Erosion landforms

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  • 1. EROSION LANDFORMS Along a coastline there are features created by erosion. These include cliffs, wave cut platforms and wave cut notches. There are also headlands and bays, caves, arches, stacks and stumps.
  • 2. Cliffs, wave cut platforms and notches • One of the most common features of a coastline is a cliff. Cliffs are shaped through a combination of erosion and weathering - the breakdown of rocks caused by weather conditions. • Soft rock, eg sand and clay, erodes easily to create gently sloping cliffs. Hard rock, eg chalk, is more resistant and erodes slowly to create steep cliffs.
  • 3. Cliffs, wave cut platforms and notches 1) Weather weakens the top of the cliff. 2) The sea attacks the base of the cliff forming a wave-cut notch. 3) The notch increases in size causing the cliff to collapse. 4) The backwash carries the rubble towards the sea forming a wave-cut platform. 5) The process repeats and the cliff continues to retreat.
  • 4. Headlands and bays Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast with alternating bands of hard and soft rock. The bands of soft rock, erode more quickly than those of more resistant rock. This leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea called a headland. The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the headland, are called bays.
  • 5. Caves, arches, stacks and stumps Weathering and erosion can create caves, arches, stacks and stumps along a headland.
  • 6. Caves, arches, stacks and stumps • Caves occur when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face. The water contains sand and other materials that grind away at the rock until the cracks become a cave. Hydraulic action is the predominant process. • If the cave is formed in a headland, it may eventually break through to the other side forming an arch. http://www.digitalgeography.co.uk/archives/2010/04/sea-arch-360/ • The arch will gradually become bigger until it can no longer support the top of the arch. When the arch collapses, it leaves the headland on one side and a stack (a tall column of rock) on the other.
  • 7. Caves, arches, stacks and stumps • The stack will be attacked at the base in the same way that a wave cut notch is formed. This weakens the structure and it will eventually collapse to form a stump.
  • 8. Old Harry Rocks, Dorset http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/learningzone/clips/show record?ContentType=text/html%3b%20charset=utf8;Id=3244;returnUrl=%3FSuppressCaching %3D1%3Battrib_1%3DSCHOOL_LEVEL_NAME %3Battrib_2%3DSUBJECT_NAME %3Battrib_3%3DTOPIC%3Battrib_4%3DSearchText %3Bbool_1%3DAND%3Bbool_2%3DAND %3Bbool_3%3DAND%3Bconfig%3Dresults_within %3Bformat%3D%3Boper_1%3Deq %3Boper_2%3Deq%3Boper_3%3Deq %3Boper_4%3Deq%3Bval_1_1%3D%3Bval_2_1%3D %3Bval_3_1%3D%3Bval_4_1%3D%2Berosion %3Bpage%3D1%3Bpagesize %3D12;SuppressCaching=1;pagesize=12;