Changes in Britain 1750 – 1900

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Changes in Britain 1750 – 1900

  1. 1. Changes in Britain 1750 – 1900
  2. 2. 1750 ………….• Population – 11 million• 80% rural• Death rate – 28 per 1000• Main work – farming & wool production• Domestic system of production
  3. 3. 1900…………• Population – 42 million• 30% rural• Death rate – 18 per 1000• Mechanisation of agriculture• Development of the factory system
  4. 4. What had changed?...Power source(copy in your notebook)• The source of power had changed from water to coal to produce steam so many new industries like cotton grew up on the coalfields
  5. 5. (copy in your notebook) Why was coal so important? • Fuel for steam engines for factories • Fuel for trains • Domestic heating • As coke to smelt iron • Coal production 1700 – 2.5 million tonnes 1900 – 225 million tonnes
  6. 6. (copy in your notebook) What was the link between coal, iron ore and steam?
  7. 7. (copy in your notebook) Raw materials • Britain had plenty of iron ore and limestone for the iron industry • Iron industry was very important because it was used for tools, machinery, ships, railways and trains • Clay for the pottery industry
  8. 8. Traditional UK industrial areas Scottish lowlands Northern Ireland North- East North West Yorkshire South Wales London
  9. 9. Annotate your maps! Complete the maps
  10. 10. Complete the statementThe location of the traditionalindustrial areas in Britain dependedon …
  11. 11. Complete the statementThe location of the traditionalindustrial areas in Britain dependedon the location of raw materials likeiron, coal or clay.
  12. 12. Entrepreneurs and capital. Richard Arkwright
  13. 13. HW: Give 5 reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain•••••
  14. 14. Summary (copy + complete)The factory system depended on the development ofnew ___________ such as James Watt’s _______________. Using steam instead of water meant thatindustrial towns began to grow up on ___________found mainly in the north of Britain. Labour in thefactories was supplied by _____ _________ andchildren. To begin with raw materials were moved by__________ such as the Liverpool – Manchester canalbut eventually this became too slow and __________were built. Britain had plenty of raw ___________ suchas ________ , ____ ____ and _______ for itsdeveloping industries.
  15. 15. Transport of goods Pack horse Horse & cart Canal
  16. 16. They were agoodimprovement,but… thecanals weretoo slow
  17. 17. Is there any similarity between the maps?
  18. 18. Results of improvedtransport: build a mind map
  19. 19. Cities grew up all over Britain
  20. 20. Population of cities
  21. 21. Write three statements to explain the changes in the distribution of population inBritain 1750-1900
  22. 22. Housing conditions
  23. 23. Over London by Rail, Gustave Doré c. 1870.
  24. 24. Overcrowded Damp, poorly ventilatedhousing housing Personal hygiene was very poorRubbish in the streets No effective sewage or piped drinking water
  25. 25. River Thames
  26. 26. “We saw drains and sewersemptying their filthy contents intothe river. We saw rows of priviesbuilt over the river. Yet we saw achild lower a bucket with a ropefrom a house into the river” 1874 “I visited the wife of a labourer who had just given birth. She and the child were lying on damp straw on a clay floor. There was no light or ventilation and the air was terrible. I had to walk on bricks across the floor to reach her as the floor was covered with water” 1834
  27. 27. 1832 Cholera strikes!1848 – 1849: 50,000 people died from cholera
  28. 28. Why did Joshua die of cholera?…..almost one child in five born alive in the 1830s and1840s had died by the age of five.
  29. 29. A backyardwith privy andwater pump!What do younotice about thepipes?It took until 1854 beforeanyone noticed theconnection between thepump and incidence ofcholera.
  30. 30. 1842 Chadwick Report on conditions in towns•Chadwick blamed the high death rate What do you notice abouton the life expectancy of the middle classes compared •Dirty air and water to workers? •Slum houses Is there any difference •Bad sewage systems between urban & rural •Poor food areas?
  31. 31. 1848 PublicHealth ActTowns began tomakeimprovements . By1900 cholera haddied out 1866
  32. 32. What was life in the city like?• People left farming and moved to cities and towns for jobs in the factories. – lost control of their own lives - boring jobs – dark, dirty and unsafe working conditions – lived in overcrowded apartments – little fresh meat, milk or vegetables – poor sanitation – pollution: air and water – diseases such a cholera, typhoid Manchester

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