Baroque
Baroque
1600-1750
1600-1750
1600 –
the
modern
world
‘Barroco’
• Portuguese word meaning
– Tooth of uneven size
– Meaning it is unbalanced and ugly

• Originally it was meant ...
Baroque……a definition
•• By the 19thth century it meant light,
By the 19 century it meant light,
energy, movement & drama ...
A great culture…literature
•
•
•
•
•

Shakespeare
Molière
Cervantes
Lope de Vega
Calderón de la Barca
Cervantes
• Don Quixote de la Mancha
– Greatest literature work in
Spanish
– First Novel
– Reality versus illusion
….music
• Handel
• Bach
• Vivaldi

OPERA
…..science
• Galileo – Italian physicist
• Newton – English physicist
• Kepler – German mathematician &
astronomer
Science...
Baroque Art and Architecture
• Started in the
Catholic countries
and seen as a
reaction to the
Protestant
Reformation – se...
Where is this?
Curved facades to create a
contrast between light &
shade
The Catholic Church countered the Reformation and
demonstrated its power by building St. Peter’s Cathedral
in Rome, Italy....
Vatican
Baroque Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

rounded arches & curved lines
domes
carved or painted ceilings
highly decorated wall...
Bernini,
Baldacchino of
St. Peters
1624-33
Gilt bronze,
Height approx.
100 ft.
More Baroque Architecture
Baroque
•• Change from
Change from
church to absolute
church to absolute
monarchy
monarchy
•• Exemplified by
Exemplified b...
Versailles

1000 rooms!
Amazing
gardens
The Queen’s bedroom
The chapel
Furniture
A Baroque Room
Cathedral at Santiago de
Compostela
Elaborate churches
Salamanca – Plaza Mayor
Baroque Sculptors
Bernini
Apollo and
Daphne

Pluto and
Persephone
Bernini vs
Michelangelo
David
La Pietá,
Michelangelo

The ecstasy of
Saint Teresa,
Bernini
Baroque Painters
- El Greco - Spain
- Caravaggio - Italy
- Bernini – Italy
- Rubens - France
- Rembrandt – Holland
- Verme...
Characteristics of painting
•
•
•
•
•

Realistic & natural
Movement & energy
Dramatic lighting & rich colours
Strong emoti...
From the Renaissance stability
From the Renaissance stability
of the triangle
of the triangle
or pyramid
or pyramid
(the b...
Supper at Emmaus, c.1601
The Baroque Period in
Spain
• The Baroque Period in Spain was really
the Spanish Renaissance.
• Literature was dominated b...
“St. Francis in Meditation”
Francisco de Zurbarán
El Greco,
The Burial of
Count Orgaz,
1586
Detail, The
Burial…
Detail,
The Burial…
El Greco
View of Toledo

c. 1597
Oil on canvas
47 3/4 x 42 3/4 in.
2-faced woman
El Greco
Laocoon
1608-1614
Oil on canvas
142 x 193 cm
Diego
Velazquez
Las Meninas
1656
Museo del
Prado
TASK
Page 114
Question 1
Caravaggio
Caravaggio
••Murderous, difficult personality
Murderous, difficult personality
••Worked from life directly in o...
Caravaggio
The Calling
of St.
Matthew,
c. 1600
CARAVAGGIO
Bacchus
c. 1597
Oil on canvas
37 3/8 x 33 1/2 in

• Use of light to
display drama.
• Light usually
signified “G...
CARAVAGGIO
The Crucifixion of Saint Peter
1600-1601
Oil on canvas
90 1/2 x 70 in
North European Baroque
• Rich Protestant
merchants could
afford to decorate
their houses with
paintings. They
liked portra...
Rembrandt

How does this painting
depict the culture of its
day

Dr. Tulp’s
Anatomy
Lesson
Jan Vermeer – another
master of light!!!
Rubens – “fleshy” subjects –
(especially women!)
SUMMARY – BAROQUE ART
ART: light, motion, drama, complex, ornamented,
ART: light, motion, drama, complex, ornamented,
conv...
Renaissance v Baroque
RENAISSANCE

