Causes of Cold War• American fear of communist attack• Truman’s dislike of Stalin• Russia’s fear of the Americans atomic bomb• Russia’s dislike of capitalism• Russia’s actions in the Soviet zone of Germany• America’s refusal to share nuclear secrets• Russia’s expansion west into Eastern Europe + broken election promises• Russia’s fear of American attack• Russia’s need for a secure western border• Russia’s aim of spreading world communism This feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and this did a great deal to deepen the Cold War
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945)• It dealt mainly with the settlement of post-war Europe.• Agreement between Allies (USA, USSR, UK) on the basis of the post-war world• FDRoosevelt (USA), Churchill (UK) and Stalin (USSR) meet to determine the final strategy and future peace.• Becomes obvious that Soviets do not plan to follow the treaty in terms of supporting self-determining governments in Eastern Europe.• FDR dies and Harry Truman and Stalin do not get along.
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)• Truman, Attlee and Stalin agree on occupation of Germany• No peace treaty with Germany• No frontier between Poland and Germany• No promise for free elections in Eastern Europe
Improve your knowledge• The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.
Improve your knowledge• The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post- war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
After the Atomic Bomb (Aug. 1945)• Americans firmly control Japan despite Soviet aspirations to control part of the country• Stalin becomes terrified of U.S. atomic superiority and starts race to develop bomb
The ‘Iron Curtain’• Name given by Churchill to the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe (1946)• Six countries given communist governments immediately following the war: East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, & Albania• U.S. and Great Britain questioned the Soviet motives: empire-building or self- defense?
British cartoon,published in June Stalin’s ‘Salami Tactics’1947
The Soviet take-over of Eastern Europe• During 1946-1947, Stalin made sure that Communist governments came to power in all the countries in Eastern Europe• The Communist description of this process was ‘slicing salami’ –gradually getting rid of all oposition bit-by-bit
What did the IC divide? Who was ‘not admitted’? Who is ‘Joe’?Who is he?
British cartoonfrom 1946 shows. Europe The ‘ironcurtain’ was a Capitalists2,000-km line countries –and of barbed their moneywire, look-outposts and road blocks. ‘Joe’ is Joseph Stalin Churchill peeping under the Iron Curtain
Truman had been horrified at the pre-war policy of appeasement andUSA Policy was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures (or COMMUNIST influence)”. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to secure upcoming elections in Italy and the advance of Communist trade unions in France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
This Russian cartoon shows the Greeks being ‘helped’ by Uncle Sam (symbolising America) Greek communist guerilla‘Uncle Sam’ (US) $ sign on the gun
USA Policy (II)• The Marshall Plan reflected the strength of the US economy and offered huge sums to enable the war shattered economies of Europe to rebuild and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism• Czechoslovakia showed interest in receiving Marshall Aid but was blocked by Russia. The Soviet system was as much dependent upon creating a self-contained economic bloc as it was in maintaining a repressive political system.
The Marshall Plan (1947)• What Was it? An American response to the poverty and hardship in post war Europe• Who was Marshall? An American General and American Secretary of State, sent to assess the economic state of Europe
The Marshall Plan (1947) It was thought that these were the conditions in which communism thrived• Economies in ruins• Shortages of goods• Bread and food still rationed• Coal shortages – in GB electricity cuts each day
The Marshall Plan (1947) What a nice gesture by the Americans… but• The aid came in the form of goods made by American firms• So there was an element of American self-interest: European makets, jobs in American industries, cheap raw materials, etc.
A British cartoon of June 1947 shows Truman andStalin as two taxi- drivers trying toget customers. The customers are labelled Turkey, Hungary, Bulgaria, Austria.
Can he block it? This cartoon of 1947 about USSR’s Reaction Cominform shows Stalin trying to stop the basketball of Marshall aid scoring the• Stalin denounces basket labelled European Marshall Plan as recovery. “U.S. Imperialism”• The Soviet Union hated Marshall aid. Stalin forbade Communist countries to ask for money.
USSR’s Reaction: Cominform• Instead, in October 1947, he set up Cominform. Every Communist party in Europe joined.• It allowed Stalin control the Communist parties of in Europe.• Firm border forms between Western and Eastern Europe
The Berlin Blockade (1948-1949) The USSR had already disagreed with Britain and the USA at Potsdam (July 1945) about what should be done with Germany. Germany had been split into four zones.
