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Farming Systems
 

Farming Systems

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BW presentation. Thank you Ms Edge!

BW presentation. Thank you Ms Edge!

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  • If you play this animation without the labels, you can get your class to try to spot the inputs, processes and outputs themselves.
  • You can also discuss other feedback loops such as the waste products/manure becoming inputs.
  • A good way to approach this activity is to eliminate the unsuitable crops one by one. Answers Farm A – The cool climate, high rainfall, moderate fertility and steep relief make this farm ideal for pastoral farming. However, the land may be too steep for cattle, and the distance to the nearest market makes it unsuitable for dairy farming. Therefore the correct answers are wool and lamb. Farm B – flat, fertile land and low rainfall make this farm suitable for cereal crops. There is not enough rain or labour for rice production. Therefore the correct answers are maize and wheat. Farm C – there is too much rain for cereal crops like maize and wheat. The hot climate does not favour lush pasture land for livestock, but is good for tropical produce. There is no money for investment, but ample labour, making the farm suitable for rice production and banana growing. Farm D – this farm has lots of money for investment and is situated close to large urban markets. The soil and climate are suitable for pastoral farming, so milk production is a good idea – especially as it would not need transporting far. The available capital could be used to produce high-value crops for the nearby urban markets. Greenhouses could be built to produce salad crops – these can be sold for a high price, and transported to the nearby towns before they spoil. Therefore the correct answers are milk and tomatoes.

Farming Systems Farming Systems Presentation Transcript

  • © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 23 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 23 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Farming Systems
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 23 Learningobjectives What is a farming system? What different types of farming are there? What factors affect farming in the UK?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 23 Inputs, processes and outputs Farming systems involve inputs, processes and outputs. Other systems do too: Look at this Jam-making system INPUTS PROCESSES OUTPUTS Things you need to supply to the system, e.g. fruit, sugar, labour. Things you do to the inputs, e.g. boiling, stirring. The results – what you make in the end. In this case, jam!
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 23 Farming system
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 23 Farming system Inputs labour capital seeds animals fertilizers pesticides Processes ploughing sowing spraying adding fertilizer harvesting grazing milking Outputs wheat potatoes barley seeds crop waste milk hides wool eggs profit
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 23 Farming system
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 23 “I got up at 5:30 and fed the dogs. I took them up the fell on the quad bike to check on the ewes. The grass is very short at the moment, and the ewes looked a bit thin, so I took them some hay up in the Landrover. I spent the afternoon mending the fences in the lower field.” A cereal farmer “I got up early and was in the farm office by 8:30. The fertilizer I had ordered arrived at 9:00, and I made sure it was safe in the barn before I went to the tractor shed. I spent the rest of the day ploughing, ready for the wheat to be sown next week. Angus used the other tractor for sowing oilseed rape in the next field.” A day in the life of… An upland sheep farmer
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 23 OUTPUTS PROCESSES INPUTS An example of a real farm system A Dairy Farm 80 Cows10 tonnes of fertilizer 30 tonnes of feed Vet bills 65 hectares of pastureLabour Spreading fertilizer Making silage Milking Feeding and tending cows 600,000 litres of milk per year CalvesManure
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 23 Learningobjectives What is a farming system? What different types of farming are there? What factors affect farming in the UK?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 23 What are the different types of farming? ArablePastoral CommercialSubsistence IntensiveExtensive
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 23 What are the different types of farming?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 23 Subsistence and Commercial Subsistence farmers grow food for themselves and their families. Their farms are usually small and they do not have enough money to invest in chemicals or machinery. Subsistence farmers usually live in LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries). Commercial farmers sell their produce. Their farms are usually larger, and more modern. In practice, most farmers sell or trade at least part of their produce – there are few true subsistence farmers.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 23 Commercial or subsistence?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 23 Intensive and Extensive Intensive farming involves getting the maximum possible yield from the land. This means putting in a lot of inputs. Rice production in the Ganges valley needs lots of labour and a good irrigation system. Tomato and pepper growing in the San Joaquin Valley, California uses expensive greenhouses and other equipment. Extensive farming involves using very few inputs. It usually needs a lot of land instead. Upland sheep farming in Cumbria. Prairie wheat farming in the Canadian prairies.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 23 What are the different types of farming?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 23 Learningobjectives What is a farming system? What different types of farming are there? What factors affect farming in the UK?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 23 Farming distribution in the UK
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 23 Accessibility to the market and labour supply The main factors affecting the distribution of farming in the UK are: What affects the distribution of farming? Climate Relief (shape of the land) and altitude Soil type
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 23 The effect of climate The climate of a particular place affects what types of plant grow well there. The important factors are: Hours of sunshine Temperature Rainfall Cereal crops need lots of sunshine and quite low rainfall. Tropical fruits need high temperatures and lots of rain. Grass for pastoral farming grows best in cool, wet climates. However, there are ways of beating climate. Greenhouses can be used to grow crops that need high temperatures, and irrigation systems can be used to overcome lack of rainfall.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 23 The effect of soil Soil varies greatly from place to place, and affects what can grow. Here are some important factors: Depth – plants grow better in deep soils. Fertility – plants need soils with enough nutrients in them. This depends on the amount of humus (organic matter). Texture – soils contain sand, silt and clay. The amount of each affects the soil’s ability to retain nutrients and moisture. pH (or acidity) also affects how well plants grow. Arable farming needs deep, fertile, well drained soil. Poorer soils are fine for pasture land. Fertilizers and other chemicals can be added to improve soil fertility and pH.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 23 The effect of relief Steep land is much harder to farm. Water drains downhill, taking soil and nutrients with it – most upland soil is thin and not very fertile. Steep slopes make it difficult to use machinery. There are ways of making farming on steep gradients possible. Most steep land is used for pastoral farming.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 23 The effects of market and labour Economic factors also affect the distribution of farming. Farmers that produce perishable goods, such as milk, strawberries and eggs have to farm close to people who buy these products. Otherwise the food would spoil before reaching the consumer. Farmers must also be able to employ enough skilled labour to run their farms. These factors mean that it is sometimes difficult to farm in remote areas. Transport improvements are greatly reducing these problems, especially in more economically developed countries.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 23 Plenary