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    A handbook-of-orchestration-fidler-florence-g A handbook-of-orchestration-fidler-florence-g Document Transcript

    • The original of tliis book is in tine Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text.http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924021749761
    • A HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION BY FLORENCE G. FIDLER With musical illustrations in the text and 4 Compass Charts. LONDON.KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co., Ltd. NEW YORK E. P. DUTTON & : Co. 1921
    • :: : CONTENTSApologia viiForeword to Students...., iList of Music to be used with this Book 5General Introduction to the Subject 7Explanation of the Compass Charts 12PART I : THE SCORE (A graded course of study) Chapter I: The String Orchestra 17 Chapter II: The Wood Wind 23 Chapter III: The Small Orchestra 27 Chapter IV: The Full Orchestra 31 Chapter V: Notes for Advanced Students 34PART II : THE INSTRUMENTS Chapter I The String Group 50 Chapter II: The String Instruments 60 Chapter III The Wind Group 69 Chapter IV The Wind Instruments 77 Chapter V : The Percussion Group loi Chapter VI The Percussion Instruments and the Harp 104Some Obsolete and rarely used Instruments 120On the Study of Old and Foreign Scores 123Table of Instruments 129BibUography 130Index 135
    • APOLOGIA The paramount need music teaching at the present intime is In order to the training of students as listeners.listen intelligently one must understand the language thatis spoken. The principal language of the music of to-dayis that of the Orchestra. An intimate knowledge of thegrammar of orchestration is, then, the necessary technicalequipment of the inteUigent listener. The best way toattain this knowledge is by writing orchestral scores, whichshould in no case be original composition, for one cannotleam the grammar of a language and write poetry in itsimultaneously. Twenty years experience of teaching orchestration onthese lines — by orchestrating piano-music already inexistence, without reference to other branches of musical —theory has convinced me that good listeners can be pro-duced in this way and that all students, particularly ;singers and pianists, can be aided thereby towards soundmusicianship. Incidentally, if a student is at the sametime working through the ordinary academic routine ofmusical theory which results in composition, by the timehe arrives at that goal he has already at hand the technicalknowledge of the Orchestra which enables him to transcribehis ideas directly to the Full Score. My pupils have repeatedly urged me to put into book-form the notes that I give them, but hitherto I haverefrained from doing so because there are already so many vii
    • viii APOLOGIAgood text-books published. But Orchestration is asubject which isalways changing and growing, so thebest book inevitably gets out-of-date in a short time.This continual change is due to the development of Music —itself, which — Uke other art forms tends all the time tobecome more complex, and more difi&cult to execute.This gives rise to a constant demand for instrumentsmore capable of grappling with the technicaUties of themodem score. Instrument-makers rise to the occasion,and though the Strings are in the main static, the windand percussion instruments are constantly improved inmechanism. This, then, is my apology for adding anothermanual to those already in existence. In conclusion I wish to acknowledge my great indebted-ness to Mr. Cecil Forsyth, whose exhaustive volume.Orchestration, has been invaluable to me. I trust thatevery student who has worked through this Uttle bookwith advantage and pleasure will pass straight on to thegreat work in which Mr. Forsyth has formulated his vastknowledge of an intricate subject. Florence G. Fidler.
    • FOREWORD TO STUDENTS Students without any knowledge of Harmonyand Counterpoint are assured that, although suchknowledge is of immense service in Orchestra-tion, it isnot necessary until the scores becomewell advanced. Good elementary orchestra-tion only requires acquaintance with the" elements " of music (keys, time-signatures,etc.) and a working knowledge of transposition. The best method to follow is to study Har-mony side by side with Orchestration, thusdeveloping the tonal colour-sense simultane-ously with that of structure and design. Theunfortunate method of postponing the study ofOrchestration until the final stage of a prolongedcourse of theoretical training in music is reachedis equivalent to forbidding a child to colourpictures until he can draw correctly. The two Parts of this book are to be usedconcurrently, and the student also requirescopies of the Piano music and orchestral scoreslisted on Page 7. The graded course ofstudy is the result of long experience in teach-ing the subject. String writing, correct butnot necessarily elaborate, must be mastered I
    • 2 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONfirst, as the fundamental basis of all orches- it istration. The student is advised to studythoroughly each Section (of Part I) beforegoing on to the next it is the quickest in the ;end, and nothing is gained by trjdng to learnall at once the details of many intsruments.Concentration on one point at a time is the aimof this system, which is only intended to start —the student on the right road a road whichhas no end ! No detailed description of the instruments hasbeen given as it is obvious that unless thestudent knows them already by sight and bysound he cannot hope to achieve much. Tonecolouring, like picture colouring, cannot betaught in words, and any endeavour to describesounds generally results in absurdity or incoher-ence. The ear can only be trained by constantlistening to an orchestra, first of all concentra-ting on single instruments and on groups, andthen studying the more complex sounds oftheir various combinations. The student mustnot be satisfied until he can hear mentallyevery score he reads or writes. All statements relate to English methods andinstruments only, and historic information hasbeen rigorously excluded. The growth and development of musical instruments is a sub-
    • FOREWORD TO STUDENTS 3ject of immense but it has no bearing interest,whatever on the study of elementary orchestra-tion, and had better be deferred until later.Students who wish to pursue this branch of thesubject are referred to the Bibliography at theend of this volume. The methods of the mostmodern composers are also omitted as being toocomplicated for the beginner, who is assuredthat if his foundations are sound he will findlittle difficulty inembellishing his scores laterwith the most recent ornamentation. It is unwise to obscure the plan of a text-booksuch as this by the introduction of controversialmatter the directions and statements there- :fore have been made intentionally dogmatic.Students who discover numerovis exceptionsand side-issues must be generous enough toremember this. In addition to the use of this book, and themusic to be studied in connection with it, thestudent should (i) attend every orchestralconcert possible, and always sit where he cansee the players well (2) cultivate from the ;first the habit of playing from score ; he shouldplay all the scores he writes and as much as hecan of those chosen for study ; (3) copy outone or more full scores from the set of separateorchestral parts (4) score some well-knovi ;
    • 4 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION. work from the piano arrangement,orchestraland then compare his own version with thecomposers original ; (5) study every full scorehe can get hold of, when possible noting in apiano version (with red ink and a privatelyinvented shorthand) the details of the scoring ;(6) play some orchestral instrument, be it onlyTriangle or Bass Drum, in order to obtainpractical experience in orchestral methods.Apropos of this it may be added that wind instru-ments are on the whole easier to play thanstrings, and are more in demand in amateurorchestras.
    • LIST OF THE MUSIC TO BE USED WITH THIS BOOK FULL SCORESBeethoven. Symphony in E flat, No. Ill (Eroica)Mendelssohn. Five Numbers from the Mid- summer Nights Dream Music. {Scherzo, Intermezzo, Nocturne, Wedding March, Rupeltanz)Tschaikowsky. Suite. Casse Noisette, Op. 71.Tschaikowsky. Symphony, No. VI [Pathetique) Op. 74. PIANO MUSICMendelssohn. Lieder ohne Worte (Any complete edition)Beethoven. Piano SonatasBorch. Petites Pieces caracteristiques. Op. 49. Bk.I (Augener)Farjeon. Night Music. (Seven Pieces) (Augener)Rachmaninoii. Serenade. Op. Ill, No. 3 (This is included in several albums of short pieces)Grieg. Humoresken. Op. 6.
    • 6 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION ABBREVIATIONS In order to save space in the text, the fourfull scores are referred to as Eroica, M.N.D.,Suite, and Path. Sym. The page numbersare those the miniature edition. of (TheDonajowski Edition, now published by Messrs.Feldman & Co.) The initial " M " signifies" Movement." In the piano music the com-posers name only is given, with the numberof the piece in the collection.
    • : GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT The Orchestra is divided into three Groups— Strings, Wind, and Percussion. Wind and —Percussion parts are never duplicated that is,there is only one player for each part String ;parts are performed by several players together. The Strings form the body of the orchestra,and can never be done without for very long.This is because (i) they have the greatest rangein execution as regards rapidity, expression,gradation of tone, and the facility with whichthey can accomodate themselves instantly to anymusical idea (2) as they use their hands only. :String players do not tire so quickly as doWind players, and can play continuously(3) the tone of the Strings does not pall on theear so soon as the tone of the Wind. Dr. Riemann has pointed out that whereasthe Strings must always give the form andgeneral character of the music, the Wood Windadds a free statement of definite ideas, and theBrass proclaims those ideas to this may be :added the suggestion that the Percussionclinches the matter.