BAROQUE

Idealistic
Symmetrical - triangle
Optimistic
Calm
Rational
Shows the moment be...
Judith beheading Holofernes
Caravaggio 1598
Gentileschi,
Judith Slaying
Holofernes,
1620
FAMOUS FEMALE
ARTIST
A follower of
Caravaggio
Bernini vs
Michelangelo
David
"Bernini criticized Michelangelo for failing
to make his figures appear as if made of
flesh, and bragged that stone was 'l...
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Baroque

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  • Not fortified
  • (121.3 x 108.6 cm)The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Twisted pose
  • Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi daAmor Vincit Omniac. 1601-02Oil on canvas75 1/4 x 58 1/4 in
  • CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi daThe Crucifixion of Saint Peter1600-1601Oil on canvas90 1/2 x 70 in.Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popola, Rome
  • Sacrifice of Isaaco
  • Transcript of "Baroque "

    1. 1. Baroque Baroque 1600-1750 1600-1750
    2. 2. 1600 – the modern world
    3. 3. ‘Barroco’ • Portuguese word meaning – Tooth of uneven size – Meaning it is unbalanced and ugly • Originally it was meant as an insult - it meant ‘over the top’ & grotesque – – – too too too many notes in music much colour in painting grand in architecture.
    4. 4. Baroque……a definition •• By the 19thth century it meant light, By the 19 century it meant light, energy, movement & drama in painting energy, movement & drama in painting & sculpture & sculpture •• Very realistic – defects were not hidden Very realistic – defects were not hidden •• It was based on the technical It was based on the technical achievements of the Renaissance achievements of the Renaissance •• Complex & highly ornate Complex & highly ornate
    5. 5. A great culture…literature • • • • • Shakespeare Molière Cervantes Lope de Vega Calderón de la Barca
    6. 6. Cervantes • Don Quixote de la Mancha – Greatest literature work in Spanish – First Novel – Reality versus illusion
    7. 7. ….music • Handel • Bach • Vivaldi OPERA
    8. 8. …..science • Galileo – Italian physicist • Newton – English physicist • Kepler – German mathematician & astronomer Science was based on •Empiricism – observation & experiment •Rationalism – the use of reason & thinking
    9. 9. Baroque Art and Architecture • Started in the Catholic countries and seen as a reaction to the Protestant Reformation – see how great Catholicism is…
    10. 10. Where is this? Curved facades to create a contrast between light & shade
    11. 11. The Catholic Church countered the Reformation and demonstrated its power by building St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, Italy. It is one of the architectural masterpieces of the Baroque period in Europe. ROME – Capital of Baroque Classical pillars & triangular pediments still used
    12. 12. Vatican
    13. 13. Baroque Architecture • • • • • • • • rounded arches & curved lines domes carved or painted ceilings highly decorated walls painted in real gold spiral columns coloured marble areas of light & shade
    14. 14. Bernini, Baldacchino of St. Peters 1624-33 Gilt bronze, Height approx. 100 ft.
    15. 15. More Baroque Architecture
    16. 16. Baroque •• Change from Change from church to absolute church to absolute monarchy monarchy •• Exemplified by Exemplified by Louis XIV and Louis XIV and Versailles Versailles
    17. 17. Versailles 1000 rooms! Amazing gardens
    18. 18. The Queen’s bedroom
    19. 19. The chapel
    20. 20. Furniture
    21. 21. A Baroque Room
    22. 22. Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela
    23. 23. Elaborate churches
    24. 24. Salamanca – Plaza Mayor
    25. 25. Baroque Sculptors
    26. 26. Bernini Apollo and Daphne Pluto and Persephone
    27. 27. Bernini vs Michelangelo David
    28. 28. La Pietá, Michelangelo The ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Bernini
    29. 29. Baroque Painters - El Greco - Spain - Caravaggio - Italy - Bernini – Italy - Rubens - France - Rembrandt – Holland - Vermeer - Holland
