Farming in Spain (example MEDC)

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economic activities, farming, MEDC, development, Spain

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Farming in Spain (example MEDC)

  1. 1. FARMING IN SPAINFARMING IN SPAIN Although the position of farming has declined, it remains a significant part of Spain’s national economy and landscape
  2. 2. • Agriculture produces 3% of the country’s wealth (GDP) & employs 6.4% of its workforce. • In the early twentieth century, over 50% of the country’s. Exports were agricultural and most people worked on the land.
  3. 3. Physical conditionsPhysical conditions • a large part of the country is semiarid, with extreme temperatures: extremely cold winters and very hot summers; • rainfall, often inadequate, concentrated in two brief periods; • summer droughts occur frequently; • the soil is generally of poor quality; • serious land erosion problem (desertification) due to natural causes and mismanagement.
  4. 4. RainfallRainfall
  5. 5. DesertificationDesertification Desertification threatens 36% of Spain • mostly due to human mismanagement: fire, overgrazing, aquifier depletion and bad farming practices; • water scarcity in coastal regions: tourism and uncontrolled residential development; • possible soultions include wide range of options: technology, information for farmers. Risk of desertification in Spain, 2007
  6. 6. Land UseLand Use Compared to other European countries, the proportion of land devoted to agricultural purposes is low: – 38 % crop land, – 14 % grazing land, – and 32 % forest
  7. 7. Irrigation (I)Irrigation (I) Non irrigated cultivation (secano) • mostly of crop area (80%); • depends on rainfall as a source of water; • lower productivity; • includes humid regions and vast arid zones that had not been irrigated.
  8. 8. Irrigation (I)Irrigation (I) Irrigated cultivation (regadio) • winter crops and intensive commercial agriculture (20%); • highly technified; • high cost of water; • high productivity; • located on the Mediterranean coasts.
  9. 9. Regional variationsRegional variations • traditional agricultural products: citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, wine; • new additions due to changes in diet: livestock, poultry and dairy products; • meat production for domestic consumption; • export commodities: fruits and vegetables, cultivated in irrigated Mediterranean coastal areas; • organic products orientated to foreign consumption.
  10. 10. Products (I): agricultureProducts (I): agriculture • Fruits and vegetables; • olives and olive oil; • wine; • grains and cereals: wheat, rye, barley, rice; • legumes and industrial crops; • small quatities of tobacco, cotton, flax, sugar.
  11. 11. Products (II): pastoralProducts (II): pastoral • Increasingly concentrated in northern Spain; • domestic meat production fail to meet demand: imports from UE contries and others; • pork is still the most important meat product; • poultry rapidly expanding; • cattle; • dairy; • sheep and goat.
  12. 12. ProblemsProblems • Low prices for grower’s products; • intermediaries make high profits; • consumers favour processed products; • low salaries and labour opportunities; • non-EU producers competition (e.g. tomatoes from Morocco); • etc.
  13. 13. Possible solutionsPossible solutions • Relocation in LEDCs; • new products with higher value: organic farming; • wind and solar farming; • new agriculture policies (local, regional, national, UE)

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