    • 8 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION A little thought will show that musicalinstruments follow the general scheme of Natures Laws big things have deep voices, little things :have high voices big things talk slowly, :little things talk quickly. So m the Orchestrathe larger the instrument, the deeper its note,and the greater its difficulty in playing fast.The largest and the smallest instruments havethe least power of expression, and (in theWind Group particularly) it is the middle sizedinstruments that are the best suited to solowork. The modern arrangement of the parts in aFull Score is Wood Wind at the top, thenBrass, then Percussion, with the Strings at thefoot, the instruments of each group, beingplaced, roughly, in their order of pitch. AsString writing must be studied first it is neces-sary to begin the study of the Score at thebottom. The Violoncello and Double Bassparts must, now, always be written on separatestaves and this arrangement of five stavesfor the Strings rigidly adhered to until suchtime as extra ones are required for the sub-division of parts. The two parts of each pairof Wind instruments are always placed on thesame stave, and care must be exercised in thematter of tails and rests the tails of all notes ;
    • GENERAL INTRODUCTION 9to be played by the First being upward, andthose of the Second downward, irrespective oftheir positions on the Stave. Double restsmust be inserted, except in those bars where both are silent it ; is allowable, however, (i) when only one of the pair is playing for a long time, to write "Imo" or " 26.0 " at the beginning of the passage, and (2) when both are in unison for some time, to write the term " unis " in order to save space. Orchestral writing must invariably be amatter of artistic nicety and exactitude, withno details left vague or unexplained. Thesuccess of a score depends very greatly on theclarity of its independent parts, every one ofwhich should be complete in itself, having itsown phrasing, expression marks, etc. It iswise to rule the bar-lines for the whole scorebefore beginning to work, and to write in allthe clefs, key-signatures, etc. : also to numberthe bars and those of the piano copy of thepiece to be scored. It is not necessary to begina score at the beginning, the better plan beingto work the easiest parts first : in every casethe whole plan of the score should be sketchedout before any details are filled in. Every pupil demands to be told sooner orlater why he is troubled with transposing
    • 10 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONinstruments. the reason is this Briefly, in: —the case of these instruments the choice liesbetween making things easy for the writer ofthe score and the conductor of the orchestraon the one hand, and on the other makingthings easy for the players of the parts, eitherby similarity of fingering to that of a kindredinstrument (as in the case of the Cor Anglais),or by the avoidance of leger lines (as in DoubleBass), or by a less strenuous mental effort (asin Horn) :there is only one writer and oneconductor to a number of players, and bothwriter and conductor are entirely at the mercyof the players therefore it pays in the long run ;to make things as easy as possible for them atthe expense of everybody else. Moreover, asProfessor Prout points out, every studentmust learn to read parts written in the acceptedfashion, or the whole of orchestral literaturewill be closed to him, and there is nothinggained by reading scores in one way and writingthem in another. The choice of key is not so important amatter as formerly was, but aU instruments itare more resonant and have easier parts in thosekeys which have few sharps or flats. Otherthings being equal it is better to take a flat keythan a sharp one. Horn and Trumpet players
    • GENERAL INTRODUCTION iiare so accustomed to transposing that theyusually prefer to do it than to find a partwritten with many sharps and flats. A part should not only be made easy for theplayer, but interesting also : a dull part nevergets well played, and whatever is needlesslydif&cult, fussy, or irritating sure to sound is Every part should be so " grateful ineffective.in itself that a pleasure to play it through it isalone. Students should write as a rule for theaverage player, neither for experts nor beginners.Although difficulties are diminishing both asregards the mechanism of the instrument andthe technique of the player, good orchestrationstill consists in writing for every instrumentthat which is strictly in accordance with itscharacter and temperament exaggeration of :any kind is an artistic mistake, and may easilybecome a vulgarity.
    • EXPLANATION OF COMPASS CHARTS. The notes on the stave at the top of theChart represent the real sound of each noteshown beneath all other notes in the Chart :are those written for the respective instruments. Strings. The four open strings of eachinstrument are numbered and written in semi-breves ; the suggested top stopped note as aminim. The lowest artificial harmonic obtain-able and the highest advisable appear ascrotchets with a diamond-shaped note above.Natural harmonics are marked as black dotswithout tails ; it must be understood thatothers are scientifically possible but undesirablein an orchestral score. It will be noted that ineach case the sound of the lowest artificialharmonic can also be obtained as a naturalharmonic. The same relative harmonics Eiregiven to the Viola as to the other Strings,but the student is referred to the Section on theViola in Part II, (Par. 4). Wind. The system followed is to regard thesemibreve as representing the most perfect note,and the demisemiquaver as the most imperfect,and to show the intervening gradation bymeans of the relative note-values so the best ;
    • EXPLANATION OF COMPASS CHARTS 13 part of each instrument is that enclosed between two semibreves. The Pedal Notes of the Tenor Trombone are shown with diamond-shaped heads and theletter P over each. Four separatestaves are allotted to the Trumpet, because itsnotation is not yet standardised there is of :course no instrument called " Trumpet in C "but a moderate compass without transpositionhas been included under this title as a guide tobeginners, who invariably find the Trumpetthe most difficult of the transposing instrumentsto write for at first. The two notes in bracketsin Double Bassoon are only to be found oncertain makes of instrument. Percussion. The extreme notes of the fourKettledrums in common use are given the :size of the Middle Drum varies, so both sortsare represented. In Harp, Glockenspiel, etc.the system of graduated note-values (as inWind) is followed. The smallest Glockenspielcompass is quoted but all these mechanical :instruments are so various in kind, and socontinually changed and improved that nofinal word on their construction is possible. It must be understood that these Charts areonly intended to serve as a rough guide to thebeginner. The compass (especially the upwardcompass) of most musical instruments is indeter-
    • 14 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONminate, depending to a great extent on the makeand quality of the instrument, tlie ability ofthe player, and the conditions of the moment.Extreme notes are always best avoided.
    • PART I : THE SCORE. A GRADED COURSE OF STUDY.Chapter I The String Orchestra 17Chapter II The Wood Wind 23Chapter III The Small Orchestra 27Chapter IV : The Full Orchestra 31Chapter V: Notes for Advanced Students 34 ^ /
    • Com/?ajs C/iar/, /Vo. M Brass fV/nc/ /nsfrumenh /iea/Soufn/ Trumpef^ Cornef/nBe 7himpef6 Cornef/nA//orn mF^norTrvmdone7h:>frt6o/?eBoss 71/6a {face i>. 16
    • , Compajs C/rar/, A/o. IV,flea/Jaund mm m ini i 5/m// %2% =/fe0edrumj tM ^£G/ec/renip/el * "1 i a= ^ d.Ce/ejfe ^ -T-1 aXy/opAa i^ i^ te //a T g |E2 JL-z;i P r/rtce p. n X
    • PART I : THE SCORE A GRADED COURSE OF STUDY, Chapter I. The String Orchestra SECTION IStudy. Part II, Ch. I, 1-5 and Chap. II, ; Sec. I. Refer also to Sections 2, 3. 4. Eroica M. 2 (Funeral March) String ; parts only.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 48 (Op. 102, No. 6) for Strings. No. 9 (Op. 30,^ No. 3) for Strings, omitting the First and last bars which contain arpeggios.Notes. I Rule MS. music-paper into linesof five staves each, joining them with a braceon the left-hand. Allot one stave to eachinstrument, placed in order of pitch, as follows : First Violin, Second Violin, Viola, Violoncello, Double Bass. 2 (17)
    • i8 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION The two violins, like womens voices, sing intwo parts the ; " second " is the one whichplays the lower part. 2. Each of the five parts must be completein itself, having its own clef, key-signaturesand expression marks but directions which ;affect the time of the whole (such as Allegro,rail), need only be inserted at the top of thescore. {Eroica, 82). 3. It is not necessary to keep every instru-ment playing continuously. {Eroica, 100, 117,121). 4. Any note can be given to any instrumentprovided it is within its compass the First :Violin need not always be at the top. {Eroica,118). 5. The tune should bear the same position whole as in the originalin regard to the the :bass may never be altered, except in octave ;it must always remain at the bottom of theharmony. 6. Notes may be doubled in two or moreparts. {Eroica, 105, 107). 7. Nothing may be added to the harmony ;e.g. a common chord must remain a commonchord, and have no seventh added to it. 8. The instrument that begins a sentenceshould finish it, as in speaking.
