English Civil War -Summary


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English Civil War -Summary

  1. 1. King Charles I & the English Civil War
  2. 2. Who Was Charles I? • He was James I son. • Reigned from 16251641 • Married a Catholic, Henrietta Maria • Was Protestant • Believed in “Divine Right of Kings” • Loved extravagant lifestyle
  3. 3. An Absolute Monarch • Religious Reason Divine Right Of Kings • Practical Reason Country Needed Monarch to Ensure Order • Personal Reason Power, Greed, Selfishness
  4. 4. What Makes an Effective King?
  5. 5. Who does he work with? Parliament. Made up of middle & upper class male representatives Helped rule country and pass laws
  6. 6. Married to a Catholic • Charles married Henrietta Maria, French Catholic • Parliament suspected she had too much influence on him • Puritans thought England would be Catholic again
  7. 7. “I will do it without you” • Charles I tried to rule without parliament • He even “dissolved” or dismissed parliament when they wouldn’t agree with him, or give him money • Parliament then tried to gain more control over Charles
  8. 8. “I Need Lots of Money” • Charles I kept asking Parliament for money – To fight wars – To support his extravagant lifestyle – Charged Ship Money tax to all inland counties – Forced people to make loans to him – Sold fake “noble” titles
  9. 9. “Worship, My Way” • Charles I tried to force Scotland to change their church services • Scotland sent an army to England
  10. 10. Parliament cut him off • Charles asked Parliament for money to fight Scotland • Parliament told Charles to give up his advisors • They were executed
  11. 11. “You and Whose Army?” • Parliament was badly divided for and against Charles. • Charles thought “If I could get rid of the extremists, I’ll be in control again.” • He invaded Parliament with 500 soldiers • The extremists were warned and escaped. • Charles fled London, and raised his flag in Nottingham in 1641. The Civil War began.
  12. 12. Friends and Foes… • Charles’ supporting army called “Cavaliers” • Church of England & Catholic nobility • Wore their hair long • Opposing army called “Roundheads” • Wore their hair short • Mainly Puritans from Parliament • Merchants & bourgeoisie
  14. 14. Royalists - Cavaliers
  15. 15. Parliamentarians - Roundheads Oliver Cromwell
  16. 16. A dog fight!!
  17. 17. The Trial of the King • The Civil War lasted over 7 years. • In the end, parliament charged the king with treason! • Treason meant overthrowing the king. • How could Charles overthrow himself? • He was executed in January of 1649.
  18. 18. He was the only king in Britain to be executed by his own country!
  19. 19. King Oliver?? • Cromwell was offered to be king but he refused • He agreed that his son Richard, a farmer, should take over after his death • BUT Richard was not a strong leader like his father
  20. 20. The Restoration • In 1660 the leader of the army, General Monck marched to London, reinstated the House of Lords and set up elections • THE ROYALISTS WON! • They agreed to restore Charles’ son to the monarchy
  21. 21. This picture shows Charles II returning to England. Many of the people who lined the streets for Cromwell’s funeral now cheered at the sight of their new king. Cromwell’s head blew Within weeks of Charles II becoming down in a gale one night king Cromwell’s body and someone stole it. had been dug up and Many years later it was hanged. His head was buried at Cambridge
  22. 22. Charles II agreed…… • To pardon all members of the Parliamentary army (but he executed the MPs who had sentenced his father to death!) • To continue to show religious tolerance • To share power with Parliament So……Parliament raised a £1million to pay off the soldiers
  23. 23. But who would succeed Charles II? • Charles II had no legitimate sons (but he did have 13 illegitimate ones!!) • He could be succeeded by – James, his younger brother – Charles II eldest (illegitimate) son • James II came to the throne in 1685 & did not hide the fact that he was Catholic
  24. 24. ‘The Glorious Revolution’ • MPs wanted James’ Protestant daughter, Mary (married to Prince William of Orange, Holland) to be Queen • The English army supported this • James I fled to France
  25. 25. William & Mary 1688 - 1702
  26. 26. The Bill of Rights - December 1689 • The monarch – had to obey all laws made by Parliament – was not allowed to control their own army – could not raise money without Parliaments permission – could not be a Roman Catholic • Parliament – had freedom of speech – was to make all the laws – had to agree to taxes being imposed – controlled the monarch’s money
  27. 27. In the space of 23 years England had changed from an absolute monarchy under Charles I to a monarchy with very little power……..the only country in Europe to do so.