THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION OR WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE VS13 North American Colonies GREAT BRITAIN 1
Britishcolonies in New England North Middle America Colonies Southern Colonies
1. FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: (1754-1763) -Fought between the English and French over control of the land in North America. -The English wanted to push west, but the French blocked them. The war started over land disputes between the two nations. -Each side used Native Americans to help fight the war. 3
-England won the war.-France lost colonies in North America.-War was very expensive for the English. The British Parliament wantedAmericancolonists to help pay for the cost of war. North America: 1750 North America: 1765This map shows both the French This map shows the English colonies and and English lands in North new land taken from the French in 5 America. North America.
BRITISH PARLIAMENT PASSES NEW LAWS: -Parliament passes taxes to control the colonies and raise money to pay for the war.Sugar Act (1764): England places a tax on sugar, coffee, indigo, and molasses. Sugar Cane used to make sugar. Sugar used to make molasses. Molasses used to make rum. Rum was one of the most popular and common drinks in the colonies. 6
Stamp Act (1765): -England placed a tax on all legal documents: bills of sale, contracts, wills,newspapers, cards. -Americans are angry with tax: Say the tax is unfair: “No Taxation WithoutRepresentation.” -Americans begin to organize and protest against the taxes. 7
Boston Massacre: March 5, 1770 -Started as a protest against British government by colonists. -Colonists threw snowballs at soldiers and taunted them by calling them names. -Soldiers fired on crowd killing 5 colonists. Someone from the crowed yelled “fire.” 8
Tea Act (1773): -British Parliament passed a law which lowered the price of tea, but still left the taxon the tea. -Colonists saw the law as a way of hurting American merchants.Boston Tea Party (1773): -Colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians, boarded ships in Boston Harbour. Theydumped crates of tea into the harbour as a protest against Tea Act. 9
AMERICAN COLONISTS TAKE ACTION “No Taxation Without Representation” Colonists very angry over new taxes and laws. Colonists felt that Parliament and the king did not have the right to tax the colonists without colonial representation in Parliament.How it worked:1. All taxes and laws are made by the King of England and Parliament.2. Only people living in England may elect members to Parliament.3. If Americans cannot elect members to Parliament, then they have no representation there.4. These Americans say the taxes are unfair and refuse to pay them. They say that they have the same rights as Englishmen and want representation. 10
First Continental Congress (1774):Representatives from colonies meet in Philadelphia to discuss their rights. -Send petition to King to try to restore peace. -Asked King to repeal the Acts. -Said they had the right to make colonial laws. -Threatened to halt exports to Britain -Organized a boycott of British goods. -Parliament responded by adding new taxes to the colonies. -Colonies form militias to prepare for war.
The American ( Patriot) ArmyIn the beginning, the American Army was made up of farmers, frontiersmen, andtownspeople who left their homes to fight the British. Many believed the war wouldbe short. -At first, they had to provide their own weapons, ammunition, anduniforms. -Over time, they would be formed into regular units with uniforms andproper equipment. 13
The Battle of Saratoga:The British met an American armyat Saratoga, north of New York.This is seen as a turning point in thewar. The Americans won this battle.The French then began to send helpTo the Americans 20
Declaration of Independence(1776)Written by Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, BenFranklin, and several others.-Declared independence and created the United Statesof America.-Purpose: Break ties with England and create UnitedStates of America.-Purpose of Gov’t: Protect the rights, liberties of thepeople.-Power comes from the people.-Ideas did not apply to women, slaves, or Indians. 21
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that allmen are created equal, that they are endowed bytheir Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”. 22
Reasons why the Reasons why mostAmerican colonists people believed thatbelieved that they England would win thewould win the war. war.ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:1. They were fighting for their 1. Poorly trained army and nohomes, families, lives, and navy.freedom. 2. No money to fight a war.2. George Washington was a 3. Inexperienced government.strong leader 4 .Poor equipment and lack of3. They were fighting on their food.home ground. 5. Soldiers could leave when4. They used guerilla tactics they wanted.5. They had a large area and noone capital so they simply keptmoving 23
Reasons why England Reasons why England believed it would win might not win the its war with America. war.ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:1. Professional army and navy 1. England had a 3000organised to carry out different mile supply line.attacks. 2. America is a large2. Factories to make war materials. piece of land and not3. Money to feed and supply an easy to control orarmy. conquer.4. A government to make 3. It took 2 - 6 months fordecisions. instructions to arrive5. Indians on British side. from the UK by which time the situation had changed 4. The British did not24 trust the Loyalists fully