    • THE STRING ORCHESTRA 19 SECTION IIStudy. Part II, Ch. I. 6-10 ; and Chap. II, Sec. 3. Eroica M. 3 {Scherzo) String parts only.Score. Borch, No. 2, Sarahande, for Strings. Mendelssohn, No. 45 (Op. 102, No. 3) for Strings.Notes, Plan out a scheme for the whole score i.before beginning to write. The best way is toplay it, marking on the piano copy meanwhilethe proposed distribution of parts. 2. Every short piece has one big climax :this should be found, written Tutti (everybodyplaying), worked up to and away from. 3. A score should be sometimes thick withmany instruments playing, and sometimes thinwith only a few, according to the nature of themusic. 4. Learn from the first to regard a scorehorizontally as well as vertically, and makeeach part interesting in itself. The besttest to apply is to play or hum through by ititselfwithout reference to the others this will :show, among other things, that a phrase whichfinishes on the beat has the smoothest effect. 5. To discover how fast pizzicato can beplayed on a violin, hold a piece of string between
    • 20 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONthe teeth and the left hand, and twitch it withthe first finger of the right hand, meanwhilesinging mentally the passage in question it :cannot be done beyond a certain speed, whichis still less in the case of the larger Strings.(Part II, Chap, i, 7). 3. When doubling the notes of a chorddivide them as equally as possible if there be ;a remainder strengthen the root of the chord,and then the third. 7. Try always to convey the spirit of themusic itself. If a piece is graceful and flowing,write the orchestral parts in long slurred smoothpassages ; if it is jerky and lively, use shortnotes and pizzicato. The music is to be trans-lated from one language to another, fax richerin expression ; and the best translations arethose which keep the spirit rather than theletter of the original. SECTION IIIStudy. Part II, Chap, i, 11-13, and Chap. II, Sees. 2 and 4. Eroica, M. IV ; String parts only. Suite, Overture Miniature ; String parts only.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 10, (Op. 30, No. 4) for Strings. Beethoven, Sonata in E, No. 9, M i for Strings.
    • : THE STRING ORCHESTRA 21Notes. i. It is most important to have afirm harmonic bass when there are many partsabove it to support. When a short note isgiven in the piano part a long sustained noteshould often take its place in the score. Theguide to this is the use of the piano pedalin every case where the pedal holds a low notewhile the left-hand plays a middle part, thebass of the orchestra should hold on likewise.A pizzicato bass passage is good for rhythm,but it is not often in itself a sufficiently strongfoundation unless another instrument has thesame note sustained. 2. Sustained tone in the middle parts isoften required, and to this too the pedal is thesurest guide. If in the piano part the handsare widely separated, leaving a space in themiddle of the instrument without notes, thisspace should be filled up by means of thesub-division of the Strings into several parts. 3. It is necessary to detach the mind fromthe limitation of the piano and of the pianiststwo hands and ten fingers, and to write accord-ing to the greater wealth of material which anorchestra supplies. If a passage is loud, full intone, and broad in style, parts should be thick-ened and notes doubled. The orchestra canplay that which is impossible to the pianist.
    • 22 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 4. The common form of piano four-notearpeggio (Beethoven Sonata, Bar 65). is bestreproduced in Strings by reiterated semiquaversor bowed tremolo, the chords being spread anddivided between several instruments, and theparts sub-divided if necessary. {Eroica, 97,114, and the final Presto). 5. If a long passage, or scale, or arpeggio,proceeds through several octaves, and is cut upbetween different instruments, the smoothesteffect can be obtained by careful dovetailing ofthe joins, leaving no moment of silence. Oneor more notes should overlap ; a good plan isto end one part and start the next simultane-ously on the beat. {M.N.D. Scherzo, p. 22).
    • Chapter II. The Wood Wind SECTION IStudy. Part II. Chap. III. The Wind Group, and Chap. IV, Sec. 3, The Oboe. Eroica String parts of the First M, and Oboe parts of the whole Symphony.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 42 (Op. 85, No. 6) for one Oboe and Strings. SECTION II. JStudy- Part II, Chap. IV, Sec. 7, The Bassoon M.N.D., Intermezzo, Wood and String parts only. Path. Sym., Bassoon parts only. M.I.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 35, (Op. 67, No. 5) forone Bassoon and Strings. Mendelssohn No. 18, [Duetto,) for one Oboe, one Bassoon and Strings. SECTION IIIStudy. Part II, Chap. IV, Sec. i. The Flute.
    • 24 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION M.N.D. Wedding March, Wood and String parts only. Suite, All Flute parts, but particularly those of the Danse des Mirlitons.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 12, (GondeUied^ for one Flute and Strings and : No. 20, (Op. 53, No. 2) for one Flute, one Oboe, and Strings. SECTION IVStudy. Part II, Chap. IV, Sec. The Clarinet. 5, M.N.D. , Scherzo, Wood and String parts only. Suite, all Clarinet parts.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 36 (Op. 67, No. 6) for one Clarinet and Strings. Mendelssohn No. 28, for Wood Wind only (two Flutes, two Oboes, two Clarinets and two Bassoons.)Notes, i. Wind Instruments must be writtenfor vocally, as if for the human voice, anddoubtful points can often be solved by referenceto the singers point of view. For instance, itis as bad to keep a Wind for long on its highestnotes as it would be in the case of a singer :and a Wind player must have time to breathejust as a singer must.
    • THE WOOD WIND 25 2. In writing for one Wind instrument andStrings it is impossible to avoid treating itmore or less as a solo part. But when scoringfor many Wind together it is a good plan toaccompany a Wind solo with Strings, and aString solo with Wind, in order to get the variedtone-colour. 3. In writing a Tutti of the eight WoodWind and Strings the harmony should be com-plete in itself in each group, so that the Stringsby themselves would sound well, and the Windequally well. 4. If a chord of three or four notes is intendedto sound as one whole, with the tone wellblended, the best way to get this effect is bygiving it to Strings entirely or to Wind entirely.Four-note chords in Wood blend best when giveneither to Flutes and Clarinets, or to Oboes andBassoons. Six-note chords blend well withthe Flutes and Clarinets crossed and the Bas-soons below. 5. There is little gained by giving a solo tothe " Second " player in a pair of Wind instru-ments. The Seconds purpose in the Orchestrais (i) to strengthen the part in a loud passage,{Eroica, 155) (2) to add notes to the harmony ;{Eroica, 15) (3) to play a duet with the First, ;such as a passage of thirds or sixths, {Eroica,
    • 26 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION13, 31) (4) to relieve the First when he needs ;rest [Eroica, 189 and onwards, and 104) ;(5) to lead up to a passage by the First. 6. It the tune is doubled, the accompani-ment must be correspondingly thickened topreserve balance. If the tune is taken up anoctave the gap between must be filled. Intaking the scoring up in this way it is generallywise to carry the bass down, and thus, bycontrary motion, to avoid top-heaviness. 7. In regard to the last score in Sec. IV.(Wood Wind only) it may be pointed out thatthere are three general ways of obtaining goodbalance in a Wood Tutti (i) by making the :order of parts coincide with the order of instru-ments on the score (2) by crossing and inter- ;weaving the parts and (3) by placing the ;parts of one pair of instruments in between theparts of another pair.
    • Chapter III. The Small Orchestra SECTION INote. The term " Wood, " used alone, denotes the eight —instraments in ordinary use two Fhites, two Oboes, twoClarinets, two Bassoons. The term "Drums" used alonerefers to the Kettledrums. For the explanation of theHorn and Trumpet transpositions of the four model scores,see page 126.Study. Part II, Chap. IV, Sec. 8, The Horn. M.N.D. Nocturne. Suite, March, No. 2, Wood, Horn and String parts only.Score. Mendelssohn, No. 22, for two Horns and Strings. Beethoven, Sonata IX, M. 2 for Wood and Four Horns. Mendelssohn, No. 29, for Wood, two Horns and Strings. Borch, No. 3, for one Oboe, two Horns and Strings. Beethoven, Sonata VI, M. 2 for V/ood, four Horns and Strings.Notes, i. In writing a Tutti it is wise to
    • 28 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONmake the four Horns complete the harmony inthemselves, as already done in the case ofthe Strings and the Wood. 2. It is a good plan to test the correctness oftransposed parts by playing them, first fromthe piano original and then from the score,when the ear should detect any inaccuracy. SECTION IIStudy. Part II, Chap. IV, Sec. 4. The Cor Anglais. Suite, Trepak and Danse Arabe ; Wood, Horn and String parts only.Score. Farjeon, No. 5, for two Flutes, Cor Anglais, two Clarinets, two Bas- soons, two Horns, and Strings. Borch, No. i, for Wood, Cor Anglais, four Horns and Strings. Rachmaninoff, Serenade, for Wood, two Horns and Strings. Mendelssohn, No. 34, for Wood, two Horns, and Strings.Note. In every orchestral piece there are,roughly generalising, three component parts,(i) the tune, (2) a moving accompaniment,and (3) a veiled background of sustained tone.
    • THE SMALL ORCHESTRA 29This third part is not found in piano music,except to some extent by the use of the pedal(again the surest guide to its inclusion) and inscoring it has to be invented without it a :score sounds thin and poor in quality. Inhearing an orchestra this unostentatious bodyof sound, acting as a foil to the moving parts,should be listened for carefully. The bestpart of each instrument to use for the back-ground is its most neutral part notes which ;are very high, very low, or in any way conspic-uous should be avoided the crossing of sus- ;tained parts is often a useful plan to follow. SECTION IIIStudy. Part II, Chap. V. Chap. VI, Sees. ; I, 4, 5, Percussion Instruments. Path. Sym. M. III. Suite all Percussion parts. ;Score. Farjeon, No. 2 Slumber Song, for Wood, , four Horns, Drums and Strings. Grieg. No. 4, for Wood, two Horns, Drums, Triangle, Cjnnbals, and Strings. Beethoven, Sonata, No. 8, (Pathetique) ; the last twelve bars of the First Movement to be scored as a crescendo tutti.
