Clean Technology Landscape in India Rangan Banerjee Department of Energy Science and Engineering IIT Bombay
Why  Clean Technology? <ul><li>Present consumption pattern predominantly -fossil fuel  </li></ul><ul><li>Limited fossil re...
India- Primary Commercial Energy 2003-4 Total comm 14000 PJ Biomass 6500 PJ (33%) Total  20500 PJ 19700 PJ (-non energy)
India - Fossil Fuel reserves Data Source Plg Comm IEPC, 2006
Characteristics of Renewables <ul><li>Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted by earth 1.8*10 11  MW </li></...
 
Geothermal*
Applications <ul><li>Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Water Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Refriger...
Power Generation Options Power Generation Centralised  Grid Connected Cogeneration/Trigeneration  Decentralised  Distribut...
Renewable installed capacity and generation *as on Jan 1, 2008 24380 25% 11360 Total 5 20% 2.74 Solar PV 241 50% 55 Waste ...
Renewable Installed Capacity trend
Perspective Plan (MNRE) Source: 11 th  Plan proposal MNRE Govt of India
Renewable Share in Power Renewable installed capacity Renewable generation Nuclear generation Renewable Installed Capacity...
Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave India 150kW plant Thiruvananthpuram < 1MW Grid Connected PROTOTYPE Wave Energy India 1MW gross ...
Technology Options for Solar power
End Uses and Technologies for Use of Solar Energy  Solar Thermal Low Temperature (<100   C) Medium Temperature (<400   C...
BIOMASS THERMOCHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL COMBUSTION GASIFICATION PYROLYSIS RANKINE CYCLE PRODUCER GAS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURISED FE...
Map of India showing the geothermal provinces
OTEC plant schematic
Mooring Arrangement
Wave Energy Source: Sukhatme
Wind Power <ul><li>~8000 MW installed  </li></ul><ul><li>Single machine upto 2.1 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Average capacity fac...
 
 
Small Hydro Power <ul><li>Classification - Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>-Micro  less than  100 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Mini  10...
Biomass Power <ul><li>Higher Capacity factors than other renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelwood, agricultural residues, ani...
Biogas <ul><li>45-70% CH 4  rest CO 2  </li></ul><ul><li>Calorific value 16-25MJ/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Digestor- well cont...
Bagasse Cogeneration 2.27 2.40 2.60 Rs/kWh 0.6 0.5 0.4 Load factor Bagasse  NCV = 3400 kcal/kg (dry basis), Price Rs 1.50/...
 
 
Solar Thermal Heating ARUN160 Mahananda Dairy, Latur
Thermal Applications <ul><li>Steel Reheating Furnace Raipur Investment  37.5 lakhs, Annual savings 30 lakhs , Simple Payba...
Solar Cooking <ul><li>Tirumala(Tirupati) – 4 T/day of steam – food for 15000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Solar parabolic Conc...
Proposed ISCC
Solar PV <ul><li>India -2740 kW Grid connected systems  </li></ul><ul><li>(25-239 kW) </li></ul><ul><li>Array efficiency i...
Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant www.mnes.nic.in
Diffusion Curves for wind energy   44800 27400 42900 40000 2022 39600 5800 23000 17500 2012 24800 2000 8700 7000 2007 High...
Wind Generation Total Generation Tamil Nadu 2006-7
Solar Water Heating System <ul><li>Solar Water Heating Systems in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed Capacity = 1.5 mil...
Load Curve Representing Energy Requirement for Water Heating for Pune Electricity Consumption for water heating of Pune  5...
 
5 kWp Solar PV system at Rajmachi village, Maharashtra
Isolated system - Example Single phase, 220 V  100 PV modules of 50 W each Lead acid battery - tubular type 120 V; 800 Ah ...
Bio-diesel based power plant of 10 kW rating (Raipur, Chattisgarh) Solar Water pumping system for village
Summing Up <ul><li>Clean Technology- from market seeding to mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Different strategies </li></ul...
End-Note <ul><li>The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun  </li></ul><...
References <ul><li>AKNReddy,R H Williams, T. Johannson,Energy After Rio- Prospects and Challenges-,UNDP, 1997, New York.  ...
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Prof. Rangan Banerjee - CleanTech SIG Mumbai

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Prof. Rangan Banerjee - CleanTech SIG Mumbai

