‘Barroco’• Portuguese word meaning – Tooth of uneven size – Meaning it is unbalanced and ugly• Originally it was meant as an insult - it meant ‘over the top’ & grotesque – too many notes in music – too much colour in painting – too grand in architecture.
Baroque……a definition• By the 19th century it meant light, energy, movement & drama in painting & sculpture• Very realistic – defects were not hidden• It was based on the technical achievements of the Renaissance• Complex & highly ornate
A great culture…literature• Shakespeare• Molière• Cervantes• Lope de Vega• Calderón de la Barca
Cervantes• Don Quixote de la Mancha – Greatest literature work in Spanish – First Novel – Reality versus illusion
…..science• Galileo – Italian physicist• Newton – English physicist• Kepler – German mathematician & astronomer Science was based on •Empiricism – observation & experiment •Rationalism – the use of reason & thinking
Baroque Art and Architecture• Started in the Catholic countries and seen as a reaction to the Protestant Reformation – see how great Catholicism is…
Where is this?Curved facades to create acontrast between light &shade
The Catholic Church countered the Reformation anddemonstrated its power by building St. Peter’s Cathedralin Rome, Italy. It is one of the architectural masterpieces ofthe Baroque period in Europe. ROME – Capital of Baroque Classical pillars & triangular pediments still used
El GrecoView of Toledoc. 1597Oil on canvas47 3/4 x 42 3/4 in.
2-faced womanEl GrecoLaocoon1608-1614Oil on canvas142 x 193 cm
Diego VelazquezLas Meninas 1656 Museo del PradoTASKPage 114Question 1
Caravaggio• Murderous, difficult personality• Worked from life directly in oil, no intervening sketching• Used contemporary peasants & common settings forBiblical stories• Controversial style – considered sacrilegious by some•Tenebrism – use of light & shade
CARAVAGGIO Bacchus c. 1597 Oil on canvas 37 3/8 x 33 1/2 in• Use of light to display drama.• Light usually signified “God” or heavenly intervention.• Use of pagan, Greek or Roman figures
CARAVAGGIOThe Crucifixion of Saint Peter1600-1601Oil on canvas90 1/2 x 70 in
North European Baroque• Rich Protestant merchants could afford to decorate their houses with paintings. They liked portraits, landscapes and scenes from everyday life but also moral lessons Frans Hals
Rembrandt How does this painting depict the culture of its day Dr. Tulp’s Anatomy Lesson
SUMMARY – BAROQUE ARTART: light, motion, drama, complex, ornamented,convoluted, diagonalCHURCH still an active patron with the energy of theCounter-ReformationROYAL patronage & PRIVATE patronage shape tastestooIDEAS: scientific method
Renaissance v BaroqueRENAISSANCE BAROQUEIdealistic RealisticSymmetrical - triangle Assymmetrical - curves, circles, ovals,Optimistic diagonalCalm Emotional -passionate, cruel,Rational grotesqueShows the moment before an event Dramatic – shows the actual event Light/shade – tenebrism (no grey) Movement Decorative
"Bernini criticized Michelangelo for failingto make his figures appear as if made offlesh, and bragged that stone was likepasta in his hands–that he could fashionmarble like wax. And indeed he could.His genius for manipulating the act ofperception by altering perspective, allowedBernini to achieve new levels ofauthenticity in bringing a scene to life."– Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, Vintage Books, 2001, p. 23.