    • ;30 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONNotes, i. Monotony should always be a-voided. An idea, say, for accompanying asolo, may be itself, but if persisted quite good inin for a long time, becomes wearisome to the ithearer no one thing should be done continuously. ;The best guide to the points where it is wise toto change the style is the phrasing of the originalpiano music being scored, a new phrase generallyneeding a new mode of expression. 2. As stated in Part H, the Drum note mustalways be a part of the harmony, though it neednot necessarily be the bass. When it is not thebass, the Bass or Cello should be below it. 3. The easiest way of producing a generalcrescendo is to make each instrument play loudera more artistic method is by the gradual andregular addition of instruments to the score.The exercise given (from a Beethoven Sonata)should commence with the Strings only, andconclude with the Tutti of all the instrumentsstudied up to this point, the Wind and Percussionbeing added gradually.
    • Chapter IV : The Full Orchestra SECTION I,Study. Part II, Chap. IV, Sees, g and lo. Trumpet, Trombone, etc. Part II, Chap. VI, Sees. 2 and 3 . Drum and Bass Drum. Side Suite, Danse des Mirlitons. Path. Sym. M.I.Score. Farjeon. No. 4, Night Rustlings, for Brass only (ten parts). Mendelssohn, No 27, for Brass, Bass Drum and Side Drum. Beethoven : Funeral March from Sonata II, for Wood, Brass, Drums, Side Drum and Bass Drum Farjeon, No. 7, At Parting, for Wood, Brass, and Strings. SECTION IIStudy. Part II, Chap. IV, Sees. 2, 6,7. Pieeolo, Bass Clarinet, and Double Bassoon. Path. Sym. M.2. Suite Danse de la Fee-Dragee and ; Danse Chinoise.
    • :32 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONScore. Farjeon ; Will 0 the Wisp, for No. 3, Piccolo, Flute, Triangle and Strings. Borch, No. 4, for Wood, Bass Clarinet, Double Bassoon, four Horns, Drums, Triangle, Cymbals and Strings. Grieg, No. I, for Full Orchestra. SECTION IIIStudy. Part II, Chap. VI, Sec. II. The Harp. Suite. Valse des Fleurs. Path. Sym. M.4.Score. Beethoven. Sonata III, M.3, for Wood and Harp. Farjeon, No. 3, In the Moonlight, for Full Orchestra, with Cor Ang- lais, Bass Clarinet, Double Bassoon and Harp. Grieg, No. 2, for Full Orchestra. The student who has worked steadilythrough Part should now be able to select thishis own material for scores. As a general ruleit will be found that music most distinctly" pianistic " is the worst for the purposeChopin and Schumann provide little or nomaterial, but nearly everthing that Beethovenwrote can be scored. A list is added of pieces thathave been scored by pupils with success, and isgiven merely as a suggestion. In every case where
    • THE FULL ORCHESTRA 33there is already a solo part, the accompanimentonly should be scored, thus creating a concerto.Pianists would do well to score music whichthey play singers, the accompaniments of ;their songs. In songs where several versesare alike, the best practice lies in scoring eachverse differentlyDEBUSSY. The Childrens Corner Suite.DVORAK. Aus dem Bohmer Walde Bk. i. (Piano four hands)KALIWODA. Nocturnes for Viola and Piano.EMIL KREUZ. Song, A Lake and a Fairy Boat.LISZT. Songs, Die Loreley and Es w^r ein Konig in Thule.MACKENZIE. Part song. Come, sisters, come ! (Novello.)PAUL PUGET. Chanson Song, de Route, (from Chansons pour Elle).RACHMANINOFF. Album of Short Pieces.SCHARWENKA. Bilder aus dem Suden (Piano, four hands)SCHUBERT. Piano Sonatas.SITT. Fantasiestuck in F Minor for Viola Op. 53 No. I.SVENDSEN. Romance in G, for Violin.WALFORD DAVIES. Part-song, The Cloud (Sidney Riorden). 3
    • :Chapter V. Notes for Advanced Students SECTION I. Tutti Writing 1. There should be economy in Tutti writingthe ear soon tires of noise and the good effect of aTutti is in inverse proportion to its length andits frequency. 2. The general Group rule given that eachin a Tutti should make complete harmony initself holds good in nearly every case. TheWood being the least powerful Group cannotbe heard individually in any large Tutti exceptthe high Flute register and the Piccolo. Thebest plan to follow therefore is to write firstthe String and the Brass parts and then usethe Wood for filling in the gaps. 3. A Tutti can be made by a multi- thickplicity of parts or thin by a limited numberof parts doubled by many instruments. Whenthe total compass is wide thick scoring is anecessity, as wide gaps in the middle alwajssound badly. In a unison-octave passage theparts should be equally divided between theoctaves, when any individual instrument get-ing out of its compass can leap up or down anoctave without disturbing the general effect.
    • NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS 35 4. The tone-colour of a Tutti dependsmostly on the register in which the individualinstruments are placed. The most brilliancecan be obtained by putting them high a ;sombre grave tone by putting them low.If quantity of sound merely is desired eachshould have its easiest and most resonant —notes Strings with open strings, Brass with —open notes, and needless to say unlimited —Percussion. 5. In building up a crescendo by additions,the Woodagain cannot be considered by themselves, as they are neither strong enough norsubtle enough to influence the scheme. It iswise to begin with the Strings, then to add theWood and Brass in unisons, in pairs, and tokeep back the Percussion for the climax. 6. A good arrangement for the top Woodparts in a brilliant Tutti is to use the Piccolofor the top notes, double it in the octave withboth Oboes, fill in between with the Flutes,and double the Flutes in the lower octave bythe Clarinets. SECTION II. Harmony I. Although quite satisfactory orchestra-tion can be done by means of common senseand musical feeling without any knowledfre
    • 36 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONof Harmony, yet it follows that the mostadvanced work requires to be founded on asound harmonic basis. Just as in a pictureno amount of skill in colouring will hide baddrawing, so no score sounds clear and satis-fying unless the part-writing is good in itself,and the tone well balanced between the partsof each chord. 2. The best guide for the good spacing ofchords the natural harmonic series, which, isstarting from the octave at the bottom, rises byregularly decreasing intervals. So it followsthat the bass instruments should be widelyspaced, and the treble instruments closelypressed together. In String divisions there-fore it is generally wiser to divide the upperthan the lower Strings. 3. The natural and legitimate use of thelowest bass instruments of each Group (DoubleBass, Double Bassoon, and Bass Tuba) is togive the lowest octave in the harmonic series,and in a powerful Tutti they cannot be betteremployed. Close harmony of middle partsshould not lie below G at the top of the bassstave. 4. Brass harmony, except for the fourHorns alone, should always be widely spread.Wood harmony, on the contrarj^, sounds better
    • . NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS ziin close formation, especially in the case of thehigher instruments. 5. When writing in contrary motion middlegaps should be avoided by the introductionof other parts and instruments or by the ;sub-division of parts, if all material is alreadyin use Sounds qf great height and great depth 6.demand harmonic simplicity. All intricatepassages belong to the middle of the orchestralcompass. 7. Pedal notes can be introduced anywhereif of another timhre. 8. The bass of an inversion of a dominantseventh or a minor ninth must never be doubledin an upper part, except in a Harp arpeggiopassage, where it is quite allowable. g. A complicated crossing of parts whichlooks well on paper often results in incoherence ;itcan only be distinctly heard when played byinstruments with a great difference in timhre. SECTION III. Melody Melody can be made to stand out in I.four ways (i) by the addition of force, as ;when the tune is maked/ofife, and the accompani-ment piano (2) by doubling or trebling the ;tune ; (3) by a sharp contrast of timhre, as
    • ;SS HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONwhen a Wind solo is accompanied by Strings ;(4) by the crossing of parts, as when the Cellois put above the Violins, or the Oboe above theFlutes. 3.In music written for the Piano the melodyis almost always at the top of the harmony, andnext in order of frequency it lies in the bass ;least often is it found in the middle parts.But in the Orchestra the greatest wealth ofmaterial lies in the middle, round about MiddleC, (which note exists on every instrumentexcept the Piccolo, Kettle-drums, and the verylowest Wind), and, as has been pointed out, manyinstruments are at their best in the middle of theircompass. It follows that orchestral melodymost generally lies in the middle of the harmony,and the accompaniment has to be consideredaccordingly. Melodies which lie otherwise,extremely high or extremely low, are bestdoubled in the octave, or even in two octaves. 3. It is seldom wise to give a solo passageto two similar Wind instruments. If thatmechanical precision which is inevitable whentwo players have to keep together is theeffect then the added fulness and requiredroundness of tone may be an advantagebut most Wind solos are of a delicate nature,and such solos should always be confined to one
    • ; NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS 39player of each kind of instrument. 4. When a phrase or passage is repeated itshould have more tone the second time thanthe first, either by the use of stronger instru-ments, or by the addition of others. 5. For purely dynamic effects the String andBrass instruments are the most responsivebut the finest diminuendo and the softestpianissimo can be obtained on the Clarinet.With this exception the Wood Wind Groupis the least subtle in this particular way, thoughit furnishes the greatest variety of colour. 6. The effect produced by the re-entry ofInstrument or Group depends mostly on thelength of its previous silence. 7. Entries and Exits should never bewritten in a middle tone except in the case ofbackground work. A more definite softnessor loudnessis required at the beginning and theend of everything. 8. One can never afford at any time to beunrhythmical, least of all at the beginning ofany fresh movement :the rhythm then shouldbe slightly exaggerated in order that thehearer can feel the " swing " instantaneously ;itshould not take him five or six bars to decidein what time the music is written. g. Grace notes of every kind, being a
    • 40 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONPiano effect, are best avoided in Orchestration :if used they should not be doubled. In Windthey are only playable in those conjunctionswhere shakes and tremolo are possible. SECTION IV. Accompaniment 1. Accompaniments to songs and instru-mental solos need special attention. Thesoloist must have sufficient support, but mustnever be over-powered. A Tutti can only beused when the solo is silent, when it iseffective as affording contrast. Wind shouldbe kept in the neutral registers, except forsubordinate solo passages. The bulk of theaccompaniment should always be given toStrings, even in a Violin Solo. 2. If the solo part is florid, the accompani-ment should be simple and the scoring thin.If the solo is smooth with long sustained notes,then the accompaniment should be florid witha full tone, otherwise it lacks interest. 3. In a song the accompaniment should liefor the most part in a different register from thesolo the mans voice should have a high ;accompaniment, while the womans requiresa low one. 4. During the solo passages it is unwise todouble Wind in the unison, or to have a heavy
    • NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS 41sustained Double Bass part : Percussion mustalso be sparingly used. 5. The doubling of the solo part in theOrchestra sometimes effective for an isolated ispassage, but should never be prolonged. 6. Very short snappy chords only soundwell when loud in a soft passage separate ;chords should be written in fairly long notes.This applies particularly to Strings. 7. While remaining subordinate to the solo,every accompaniment should be made interest-ing in itself, and acceptable to the players whoperform it.SECTION V. Balance, Combinations, and Tone-Colour 1. Tone-Colour should be varied continually,but without fussiness. For beginners. Pro-fessor Fronts rule is a wise one, " Change thecolour about every sixteen bars and never in themiddle of the phrase." 2. The study of combinations is unlimitedand can be taught by no text-book the know- ;ledge is only obtained by training the ear torecognise the sound of each combination to —know, how, for instance, the Flute and Oboe inunison sound, the Viola and Bassoon in octaves,and so forth.
    • 42 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 3. The exact power of the Strings dependsobviously on their numerical strength at themoment but, speaking roughly, it may be ;said that all the First Violins playing arcobalance one Wood instrument in piano, and twoin forte. 4. H both Violins are in unison with Viola,the latter adds fulness to the body of tone, butcannot be heard individually. 5. Except in the case of the two Violinparts, it is seldom advisable to put two Stringsof the same kind in octaves. 6. Wood blends equally well with Stringsor Brass if used to double Strings, the tone is ;thickened if to double Brass, the tone is sweet- ;ened. 7. All combinations of Strings and Woodare good, but the Strings generally drown theWood. 8. and Strings Brass rarely blend well,though a passage for four Horns doubled byViolas and Cellos divisi has an extremely goodeffect. 9. A useful combination is Wind sustainedand Strings pizzicato, one giving sonority andthe other lightness to the whole. 10. One String part in unison with oneWood (for instance, Viola and Bassoon) pro-
    • : NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS 43duces an effect of solidity, but several Stringparts in unison with one Wood is a uselessarrangement as the Wood tone cannot bedistinguished at all. 11. Muted Strings do not blend well withanything. 12. In passages of thirds and sixths it isbest to use a pair of the same instrument —twoFlutes, two Violins, etc. 13. Percussion blends better with Wind,particularly Brass, than with Strings. Triangletrills go with high Wood or Violins wellSide Drum and Cymbals played with drumsticksblend with Trumpets and Horns the Bass Drum :and Tam-tam blend well with Trombones andthe bass Strings. 14. If there is a drum-roll going, it is uselessto put any moving figure to the lower Strings,as it would be inaudible. 15. All entirely Brass and all entirely Woodcombinations are good on account of thesimilarity of timbre ; diatonic writing is bestfor Brass. 16. A Brass passage doubled by Wood fullproduces a more mellow and a more legatoeffect than if the Brass were alone, but theWood is not heard individually. {Path. Sym.P- 44)-
    • 44 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 17. Smaller Brass and Wood combinationsrequire care. If Wood and Horns are inoctaves two Flutes, Oboes, or Clarinets areneeded to balance one Horn and three or ;four to balance two Horns. In the case ofWood and Trumpets three Wood are requiredto balance one Trumpet when the latter is inthe lower octave, but two are sufficient whenthe Trumpet is in the higher octave. A Trumpetpassage that gets too high can be best trans-ferred to Oboes and Clarinets in unison in ;this case if the accompaniment to the Trumpetwas Wood, it should be transferred to theHorns. It is wiser to avoid combinations ofWood and Trombones. Muted Trumpets blendwell with Oboe and Cor Anglais. StoppedHorns blend well with the chalumeau of theClarinet. 18. All Windinstruments, when playingsoftly, have about the same power, thoughTrumpets and Trombones should be markedPP when the others are marked P- But inforte and fortissimo some adjustment is requiredto procure good balance. Then Trumpets,Trombones and Tuba have about the samestrength Cornets have rather less ; Horns are ;about half as strong as the larger Brass. It isbest, therefore, in loud passages to put two
    • NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS 45Horns in unison to balance one Trumpet orone Trombone, and two of any Wood Wind tobalance one Horn. ig. When only two Horns are in use a commonarrangement is to build four-part harmonywith the two Horns and the two Bassoons.They balance perfectly in piano, but in fortethe Horns are apt to drown the Bassoons unlessmarked mf or mp. There are two methods ofarranging this combination (i) by crossing the ;four parts, giving the consonant intervals tothe Horns, and the dissonant intervals to theBassoons and (2) by giving the Horns an ;octave at the top and bottom of the chord, andputting the Bassoon parts in between the ;reverse of this would be bad. Such a passageis of course best when placed in the neutralregisters of both instruments. 20. It is always good to give sustained partsto Brass and moving parts to Wood. 21. A useful method of procuring a glitter-ing top part is to put the Flute and Piccolo inunison (not octaves), the Flute being forte andthe Piccolo pianissimo. 22. A uniform tone of rather a harsh kindcan be obtained by writing Clarinets high andOboes low. 23. Wood Wind writing is simplified con-
    • 46 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONsiderably by the use of three Flutes and threeClarinets, which, by providing a six-note chordof much the same timbre, gets over manifolddifficulties.Several of the Russian composersuse this arrangement with one Oboe and oneCor Anglais, treating the two latter only assolo instruments. 24. There is no power in the Orchestra,not even in the Brass, that can drown a Stringunison-octave passage played loudly. 25. Owing to the relative tension of thestrings, the tone of the Violin and Cello mostnearly approximates, and that of the Viola andDouble Bass. 26. There are several ways of avoiding atoo-sudden change of tone-colour by a^radualmerging of groups. An easy method is to markone Group diminuendo and the other crescendoat the same time. A more subtle way is bythe use of those parts of individual instrumentswhich relate most nearly to the timbre of theother Group. | For instance, the harmonics ofStrings carry the tone-colour from Strings tohighWood the Viola carries String ; tone toWood through the middle Bassoon or lowClarinet registers low Flute notes can carrj ;V/ood tone to Brass through low soft Trumpetnotes the Bassoon and Horn playing mezzo- ;
    • NOTES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS 47forteand in neutral registers can carry Stringsto Brass fairly well, while muted Trumpetsand stopped Horns can carry Wood to Brass.Wagners scores are particularly useful for thestudy of these transitional effects. A word to advanced students is that finalOrchestration is in point of fact a science thathas no rules, and that consists entirely ofexceptions. For a " special effect " anythingis allowable, but too many " special effects "defeat themselves, and produce an inartisticscore. Momentary exaggeration is often ex-cellent, but habitual exaggeration spells failure.Young composers anxious to get their workplayed should remember that " extra " instru-ments involve extra expense, and that scorescontaining many parts outside the ordinaryFull Orchestra are not so readily accepted forperformance for that reason.
