST OF WARS Gold & Silver from Americas
  • 28. Felipe II Declared bankrupt 1557 1575 1596 Spain had a debt of 85 million ducats in 1598 when Felipe died
  • 29. Was Felipe an absolute monarch? • HOMEWORK - Read the passage & decide if you think Felipe II was an absolute monarch. Highlight in one colour arguments in favour & arguments against in another colour
  • 30. 1598 The will of Felipe II
  • 31. Spain loses its supremacy (17th century) • Felipe III (right), Felipe IV and Carlos II had to face serious internal problems and conflicts with other powers • Spain lost its supremacy during the 17th century due to a series of reasons.
  • 32. Why did Spain lose its supremacy THREE WEAK KINGS Favourites (validos) ruled for them Eg Count-Duke Olivares – – • • • • • Born in Rome Father Felipe II ambassador Educated in Salamanca 1621-1641 ‘ruled’ Spain Policy of centralization led to revolts
  • 33. Problems in the family! Felipe III Felipe IV Carlos II
  • 34. Spain loses its supremacy Classify the events on the photocopy into the following boxes Domestic Policy Felipe III (1598-1621) Felipe IV (1621-1665) Carlos II (1665-1700) Foreign Policy
  • 35. Thirty Years War, 1618 - 1648 • Religious & political conflict • Bohemian Protestants rebelled against Fernando II, Holy Roman Emperor • Spain helped to repress the revolt but United Provinces (Low Countries), England, Denmark & Sweden supported rebels • France allied itself with the Protestants in 1635
  • 36. Treaty of Westphalia 1648
  • 37. Independence of the United Provinces TASK: COMPLETE MAP OF 1648
  • 38. A CRISIS IN SPAIN • • • • • Large debts Population declined Agriculture declined Industry & trade declined Sources of wealth disappeared TASK – Classify the processes of the crisis
  • 39. Analyse the short & long term causes of the Spanish crisis • Events – – – – – Series of bankruptcies France joined 30 Years War Chief Ministers governed not Kings Crisis in agriculture, craft & trade Population decline SHORT TERM LONG TERM
  • 40. • Carlos II died in 1700 with no heir • War of Spanish Succession began to decide the next King • Felipe V became King – he was the grandson of Louis XIV of France
  • 41. Felipe V 17001724 House of Bourbon
  • 43. Spain loses its supremacy • Revise the table and using the information on page 104 answer the following Qs: 1) What problems did the empire face within its borders? 2) What happened to Spanish supremacy? Why? 3) Draw a mind map about the reasons of the Spanish crisis (p.104)
  • 44. Spain loses its supremacy • The fight for the supremacy in Europe did not end with the Spanish crisis. Use the information on page 105 to complete the chart. years country 1504-1648 characteristics Spain 1648-1700 • Peace of Westphalia: …. after 1700 • trade • parliamentary states • strong bourgeoisie
  • 45. Homework • Answer the Qs on the Count/Duke of Olivares • Think and answer: 1) Which country became the most powerful in Europe after 1648? Can you think why? 2) Why did England and the United Provinces became important in the late 17th century? 3) Which social group grew in importance? Why?