The Berlin Blockade (1948-1949) Berlin, in Russias zone, was also split into 4 zones. But Berlin was entirely within - and surrounded by - the Russian zone
The Berlin Blockade (1948-1949)• West Berlin, as an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the Communist zone was a constant challenge to the Soviets.• The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve the city into submission• The Allied airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin.• It was accepted by both sides that Berlin would act as the trigger for war.• Both sides finding Europe too dangerous a site for confrontation, looked elsewhere to compete.
What Caused The Berlin Blockade?• The Cold War was just getting started• East / West divide: Stalin wanted to destroy Germany – while Britain and the USA wanted to rebuild Germany.• Bi-zonia: The Russians were taking German machinery back to the USSR. In January 1947, Britain and the USA joined their two zones together to try to get German industry going. They called the new zone Bi-zonia (‘two zones’).• American Aid: Congress voted for Marshall Aid in March 1948. Immediately, the Russians started searching all road and rail traffic into Berlin.
The Berlin Blockade: what happened?• In June 1948 the Russians stopped all road and rail traffic into Berlin.• Stalin said he was defending the east German economy against the Allies. The western powers said he was trying to force them out of Berlin.• The American Army wanted to fight its way into Berlin but that would have caused a war. Instead, Truman decided to supply Berlin by air.• The situation was bad at first, but things got better as the blockade went on.
This cartoon of 1946 shows Britain and America trying to get the lorry (representing the German economy) going, while the Russian sits smuglyon his motorbike, having stolen the wheels.
Berlin Blockade: Airlift Facts• The blockade lasted 318 days (11 months)• In the winter of 1948–49 Berliners lived on dried potatoes, powdered eggs and cans of meat. They had 4 hours of electricity a day.• 275,000 flights carried in 1½ million tons of supplies.• A plane landed every 3 mins.• On 16 April 1949, 1400 flights brought in 13,000 tons of supplies in one day – Berlin only needed 6,000 tons a day to survive.• Some pilots dropped chocolate and sweets.• The USA stationed B-29 bombers (which could carry an atomic bomb) in Britain.• The American airmen were regarded as heroes.
In this British cartoonfrom 1948, Stalinwatches as the storksfly coal and food intoBerlin, but he dares notshoot them down On 12 May 1949, Stalin re-opened the borders.
Berlin Blockade: Results1. The Cold War got worse -It almost started an all-out war.2. East and West Germany split up. In May 1949, America, Britain and France united their zones into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, Capitalist). In October 1949, Stalin set up the German Democratic Republic (East Germany, Communist) .3. NATO and the Warsaw Pact. In 1949, the western Allies set up NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) as a defensive alliance against Russia. NATO countries surrounded Russia; in 1955, the Soviet Union set up the Warsaw Pact – an alliance of Communist states.4. Arms Race. After Berlin, the USA and the USSR realised that they were in a competition for world domination. They began to build up their armies and weapons.
Why was NATO set up?• Western powers agreed to work together• April 1949: NATO• With the establishment of NATO, Europe was once again home to two hostile armed camps.
Communist response: Warsaw Pact• In 1955 Khrushchev set up the Warsaw Pact – a military alliance of Communist countries – to rival NATO.• Pact countries had detailed plans of how to wage nuclear war against NATO if there was a war.
Arms Race• Throughout the Cold War, the USA, the USSR and other countries all worked hard to make nuclear weapons that were more and more powerful• The race was on to make more and more destructive atomic weapons.
• The “Red Scare”, launched by Senator Which Hunt Joe McCarthy, dominated US politics 1948-53 and helped pressure Truman into the Korean War. Given the suddeness of the fall of China, the development of the Soviet bomb, and the shocking performance of the Western secret services, the level of panic in the US is understandable.
Containment Policy• Communism must be “contained” = containment policy• Truman restricted his ant-Soviet policy to one of “containment”, resisting the advance of Communism into South Korea. After some hesitation he resisted his Commander, Gen Douglas MacArthur’s attempt to “roll-back” Communism by invading North Korea and China. MacArthur was dismissed but Truman’s successors continued to be drawn into conflicts of containment for the rest of the cold war. The beginning of the Korean War also highlighted the failings of the United Nations.