    • PART 11 : THE INSTRUMENTSChapter I: The String Group 50Chapter II : The String Instruments 60Chapter III : The Wind Group 69Chapter IV : The Wind Instruments jjChapter V: The Percussion Group roiChapter VI : The Percussion Instruments and the Harp 104
    • .PART II : THE INSTRUMENTS Chapter I. The String Group (Note : " String," with a capital S, refers always tothe group of instruments with a small "s" to the catgut :itself. Similarly " Bass " with a capital signifies theDouble Bass, while with a small initial letter it means thebass of the harmony) The strings. In all bowed instrumentsthe strings are numbered downwards, thehighest in pitch being the " first." The stringsare all made of catgut when described as ;" covered," the reference is to those which havea tightly-wound metal thread spun round thewhole length. These covered strings are thefourth in Violin, and the third and fourth inViola and Violoncello. Keys. Theoretically all Strings can playequally well in any key but those containing ;their open strings are easier and have moreresonance Keys having a large number of sharps .or flats should be avoided ; it is better to writeenharmonically. Bowing. The signs n and v are used todenote " down-bow " and " up-bov/ " respec-tively, but it is not necessary to mark them
    • THE STRING GROUP 51unless a special effect is wanted. (Path. Sym.M. I.) All the notes to be played in one bow(which must be on the same or on adjacentstrings) are slurred. In piano a very greatnumber of notes can be taken in one bow —on the Violin in the larger Strings correspond- —ingly fewer but the tone is weak when thebow moves so slowly long forte slurs are in ;consequence impracticable. When no slur ismarked the player detaches each note. Variouseffects of staccato, portamento, accents, etc. canbe produced if clearly marked. Left-hand technique. Stringed-instrumentplaying is mainly a matter of positionof the left-hand. The following table showshow in each position the violinist has at hiscommand sixteen stopped notes, and in additionhe has the sharp and flat of each of these notesand the four open strings. Good String-writing consists in keeping passages, particu-larly rapid passages, more or less in one position ;they then " lie under the hand and are easy and effective. The player is of course shiftingfrom one position to another all the time, butwhen playing fast it is irritating to have to dothis fussily forperhaps only one or two notes.If a passage starts in a very high position theplayer should be given a few moments before,
    • 52 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION it in order to get his hand rightly placed. The Table applies equally well to Viola if transposed down a perfect fifth, but it does not apply to Cello or Bass. 5. Shakes. Shakes of all kinds are possible Ta6k of t^/o/i/! Poj/fonjSfrifig X
    • THE STRING GROUP 53is continuous. Double shakes should not beused in orchestral writing. 6. Chords and Arpeggios. Chords andArpeggios of two, three, or four notes arepossible which have each note on a separatestring and in the same position. Double-notechords on adjacent strings are the only onesthat can be played solidly, as the bow can onlyplay on two strings at the same time. Largerchords are " spread," that is, played in groupsof two notes, which follow each other with greatrapidity. Chords having one or two openstrings for their lowest notes are easiest andhave the greatest resonance. It is best toconfine spread chords to the three upper Stringparts,and in no case should they be given toDouble Bass. 7. Pizzicato. This is done by pluckingthe string with the finger instead of using thebow, and is an easy and useful device. It ismost sonorous on the lower strings and shouldin no case be written high up in the compass ofany instrument, as on a very short string thetone is bad. A little time is needed beforeand (still more) after a pizzicato passage toallow the player to adjust his hand. Pizzicatocan never be as rapid as bowing ; the degreeof speed depends on the thickness of the stringused, the Violin " first " being the quickest to
    • 54 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONrespond and the Bass " fourth " the slowest.Spread chords across the strings can be playedpizzicato under the same left-hand conditionsas with the bow. Quick arpeggios to be playedwith one sweep of the finger across the stringsshould have a slur this is the only occasion in ;which a slur is u^ed in pizzicato writing ;usually the finger rises for each note. Excepton the open strings there is no great range offorce possible with pizzicato ; it is most effectivewhen played piano. Left-hand pizzicato, asolo device, should not be used in orchestralwriting. Pizzicato on a natural harmonic (Par.10 below) is possible and particularly good inCello, but rather feeble on the other Strings.The direction for pizzicato is " pizz." whichholds good until contradicted by " arco," " withthe bow." 8. Mutes. A mute is a small three-prongedpiece of metal, wood, or ivory, which is placedon the bridge of the instrument without touch-ing the strings. It deadens the sound some-v/hat and produces a thin reedy tone. Thedirection is "con sordino," and the contradiction" senza sordino." Time, at least three slowbars, must be allowed in which to put on andtake off the mute. Mutes are least often usedfor the Double Bass,
    • THE STRING GROUP 55 9. Tremolo. There are three kinds oftremolo,(i) Bowed (2) ; Fingered and (3) ;Broken. Bowed tremolo is the most common,and is very easy and useful. With a quickwrist-action the player reiterates one note(or a double-note chord) as rapidly as possible.It can be played with any degree of force fromPPP to forte, but is most effective when soft.Fingered tremolo is a shake of an intervallarger than a second — that is it consists of a ;very rapid alteration of two notes, using twofingers on the same string ; one finger stopsthe lower note while the other rises and falls asquickly as possible. Open strings should notbe used. Intervals so large as to require twostrings should be avoided, as this entails awrist-action which is difficult and can never berapid. The lower strings are the least good forfingered tremolo. Broken Tremolo consists ofstopping two notes on adjacent strings andplaying them alternately with separate bowsas rapidly as possible. It can never be as fastas the other two kinds, but is the best for ortissimo work. A very rare effect is a pizzi-cato tremolo, produced by thruniming the notesof a spread-chord across the strings with thesoft part of three or four fingers.
    • —56 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 10. Harmonics, (i) Natural. Everystring vibrates as a whole and in sectionssimultaneously. By touching it at lightlycertain points the whole-length vibration isprevented, and it vibrates only in sections,and thus produces " harmonics." On eachstring there are several harmonics obtainable ;they occur as a regular diminishing progressionof intervals upwards from the open stringoctave, perfect fifth, perfect fourth, majorthird, minor The lower ones in the third.series are the easier and the most commonlyused. To indicate a harmonic a little " o "is written above the note, which in every casedenotes the real sound, not the place where thestring is touched. (2) Artificial. Any note on the threehighest Strings which is two octaves and a noteabove its lowest string can be produced as an" artificial " harmonic by stopping the note twooctaves below and lightly touching the stringwith the fourth finger. In this case the realsound produced is not written, but, instead.
    • THE STRING GROUP 57the two notes which are stopped and touched :the stopped note is written in the usual way,and the touched note (always of course aperfect fourth higher) has a diamond-shapedhead. As the whole hand has to move foreach artificial harmonic slurs should be avoidedand intervals kept small. These harmonicsare easy on the Violin, difficult and risky onViola, possible and good on Cello, and impossibleon Bass. They should not be written higherthan two octaves above the lowest one possible. The harmonic is a special effect and must betreated as such the sound is thin and fluty, :and can never be loud. Harmonics are alwaysunsuitable when the music is fast, and in no caseshould a single one be introduced in the middleof a quick stopped passage. The bow must beused rapidly, so long slurs are bad, and a passagewritten entirely in harmonics should as a generalrule only of the " natural " or only consistof the " artificial " kind, as an intermixture isdifficult. The " natural " harmonics are theeasier and have the better tone. A little timefor preparation is required for the correctproduction of all harmonics, as needless tosay, unless perfectly in tune, they do not soundat all. II. Division o:f Parts. All String parts
    • ;58 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONcan be sub-divided into two, three, or moreseparate voices. In writing for Strings alonethis is often necessary in order to complete theharmony, but at all times it is a useful device bywhich to obtain variety of tone-colour in theString Group. It is unwise, however, to dividethe Double Basses except for a special effectand as a general rule sub-divisions should beconfined to the three upper Strings. It mustalways be borne in mind that by dividing oneString part into two, the tone is thereby dimin-ished by one half, with the result that thetone-balance requires re-adjustment. In deli-cate passages it is best to divide, even whenit is possible for one player to get both notes,as there is inevitably some roughness in doublenote playing, because the bow is dealingsimultaneously with two strings of differentthickness. In forte work, however, wherequantity of tone is required, the part shouldnot be divided if playable without. There isonly one satisfactory notation for a divisionof parts, the direction " div." and for thecontradiction " unis." The ambiguous term" kz"should be avoided. If parts are dividedinto more than two it is necessary to use extrastaves. 12. Special effects. (I) Sul ponticello,
    • THE STRING GROUP 59with the bow kept close to the bridge. Itproduces an unpleasant hard tone, and is usual-ly confined to bowed tremolo. (2) Sul tasto(or sur la louche), the bow being drawn over thefingerboard; this produces a light, thin tone,only suitable for PP. (3) Col legno, when theplayer uses the stick instead of the hair of thebow. It is not drawn, but thrown on the stringand allowed to rebound: the result is a success-ion of hard wooden taps and considerabledamage to the varnish of the bow: the effectcan never be loud, and to be successful requiresa large number of players; it is wiser thereforeto give it the Strings at once. to all The contra-diction for all three devices is " naturale. " 13. Crossing of Parts. This is a usefuldevice with many possibilities, but if the Violaor (more particularly) the Cello, is put abovethe Violins, it becomes very conspicuous andcan only be given a prominent part.
