• Sparta was a military
state ruled by 2
leaders and the
• People belonged to 2
groups: citizens who
paid their taxes and
fought in the army or
slaves who had to
farm the land
• Spartan society was
obsessed with war.
• Boys were sent to
military school at a
• Boys who are born
deformed are left to die
Life in Sparta
• Life was very hard in Sparta. Everyone was
trained to be strong so they could defend
• Men spent their whole life training or fighting.
Boys joined the army at 7 years old
• Women did not fight but trained to be fit and
• Education and culture was not important
• 5th century BC was the most brilliant period in
• Athens was the richest and most powerful polis
• It developed very good trade links in the
• The citizens of Athens wanted to rule
themselves and not have a king or queen.
• Athens became the world’s first democracy
around 508 B.C.
• A democracy is a government in which all citizens
can vote and have equal say in what happens.
Democracy in Athens
• Athens was a democracy because all citizens
could vote, but only a small group of people
in Athens were citizens.
– Only males born in the city, over 18 could vote
• The people met in assemblies at the Agora. If
there were 6000 citizens there they could
vote for laws.
• Women, foreigners (people born outside of
Athens), and slaves could not vote.
Life in Athens
• Athens had a great culture. They welcomed visitors
and writers and the theatre developed. Education
was very important.
• After the Persian Wars new buildings were built
such as the Parthenon, the temple of Athena on the
• BUT…..Women did not have much freedom. They
had to stay at home and look after the children
Education in Athens
• Education was very important in Athens.
• Boys went to school to learn to read and
write. They also learned many sports.
• Girls were not allowed to go to school or learn
to play sports.