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Carlos I
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  • 1. The Spanish Empire
  • 2. The conquest of the Americas• Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec territory in Mexico (1504- 1519)• Francisco Pizarro took over Inca territory in Peru (1524 – 1533)• Resources, especially gold & silver and new foods were exported to Spain
  • 3. What is this?Where is it ?
  • 4. 1519 – 1522First circumnavigation of the globe by……..? Magellan
  • 5. stern rudder
  • 6. Masts & crow’s nestCrew cabin
  • 7. Timeline!• The 16th and 17th centuries were times of change for Spain• After the defeat of the Muslims and the conquest of the Americas, Spain became the most important country in Europe• But the road to supremacy was not easy… on the contrary!• TASK: build a timeline for the period 1516-1700
  • 8. The Habsburg dynasty What is a dynasty? Who were the Habsburgs?
  • 9. Carlos I of Spain & V of HRE 1516 - 1556• Born in Flanders• Inherited all Spain’s and Holy Roman Empire (HRE) territories• When he first arrived in Spain,he hardly spoke the Spanish language• He put many foreign nobles in the most important government positions• He spent lots of Castilian money in wars
  • 10. Carlos´ inheritance
  • 11. European territories
  • 12. Carlos V Empire
  • 13. How did Carlos V rule?• The government of such a big empire was not easy• Many different territories, with their own laws and institutions demanded a big effort to maintain• Carlos V did not have absolute power• He governed using councils like the Catholic monarchs before him• His revenues came from taxes from Castilla and precious metals from America• BUT he spent a lot of money on expensive wars to preserve territories and influence
  • 14. The council system of governmentCarlos did not have absolute power. He needed the approval from the Parliaments of each state.There was no one capital city – the court moved around
  • 15. Problems at home -Revolt of the Comuneros 1520 - 1521• Carlos angered both Castilian cities (taxes)and Castilian nobles (important positions in government)• The revolt started in Toledo and spread to other cities, with the support of the nobles in the beginning• An agreement with the nobles allowed Carlos to defeat the revolt in 1521• Changes in the government were introduced afterwards
  • 16. Revolt of the ComunerosPut these statements into the BEFORE AFTERcorrect column in the table: REVOLT REVOLT• Taxes on the Spanish bourgeoisie were spent outside Spain• He appointed Castillian nobles to the court• He spent more time in Spain• Carlos raised his son, Felipe, at the Spanish court• Government positions were given to nobles from Flanders• He spent a lot of time being Holy Roman Emperor Execution of the Comuneros leaders
  • 17. Problems abroad?• Carlos fought against foreign powers to defend his authority & the Catholic religion – He defeated the French, his main rival in 1544 – He fought the Turks (1529-1541) who were invading from the east – He confronted the German princes who supported Luther & Protestantism – He continued his fight against the Moors of North Africa & defended his territory in Italy
  • 18. How did Spain change under Carlos?• The population increased• The economy was very dependent on sheep farming & the export of wool to the Netherlands• Arable farming lost land to sheep so there was less food produced• Taxes increased to finance the expensive wars
  • 19. 1556 – Carlos abdicated• Carlos divided his territories between his 2 sons – Felipe received Spain, Low Countries, parts of Italy, colonies in North Africa, the Americas & Far East. Felipe also took over all Portuguese territories when the king died in 1580 with no heir. – Fernando received Austria, Hungary & Bohemia and became the Holy Roman Emperor