1750 ………….• Population – 11 million• 80% rural• Death rate – 28 per 1000• Main work – farming & wool production• Domestic system of production
1900…………• Population – 42 million• 30% rural• Death rate – 18 per 1000• Mechanisation of agriculture• Development of the factory system
What had changed?...Power source(copy in your notebook)• The source of power had changed from water to coal to produce steam so many new industries like cotton grew up on the coalfields
(copy in your notebook) Why was coal so important? • Fuel for steam engines for factories • Fuel for trains • Domestic heating • As coke to smelt iron • Coal production 1700 – 2.5 million tonnes 1900 – 225 million tonnes
(copy in your notebook) What was the link between coal, iron ore and steam?
(copy in your notebook) Raw materials • Britain had plenty of iron ore and limestone for the iron industry • Iron industry was very important because it was used for tools, machinery, ships, railways and trains • Clay for the pottery industry
Traditional UK industrial areas Scottish lowlands Northern Ireland North- East North West Yorkshire South Wales London
HW: Give 5 reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain•••••
Summary (copy + complete)The factory system depended on the development ofnew ___________ such as James Watt’s _______________. Using steam instead of water meant thatindustrial towns began to grow up on ___________found mainly in the north of Britain. Labour in thefactories was supplied by _____ _________ andchildren. To begin with raw materials were moved by__________ such as the Liverpool – Manchester canalbut eventually this became too slow and __________were built. Britain had plenty of raw ___________ suchas ________ , ____ ____ and _______ for itsdeveloping industries.
Transport of goods Pack horse Horse & cart Canal
They were agoodimprovement,but… thecanals weretoo slow
“We saw drains and sewersemptying their filthy contents intothe river. We saw rows of priviesbuilt over the river. Yet we saw achild lower a bucket with a ropefrom a house into the river” 1874 “I visited the wife of a labourer who had just given birth. She and the child were lying on damp straw on a clay floor. There was no light or ventilation and the air was terrible. I had to walk on bricks across the floor to reach her as the floor was covered with water” 1834
1832 Cholera strikes!1848 – 1849: 50,000 people died from cholera
Why did Joshua die of cholera?…..almost one child in five born alive in the 1830s and1840s had died by the age of five.
A backyardwith privy andwater pump!What do younotice about thepipes?It took until 1854 beforeanyone noticed theconnection between thepump and incidence ofcholera.
1842 Chadwick Report on conditions in towns•Chadwick blamed the high death rate What do you notice abouton the life expectancy of the middle classes compared •Dirty air and water to workers? •Slum houses Is there any difference •Bad sewage systems between urban & rural •Poor food areas?
1848 PublicHealth ActTowns began tomakeimprovements . By1900 cholera haddied out 1866
What was life in the city like?• People left farming and moved to cities and towns for jobs in the factories. – lost control of their own lives - boring jobs – dark, dirty and unsafe working conditions – lived in overcrowded apartments – little fresh meat, milk or vegetables – poor sanitation – pollution: air and water – diseases such a cholera, typhoid Manchester