  1. 1. Clean Technology Landscape in India Rangan Banerjee Department of Energy Science and Engineering IIT Bombay
  2. 2. Why Clean Technology? <ul><li>Present consumption pattern predominantly -fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Limited fossil reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Need for transition to clean technology (renewable energy systems,efficiency) , nuclear, </li></ul>
  3. 3. India- Primary Commercial Energy 2003-4 Total comm 14000 PJ Biomass 6500 PJ (33%) Total 20500 PJ 19700 PJ (-non energy)
  4. 4. India - Fossil Fuel reserves Data Source Plg Comm IEPC, 2006
  5. 5. Characteristics of Renewables <ul><li>Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted by earth 1.8*10 11 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Source of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Dilute Source - Even in best regions 1kW/m 2 and the total daily flux available is 7 kWh/m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Large Collection Areas, high costs </li></ul><ul><li>Availability varies with time </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Storage, Additional Cost </li></ul>
  6. 7. Geothermal*
  7. 8. Applications <ul><li>Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Water Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration and Air Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Drying </li></ul><ul><li>Space Heating </li></ul>
  8. 9. Power Generation Options Power Generation Centralised Grid Connected Cogeneration/Trigeneration Decentralised Distributed Generation Isolated Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar)
  9. 10. Renewable installed capacity and generation *as on Jan 1, 2008 24380 25% 11360 Total 5 20% 2.74 Solar PV 241 50% 55 Waste to Energy 7169 40% 2046 Small Hydro 3784 60% 720 Bagasse Cogeneration 527 60% 86 Biomass Gasifier 3185 70% 606 Biomass Power 9621 14% 7845 Wind Estimated Generation (GWh) Estimated Capacity factor Installed Capacity* (MW)
  10. 11. Renewable Installed Capacity trend
  11. 12. Perspective Plan (MNRE) Source: 11 th Plan proposal MNRE Govt of India
  12. 13. Renewable Share in Power Renewable installed capacity Renewable generation Nuclear generation Renewable Installed Capacity Renewable Generation Nuclear Generation
  13. 14. Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave India 150kW plant Thiruvananthpuram < 1MW Grid Connected PROTOTYPE Wave Energy India 1MW gross plant attempted 50 kW 210 kW NELHA PROTOTYPE OTEC LF 20% No Indian experience (3.6MW planned Sunderbans) 240 MW FRANCE PROTOTYPE Tidal 4c/kWh $2000/kW No Indian experience 50 MW plant J & K planned 8240 MW COMMERCIAL Geothermal Cost Estimates World
  14. 15. Technology Options for Solar power
  15. 16. End Uses and Technologies for Use of Solar Energy Solar Thermal Low Temperature (<100  C) Medium Temperature (<400  C) High Temperature (>400  C) Box type cookers Flat Plate /Evacuated Tube Collectors Solar Chimney Solar Pond Line Focussing Parabolic Parabolic Dish Central Tower Solar Water Heater Air Dryer Power Hot water for Industrial Use Industrial Heating Cooking Cooking Power Power Power Power Power
  16. 17. BIOMASS THERMOCHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL COMBUSTION GASIFICATION PYROLYSIS RANKINE CYCLE PRODUCER GAS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURISED FERMENTATION DIGESTION BIOGAS ETHANOL Duel Fuel SIPGE Gas Turbines BIOMASS CONVERSION ROUTES
  17. 18. Map of India showing the geothermal provinces
  18. 19. OTEC plant schematic
  19. 20. Mooring Arrangement
  20. 21. Wave Energy Source: Sukhatme
  21. 22. Wind Power <ul><li>~8000 MW installed </li></ul><ul><li>Single machine upto 2.1 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Average capacity factor 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Capital cost Rs 4-5crores/MW, Rs 2-3/kWh (cost effective if site CF >20%) </li></ul><ul><li>India 45000 /13000 MW potential estimated </li></ul><ul><li>32%/ year (5 year growth rate) </li></ul>Satara, Maharashtra
  22. 25. Small Hydro Power <ul><li>Classification - Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>-Micro less than 100 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Mini 100 kW - 3 MW Small 3 MW - 15 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Micro and Mini - usually isolated, </li></ul><ul><li>Small grid connected </li></ul><ul><li>Heads as low as 3 m viable </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Cost Rs 5-6crores/MW , </li></ul><ul><li>Rs 1.50-2.50/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>2046 MW (7%/year) </li></ul>200 kW Chizami village, Nagaland Aleo (3MW) Himachal Pradesh
  23. 26. Biomass Power <ul><li>Higher Capacity factors than other renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal waste </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric gasification with dual fuel engine - </li></ul><ul><li>500 kW gasifier - largest installation </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion – 5-18 MW </li></ul><ul><li>Rs 2.50-4/kWh </li></ul>Kaganti Power Ltd. Raichur Distt. A.P. 7.5 MW 100 kWe Pfutseromi village, Nagaland
