Changes in Britain 1750 – 1900

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Changes in Britain 1750 – 1900

  1. 1. Changes in Britain 1750 – 1900
  2. 2. 1750 …………. • Population – 11 million • 80% rural • Death rate – 28 per 1000 • Main work – farming & wool production • Domestic system of production
  3. 3. 1900………… • Population – 42 million • 30% rural • Death rate – 18 per 1000 • Mechanisation of agriculture • Development of the factory system
  4. 4. What had changed? …….Power source• The source of power had changed from water to coal to produce steam so many new industries grew up on the coalfields
  5. 5. Why was coal so important? • Fuel for steam engines for factories • Fuel for trains • Domestic heating • As coke to smelt iron • Coal production 1700 – 2.5 million tonnes • 1900 – 225 million tonnes
  6. 6. What was the link between coal, iron ore and steam?
  7. 7. Raw materials • Britain had plenty of iron ore and limestone for the iron industry • Clay for the pottery industry
  8. 8. Traditional UK industrial areas Scottish lowlands North- East North West London Northern Ireland South Wales Yorkshire
  9. 9. Entrepreneurs and capital….
  10. 10. Transport of goods Pack horse Horse & cart Canal
  11. 11. but…….… the canals were too slow
  12. 12. Is there any similarity between the maps?
  13. 13. Results of improved transport
  14. 14. Summary The factory system depended on the development of new ___________ such as James Watt’s ________ _______. Using steam instead of water meant that industrial towns began to grow up on ___________ found mainly in the north of Britain. Labour in the factories was supplied by _____ _________ and children. To begin with raw materials were moved by __________ such as the Liverpool – Manchester canal but eventually this became too slow and __________ were built. Britain had plenty of raw ___________ such as ________ , ____ ____ and _______ for its developing industries.
  15. 15. Cities grew up all over Britain
  16. 16. Population of cities
  17. 17. Housing conditions
  18. 18. Over London by Rail, Gustave Doré c. 1870.
  19. 19. Rubbish in the streets Overcrowded housing Personal hygiene was very poor Damp, poorly ventilated housing No effective sewage or piped drinking water
  20. 20. River Thames
  21. 21. “We saw drains and sewers emptying their filthy contents into the river. We saw rows of privies built over the river. Yet we saw a child lower a bucket with a rope from a house into the river” 1874 “I visited the wife of a labourer who had just given birth. She and the child were lying on damp straw on a clay floor. There was no light or ventilation and the air was terrible. I had to walk on bricks across the floor to reach her as the floor was covered with water” 1834
  22. 22. 1832 Cholera strikes! 1848 – 1849: 50,000 people died from cholera
  23. 23. A backyard with privy and water pump! What do you notice about the pipes? It took until 1854 before anyone noticed the connection between the pump and incidence of cholera.
  24. 24. Why did Joshua die of cholera? …..almost one child in five born alive in the 1830s and 1840s had died by the age of five.
  25. 25. 1842 Chadwick Report on conditions in towns •Chadwick blamed the high death rate on •Dirty air and water •Slum houses •Bad sewage systems •Poor food What do you notice about the life expectancy of the middle classes compared to workers? Is there any difference between urban & rural areas?
  26. 26. 1848 Public Health Act Towns began to make improvements . By 1900 cholera had died out 1866
  27. 27. What was life in the city like? • People left farming and moved to cities and towns for jobs in the factories. – lost control of their own lives - boring jobs – dark, dirty and unsafe working conditions – lived in overcrowded apartments – little fresh meat, milk or vegetables – poor sanitation – pollution: air and water – diseases such a cholera, typhoid Manchester

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