    30. 30. Characteristics of painting • • • • • Realistic & natural Movement & energy Dramatic lighting & rich colours Strong emotions – extremes of feelings Variety of subjects – – – – – Religious Mythology Daily life Still lifes Portraits
    31. 31. From the Renaissance stability From the Renaissance stability of the triangle of the triangle or pyramid or pyramid (the balance valued in (the balance valued in Classicism) to the Classicism) to the DRAMATIC DIAGONAL DRAMATIC DIAGONAL of the Baroque of the Baroque
    32. 32. Supper at Emmaus, c.1601
    33. 33. The Baroque Period in Spain • The Baroque Period in Spain was really the Spanish Renaissance. • Literature was dominated by Miguel Cervantes
    34. 34. “St. Francis in Meditation” Francisco de Zurbarán
    35. 35. El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586
    36. 36. Detail, The Burial…
    37. 37. Detail, The Burial…
    38. 38. El Greco View of Toledo c. 1597 Oil on canvas 47 3/4 x 42 3/4 in.
    39. 39. 2-faced woman El Greco Laocoon 1608-1614 Oil on canvas 142 x 193 cm
    40. 40. Diego Velazquez Las Meninas 1656 Museo del Prado TASK Page 114 Question 1
    41. 41. Caravaggio Caravaggio ••Murderous, difficult personality Murderous, difficult personality ••Worked from life directly in oil, no intervening sketching Worked from life directly in oil, no intervening sketching ••Used contemporary peasants & common settings for Used contemporary peasants & common settings for Biblical stories Biblical stories ••Controversial style – considered sacrilegious by some Controversial style – considered sacrilegious by some ••Tenebrism – use of light & shade Tenebrism – use of light & shade
    42. 42. Caravaggio The Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1600
    43. 43. CARAVAGGIO Bacchus c. 1597 Oil on canvas 37 3/8 x 33 1/2 in • Use of light to display drama. • Light usually signified “God” or heavenly intervention. • Use of pagan, Greek or Roman figures
    44. 44. CARAVAGGIO The Crucifixion of Saint Peter 1600-1601 Oil on canvas 90 1/2 x 70 in
    45. 45. North European Baroque • Rich Protestant merchants could afford to decorate their houses with paintings. They liked portraits, landscapes and scenes from everyday life but also moral lessons Frans Hals
    46. 46. Rembrandt How does this painting depict the culture of its day Dr. Tulp’s Anatomy Lesson
    47. 47. Jan Vermeer – another master of light!!!
    48. 48. Rubens – “fleshy” subjects – (especially women!)
    49. 49. SUMMARY – BAROQUE ART ART: light, motion, drama, complex, ornamented, ART: light, motion, drama, complex, ornamented, convoluted, diagonal convoluted, diagonal CHURCH still an active patron with the energy of the CHURCH still an active patron with the energy of the Counter-Reformation Counter-Reformation ROYAL patronage & PRIVATE patronage shape tastes ROYAL patronage & PRIVATE patronage shape tastes too too IDEAS: scientific method IDEAS: scientific method
    50. 50. Renaissance v Baroque RENAISSANCE BAROQUE Idealistic Symmetrical - triangle Optimistic Calm Rational Shows the moment before an event Realistic Asymmetrical - curves, circles, ovals, diagonal Emotional -passionate, cruel, grotesque Dramatic – shows the actual event Light/shade – tenebrism (no grey) Movement Decorative
    51. 51. Judith beheading Holofernes Caravaggio 1598
    52. 52. Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1620 FAMOUS FEMALE ARTIST A follower of Caravaggio
    53. 53. Bernini vs Michelangelo David
    54. 54. "Bernini criticized Michelangelo for failing to make his figures appear as if made of flesh, and bragged that stone was 'like pasta' in his hands–that he could fashion marble like wax. And indeed he could. His genius for manipulating the act of perception by altering perspective, allowed Bernini to achieve new levels of authenticity in bringing a scene to life." – Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, Vintage Books, 2001, p. 23.

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