  24. 27. Biogas <ul><li>45-70% CH 4 rest CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Calorific value 16-25MJ/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Digestor- well containing animal waste slurry </li></ul><ul><li>Dome - floats on slurry- acts as gas holder </li></ul><ul><li>Spent Slurry -sludge- fertiliser </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic Digestion- bacterial action </li></ul><ul><li>Family size plants 2m 3 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Community Size plants 12- 150 m 3 /day </li></ul><ul><li>Rs 12-14000 for a 2m3 unit </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking, Electricity, running engine </li></ul>Pura, Karnataka
  25. 28. Bagasse Cogeneration 2.27 2.40 2.60 Rs/kWh 0.6 0.5 0.4 Load factor Bagasse NCV = 3400 kcal/kg (dry basis), Price Rs 1.50/kg Discount rate = 10%, O&M cost = Rs 0.5/kWh 2500 tcd plant 9.5 MW export, 0.93 kg extra/ kWh 70% Boiler Efficiency 20 years Life 30000 Incremental Capital Cost (Rs/kW)
  26. 31. Solar Thermal Heating ARUN160 Mahananda Dairy, Latur
  27. 32. Thermal Applications <ul><li>Steel Reheating Furnace Raipur Investment 37.5 lakhs, Annual savings 30 lakhs , Simple Payback period 1.25 years, IRR 80% (IITB, Cosmos) (Rice Husk, wood) 1.25 Mkcals/hr </li></ul><ul><li>NARI, Sugarcane Leaves, Bagasse, Ceramic Tile furnace 0.25 Mkcals/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Drying – TERI, payback period 2.5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide Manufacture </li></ul>Silk Drying – TERI Steel Rolling Mill Reheating Furnace Raipur 1.25 Mkcal/hr
  28. 33. Solar Cooking <ul><li>Tirumala(Tirupati) – 4 T/day of steam – food for 15000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Solar parabolic Concentrators </li></ul><ul><li>Solar cooking – Suitable for Institutions/ Community kitchen </li></ul>Army mess, Ladakh <ul><li>Households- difficult – change in cooking habits </li></ul>
  29. 34. Proposed ISCC
  30. 35. Solar PV <ul><li>India -2740 kW Grid connected systems </li></ul><ul><li>(25-239 kW) </li></ul><ul><li>Array efficiency in field 12-15% </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Rs 26cr/MW </li></ul><ul><li>Rs 15-20 /kWh </li></ul>Vidyut Saudha Building, 100 kWp , APTRANSCO ( 2001) BHEL Mousuni Island , 105 kWp, West Bengal Renewable Energy Agency ( 2003 )
  31. 36. Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant www.mnes.nic.in
  32. 37. Diffusion Curves for wind energy 44800 27400 42900 40000 2022 39600 5800 23000 17500 2012 24800 2000 8700 7000 2007 Higher limit Lower limit Values in the uncertainty limit of 5% Projection by diffusion curve Projection by MNRE Year
  33. 38. Wind Generation Total Generation Tamil Nadu 2006-7
  34. 39. Solar Water Heating System <ul><li>Solar Water Heating Systems in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed Capacity = 1.5 million sq. m. (0.8% of estimated potential) </li></ul></ul>COLLECTOR STORAGE TANK FROM OVERHEAD TANK TO USAGE POINT AUXILIARY HEATER STORAGE TANK COLLECTOR PUMP FROM OVERHEAD TANK TO USAGE POINT Schematic of solar water heating system AUXILIARY HEATER
  35. 40. Load Curve Representing Energy Requirement for Water Heating for Pune Electricity Consumption for water heating of Pune 53% Total Electricity Consumption of Pune
  36. 42. 5 kWp Solar PV system at Rajmachi village, Maharashtra
  37. 43. Isolated system - Example Single phase, 220 V 100 PV modules of 50 W each Lead acid battery - tubular type 120 V; 800 Ah Inverter: 7.5 kVA
  38. 44. Bio-diesel based power plant of 10 kW rating (Raipur, Chattisgarh) Solar Water pumping system for village
  39. 45. Summing Up <ul><li>Clean Technology- from market seeding to mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Different strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Different mindsets </li></ul><ul><li>Not constrained by supply </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change as a driver- National solar mission </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative financing </li></ul><ul><li>Technology development , R &D </li></ul><ul><li>Consortia </li></ul><ul><li>India as a global leader? </li></ul>
  40. 46. End-Note <ul><li>The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Nader US Consumer activist </li></ul>Thank you
  41. 47. References <ul><li>AKNReddy,R H Williams, T. Johannson,Energy After Rio- Prospects and Challenges-,UNDP, 1997, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>MNES Annual Reports, 2001-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Energy Policy Report, Planning Commission, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>11 th Five year plan proposal, MNRE, Govt of India </li></ul><ul><li>www.mnes.nic.in </li></ul><ul><li>S.P.Sukhatme, Solar Energy, Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi,1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Banerjee, Comparison of DG options, Energy Policy, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Pillai, Banerjee, Solar Energy, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Manish, Pillai, Banerjee, ‘Sustainability analysis of renewables’, Energy for Sustainable Development , December 2006 </li></ul>
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