    • Chapter II : The String Instruments SECTION I : The Violin The Violin is the easiest orchestral instrumentto write for (except perhaps those of the Per-cussion Group) for the reason that it is the mostfamiliar and possesses the greatest range of In reason a modern Violinistpossibilities.can do anything he is required to do; and it isno longer necessary to write more simply forthe Seconds than for the Firsts. The Violinis the only instrument, except the Tambourine,to have remained static for many centuries;it has apparently reached the unusual conditionof perfection. It is the easiest to play of allthe Strings, the popular fallacy to the contrarybeing due to the fact that it is invariably giventhe most difficult, the most important and themost conspicuous parts. The notation is invariably treble clef; forvery high passages the term " 8va " may beused, but should be avoided if possible. Everything in the previous chapter on theString Group applies particularly to the Violin,so need not be repeated. What was said withregard to Positions (Chap.I, 4) may be enlargedi;i one particular; viz, that the intervals are so
    • THE STRING INSTRUMENTS 6ivery small upon the Violin that the little fingercan be stretched upwards a semitone (and inthe higher positions, a tone) without alteringthe general position of the hand. It will benoted that the normal stretch of the hand coversan octave, as on the Piano, and that being soit follows that passages lying within the compassof an octave are good. This applies also to theViola. SECTION II : The Viola I. Description. The Viola possesses theViolin technique, but the instrument is consider-ably larger and is a perfect fifth lower in pitch,having two covered strings, the C and G.It is an imperfect instrument, being too smallfor its pitch, and as a result of this it is clumsyand awkward to manage and requires a consider-able amount of petting. With the possibleexception of chromatic scales, everthing thatis difficult on the Violin is more difficult on theViola; and in addition it has several difficultiesof its own, due to its size, weight, and the compar-ative looseness of its strings. The upwardcompass comparison with that of the other inStrings should be regarded as much lower onaccount of the thickness of the neck, whichmakes high notes difficult and risky.
    • ;62 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 2. Notation. only instrument in It is thethe Orchestra to use habitually the Alto Clef.When the part gets very high the Treble Clef isused, the part being always written in real notes. 3. Bowing. The bow is shorter, heavier,and less elastic that the Violin bow. It isnecessary, therefore, to keep it moving at agood pace in order to get pure tone consequent- ;ly slurs should be shorter than in Violin parts.AH the various kinds of bowing are possible. 4. Special Effects. Col legno, ponticello,sul tasto, pizzicato, and the lower natural har-monics are all possible and useful, but it is bestto avoid artificial harmonics. Mutes are par-ticularly effective on the Viola, especially on thetwo outer strings. 5. General. The tone of the Viola, part-icularly on the first and fourth strings, is quiteunique and cannot be obtained on any otherinstrument; solos should be kept as much aspossible on these two strings. The middlestrings combine well with anything, so are use-ful and background work. The for filling-inViola blends better than any other String withthe wind, even with the brass. Minor keys arebetter than major; all fiat keys better than sharpthe worst keys for the instrument are E majorand B major. A Viola solo is always effective
    • THE STRING INSTRUMENTS 63in a score, but it should be short, and it mustnever be forgotten that the instrument is natur-ally unsuited to great rapidity of movement.In modern scores the Violas are frequentlydivided, sometimes into four or six parts, andthis gives the harmony a sombre richness thatis not obtainable in any other way. SECTION III : The Violoncello 1. Compass. The four strings are tuned to —C,G,D,A, an octave below those of the Viola.The upward compass is of course variable, butthe highest E in the Treble stave may be sug-gested as a possible highest note. 2. Notation. All three clefs, bass, tenorand treble are used, and, now, the real soundis always written. In old scores when the trebleclef is the notes are often written an used,octave above the real sound and because of ;this ambiguity it is wiser to avoid the trebleclef altogether, unless the part gets very high. 3. Bowing. All the various kinds of bowingcan be applied to the Very long slurs Cello.are impossible as the bow, heavier and less elasticthan the Violin bow, has to be used more rapidlyin order to keep the thick strings in vibration. 4. Fingering. The strings of the Cello arenearly double the length of those of the Violin.
    • 64 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONconsequently the fingering is different. As arule the player uses consecutive fingers fora semitone and alternate fingers for a tone,so he can only stretch a major third in one posi-tion. For high passages (above the B in thetreble stave) the thumb brought round and isplaced on the strings ; these high " thumbpositions " are rarely needed in orchestralmusic, but if used the player must be givena few moments in which to readjust his hand. 5. Shakes. All shakes are possible, but itis best to avoid those on the thick C string. 6. Tremolo. Bowed tremolo is easy andeffective. Fingered and Broken tremolo mustbe written with regard to the limitations of thestretch of the left hand. 7. General. Pizzicato is easy and mostuseful, but should not be too fast. Doublestopping is not advisable in orchestral writing,unless very easy ;it is far better to divide thepart. Octaves, unless the lower note is anopen string, are also unadvisable. The fourthis the most awkward interval on the Cello, soany phrase or figure built on fourths should beavoided. Harmonics of both kinds are easyto produce anywhere. Formerly the Cello wasonly used as the bass of the Strings, but nowit can be alloted any task and is equally good
    • THE STRING INSTRUMENTS 65for bass, melody or accompaniment. Melodieslying above middle C are the most effective. SECTION IV : The Double Bass 1. Description. The Bass has only recentlybecome standardised in England. The instru-ment now in general use has four strings,tuned in fourths, E,A,D,G, It has a lowercompass and a better quality of tone than itslarger and noisier predecessor and it is easierto play, but it possesses far less power. Variouskinds of Double Basses have existed at differenttimes in different countries, which fact accountsfor the various methods of writing for theinstrument. 2. Notation. The bass clef is used andoccasionally the tenor in either case the real ;sound being an octave below the written notes.A rare exception to this rule is in the case ofharmonics, which are written in any clef andalways at their real pitch. 3. Temporary Tuning. For a specialeffect it is possible to direct the Basses to tunetheir lowest (E) string down to E flat or to D,but as this proceeding upsets the temper of bothplayer and instrument it is not to be recom-mended. If inavoidable it should be employedonly for one long note without fingering, and 5
    • 66 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONplenty of time must be allowed for the tuningand re-tuning of the string. 4. Fingering. At the nut the maximumstretch between the first and fourth fingers is awhole tone only the first and second fingers ;can stretch a semitone. The usual method ofplaying a passage of semitones from one openstring to the next is 024240 as the intervals ;get smaller in the higher positions the firstfinger is brought into use. 5. Bowing. The bow very short and the isstrings are very thick, so in piano the bow hasto be changed every few seconds, and morefrequently as the tone is increased. A longsustained note should be written either withone long slur, (when each player turns his bowat pleasure and so the tone is continuous) orwith a succession of short notes portamento, sothat the bow is changed in accordance with therhythm. 6. Double Notes. A few are possible,one or both being open strings, but their useis inadvisable, and it is better to divide the part. 7. Harmonics. harmonics are Artificialimpossible, but a few natural harmonics areobtainable, and are easy and effective they ;are written in real sounds with black dots onthe Compass Chart. As stated above the real
    • THE STRING INSTRUMENTS 67sound is always written in the case of harmonics,and the treble clef may be used. 8. Pizzicato. This is easy and useful, butexhausting to the player if continued for long.It should never be fast, particularly on thelower strings, or the effect is muddled. Thelower it is the more resonant is the sound, 9. Shakes. These are possible but notdesirable, as they always sound thick. If usedthey should be very short and doubled in theWind. 10. Tremolo. Bowed tremolo is very oftenfound in scores, but it is never so loud as de-tached notes, only more exciting and noisy ;separate notes as a general rule produce thebetter result. Fingered Tremolo of an intervalnot greater than a minor third is practicable(but undesirable) when the lower note is atleast a major third above the open string. Onthe three lower strings it is only good whenpiano, but on the top string it can be mf oreven forte, and come out fairly well. BrokenTremolo is theoretically possible when one ofthe two notes is an open string, but it is inevit-ably so slow as hardly to be called a tremolo. 11. Special Effects. Those mentioned inChapter i, 12 can be produced on the Bass andare generally successful. Mutes are occasion-
