End of the War• The First World War (1914–1918) had been bad.• 10 million people died.• Half of Europe was destroyed Source A A picture of Soissons in 1918, showing the damage done during the war
Statistics related to the First World War12,000,000 Austria10,000,000 Britain 8,000,000 France 6,000,000 Germany Italy 4,000,000 Russia 2,000,000 Turkey 0 USA Number of Soldiers Number of Deaths
The ArmisticeIn November 1918,Germany had signed acease-fire. It was called ‘theArmistice’. The Germanscould not fight any longer.But they did not think theyhad surrendered!
Implicationsof the Peace• Describe the source• What is this cartoon of 1919 saying about the Germans?
What is this cartoon saying?Cartoon from Punch1919, The captionreads “GermanCriminal to alliedPolice “Stop! Yourhurting me”....... but under his breath “If I only whine enoughI may be able to wiggleout of this yet”Under Pressure?
What do cartoons tell historians about the situation at the end of the Great War? Shows Germany as beaten but still big and solid enough to be dangerous British and French police Shows what cartoonist thinks the Treaty terms should do to Germany Devastation caused by war Large and solid (prisoner won’t escape) Deliberately shown as civilians GIVING HIM ROPE? (not army) German criminal (to Allied Police): Here, I say, Suggests cartoonist stop! You’re hurting me! thinks Germany will try [Aside] If I only whine enough I may be able to to worm out of wriggle out of this yet! responsibility for war
The Versailles Conference• In January 1919, delegates from 32 countries met at Versailles, near Paris, to make treaties to end the war.• The meeting was known as the Versailles Conference
“The Big Three”Clemenceau Lloyd George Wilson (USA) (France) (Britain)
The main points of the Treaty [BRAT]1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war (Clause 231).Cartoon from Punch(USA) 1919, Thecaption reads “GermanCriminal to allied Police“Stop! Your hurtingme”....... but under his breath “ IfI only whine enough Imay be able to wiggleout of this yet”
2. Germany had to pay £6,600 million (calledReparations) for the damage done during the war.
3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. It could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.If you were German, how would you feel about this?
The War Guilt Clause “The Allied governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments and their peoples have been subjected as a result of the war.”The Treaty of Versailles, Clause 231 (the WarGuilt clause)Was this fair? Discuss with your partner
League of Nations• Previous methods of keeping peace has failed• The League of Nations was set up as an international “police force”• Germany was not invited to join the League until it had shown that it was a peace-loving country