The appearence of the workers movement


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The appearence of the workers movement

  1. 1. The rise of the workers movement
  2. 2. The beginning• Concentration of thousands of workers in factories• Workers aware of their situation – working conditions – living conditions – political participation• Workers try to improve their working and living conditions through collective actions• New ideas
  3. 3. Luddites• Firsts protests• Irrational reaction• Workers attacked machines, feeling they were guilty of the workers’ situation
  4. 4. Trade unions• Until 1820s workers were not allowed to form associations to defend their interests• First organizations recognized in Britain in 1824• Trade unions are born
  5. 5. Workers’ methods and claims• Main instrument of pressure: strike• Claims – reduction of working hours – abolition of child labour – rising of wages – improvement in working conditions – creation of unemployment, sickness and old age insurance – universal suffrage
  6. 6. • Employers and government tried to break the labour movement – sanctions and dismissals – police and army to quell strikes and demonstrations
  7. 7. New ideas: Marxism• Socialist theory Karl Marx• Marx & Engels• Class struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat in industrial societies• Workers: revolution to destroy capitalism• Goal: communist society – no classes – no private property – no state• Political struggle: parties and organizations
  8. 8. New ideas: Anarchism Proudhon Bakunin• Opposed to the State; voluntary association• Rejected politics and political participation• Proudhon, Bakunin and Kropotkin• Violent action Kropotkin• Revolutionary unions + social revolution
  9. 9. International Workers Associations• Goal: unite all workers organizations in the world to unite their struggles• First attempt: 1864-1876 – failed due to dissagreements between socialists and anarchists• Second attempt: 1889 – Marxist ideology – symbols of identity
  10. 10. Achievements• Legislation to end abuses by employers and improve workers’ working and living conditions – banning of child labour – maternity leave – obligation to pay accident insurances – reduction of working hours to 8 per day
  11. 11. 1) What is the labour movement? When was it born? Why did it spread?2) What were the claims of workers?3) Draw 2 star diagrams with the main characteristics of the 2 ideologies of the labour movement4) Read sources a & b and answer: a. Which text was written by Marx and which one was written by Koptkin? b. Underline the key words to support your answer in a5) Draw a poster/ sign. Imagine you’re a member of the labour movement. Which ideas do you support? Why? What are your claims?6) Do you think that workers would have had any chance to defend their rights without unions? Why?7) Look for news on Spain and explain what problems are workers facing today. What are their requests? Why? Do you think they have a good strategy to solve their problems? Why?