    • 68 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONally used, but are not recommended ; mostplayers object to their use. 12. General. As a it is bad to write rulefast for the Bass, as it is a slow-speaking instru-ment and quick movement of any kind is totallyunsuited to its nature ;the numerous quickpassages to be found in old music belong tothe orchestral vagueness of the past when theCello and Bass played from the same part,and each did what he liked and could. Generallythe Bass part should be kept up, as the continualgrowl of the lower strings is ugly and heavy.Very low sounds of any kind demand harmonicsimplicity and for the Bass continual moderatemovement is the best way of writing. Thedivision of Basses is quite legitimate and novv^very usual, but in very small orchestra thereis often only one Bass player, when obviousdifficulties arise; in a thin score it is rarely-good to divide the Basses. The best part of theinstrument is from the A open string to abouta tenth or twelfth above speaking roughly ;therefore it is well to confine the Bass partwithin the limits of the Bass stave. A quickloud passage which continues for a long timeis very tiring to the players, and it is a goodplan in such a case to divide the Basses, andcut up the passage between them. {PaH!. Svw.,PP- 50, 51)-
    • Chapter III : The Wind Group Wood and Brass. The main division I.of Wind instruments is between those that aremade of wood, called " The Wood," and thosethat are made of metal, generally brass, called" The Brass." The pitch of each depends onthe length of its tube. The differences of tone-colour are due chiefly to (i) the method inwhich the air is set in motion, (2) whether thetube is conical or cylindrical, and (3) the propor-tion the size of the tube bears to its length. The Wood Wind instruments in general useare the Flute and the Piccolo, in which thetone is produced by blowing across a hole inthe tube the Clarinet and Bass Clarinet, ;which have a single reed and the Oboe, Cor;Anglais, Bassoon and Double Bassoon, whichhave a double reed. The " reeds " are piecesof rush which are attached to the mouthpiecein such a way that they vibrate with theplayers breath, and in their turn set in vibra-tion the air within the tube. The Brass Wind consists of Cornet, Trumpet,Horn, Trombone and Bass Tuba, all having acupped mouthpiece, the exact shape of whichlargely determines the tone. The Brass has the
    • —70 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONmore power, with great possibilities of PP, cres-cendo and diminuendo while the Wood has the ,greater agility the relative difficulty being ;that while the Brass is the more difficult toblow, the Wood is the more difficult to finger.A technical point of difference is that whereasthe mechanism of Wood always raises pitch,that of Brass always lowers pitch. 2. Number of Players. The Wind ofthe modern Full Orchestra consists usually ofthe following, placed in the correct order onthe score ; Two Flutes, *One Piccolo, Two Oboes, *One Cor Anglais, Two Clarinets, *One Bass Clarinet, Two Bassoons, *One Double Bassoon, Four Horns, *Two Trumpets (or Cornets). *Two Tenor Trombones, *One Bass Trombone. *One Bass Tuba. Small Orchestras omit those with the asterisk,which are still regarded as " extra " instrumentsand are often played by the " second " player
    • THE WIND GROUP 71of the — same family group the Piccolo by theSecond Flute, the Cor Anglais by the SecondOboe, etc. The term "Small Orchestra"means the usual eight Wood Wind, Hornsand Strings only. Modern composers oftenuse three, four, or more of one kind of instru-ment, but students are advised to confine theirscores to those given until advanced. Needlessto say if one can score properly for two Flutes,it iseasy to score for three. Wind parts are never duplicated as areStrings so, while there are perhaps six or ;eight players of the First Violin, there is onlyone player of the First Flute, and one for theSecond Flute, and so on through the WindGroup. 3. Wind Writing. Wind instruments re-quire far more consideration than do Strings.They and more easily are less subtle, less agile,affectedby local conditions, such as tempera-ture and " nerves." It must constantly beremembered that the Wind player uses his lipsand breath as well as his fingers. Each of theWind has its own particular weakness, or fad,or limitation, and the various makes of instru-ments matters of detail. No differ slightly inWind part may be kept going continuously, as ispossible with Strings, or the player becomesbreathless and exhausted.
    • ;72 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 4. ToNGUEiNG. In every Wind instru-ment the sound produced by a single action isof the tongue which sets the air within thetube in motion. Double and Triple Tongueing(the rapid succession of notes in groups of two orthree, produced by the tongue moving in sucha way as to interrupt the breath) is possibleonly in those cases where the player has no partof the instrument inside the mouth. On theFlute and Piccolo, which have no mouthpiece,tongueing of all kinds is extremely easybut all the other Wood instruments, havingsome mouthpiece within the lips of the sort ofplayer, cannot in consequence do anythingbeyond single tongueing. In the Brass, wherethe mouthpiece is outside the lips. Doubleand Triple Tongueing is theoretically possiblefor all, but only practicable on the smaller —instruments the Cornet, the Trumpet, and (toa limited extent) the Horn. Although rapidtongueing is easy, it becomes exhausting ifcontinued for a long time, especially on thelarger instruments. 5. Compass. The complete compass inWood, from the lowest Double Bassoon noteto the highest squeak of the Piccolo, forms themost extended range of any group in theorchestra. The exact upward compass of any
    • THE WIND GROUP 73Wind instrument is indefinable, as it dependsconsiderably on the ability of the player, andon the make of his instrument. The compassgiven in the chart is intended for ordinaryorchestral use. As the case with the human isvoice, the very highest and the very lowestnotes have the least power of expression, andare the most difficult and the most exhaustingto produce. An invariable rule in Wind isthat every instrument is at its best and easiestin the middle of its compass, and all solos and prominent passages should be placed there for, whereas Wind instruments are big or small, high or low, the human throat, lips and hands remain the same size. High notes can onlybe produced loudly. Low notes require mostbreath. The lower the descent in the compass,the shorter must be the slurs and the greater thenumber of rests. Low notes on all the deep bass Wind must be used with caution andrestraint, as they are slow to speak and verytiring to play. Every note on every instrumentthat lies below the bottom of the bass stave hadbest have a breath to itself. These low notescan be held a httle if piano, but when they areforte they must be quite short with many restsbefore and after. Experienced Brass playerscan " fake " notes below the actual compass of
    • 74 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONthe instrument by means of a very loose lip,but it is unwise to score these they are only ;good as a makeshift to meet the difficultiesarising in old and foreign scores. (Cp., however.Part Ch. IV, Sec. lo). II, 6. As a general rule flat keys are Keys.the best for Wind. Instruments vary in thedegree in which they are affected by key but ;in most cases best to avoid extreme keys it iswith a large number ©f fiats or sharps, and it isalways wise to write enharmonically in order toavoid accidentals. Shakes AND Tremolos. These are gener- 7.ally possible in Wind, but each instrumenthas its own awkward intervals, and peculiardifficulties in their execution. An exhaustivedescription of this somewhat unimportant pointcan be found in every other text-book but this ;here information is given only where it canbe condensed in other cases the use of shakes ;and tremolos is best avoided until the subjectis advanced they are only a trimming and ;quite unnecessary in the earUer stages oforchestration. 8. Phrasing. Phrasing means breathing,and is as important to the Wind player as tothe singer. Each slur must be carefully thoughtout with regard to the spirit of the music, to the
    • THE WIND GROUP 75capacity of the particular instrument in use atthe moment, and to the pitch of the notes.A general rule is that the higher the instrumentand the higher the notes the more can be donein the same breath. 9. General. As the lips are more easilycontracted than distended it follows that ascend-ing intervals are always easier to play thandescending intervals this applies especially to ;legato slurs and to the double-reed instruments. Brass instruments have no distinct registersof tone, but generally speaking they becomestronger and more piercing as they ascend.The Wood often have several registers of tone,and become more piercing, but not alwaysstronger, as they ascend. With the exceptionof the Clarinets, the Brass can get the softestpianissimo. Skips up and down the compassare very difficult in Brass, but comparativelyeasy for the Wood instruments. It must not be thought that the Clarinet isa lower instrument than the Oboe because oftheir respective positions on the score, whichis the result of the Oboes historic seniority.The Clarinet goes lower, but it also goes muchhigher. A very important point to remember inwriting for Wind instruments is that they
    • 76 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONmust be warm before they can be played with-out risk or difficulty. In those cases thereforewhere the player has had no opportunity towarm his instrument, as in the change ofClarinets (Chap. IV, Sec. V, 3) or when theSecond Flute player takes the Piccolo duringthe course of a piece, or the Second Oboist theCor Anglais, then unimportant passages forthe new instrument should be written for alittle while, or the player given time in whichto blow silently into his instrument in order towarm it. (Students are referred also to the Notes follow-ing Sec. IV in Part I, Chap. 2).
    • Chapter IV. The Wind Instruments SECTION I : The Flute 1. Notation. Treble Clef. Non-trans-posing. 2. Registers, (i) Low ; up to " tuningA " the notes are sweet and luscious but easilydrowned when this low register is in use the ;Double Bass had best be omitted, and thescoring should be thin long slurs should also ;be avoided as the player has to breathe afterevery few notes these low notes often sound ;like a Trumpet. (2) Middle the octave up- ;wards from " tuning A " is the sweetest andthe best for solos. (3) High everything above ;the high A becomes more shrill and piercingas it ascends ;this register is the most usefulin a loud tutti. 3. Keys. Comparatively speaking the Fluteis little affected by key, but major keys arebetter suited to it than minor, particularlyin the two higher registers. 4. Shakes and Tremolos. All shakes arepossible within the two octaves above E (firstline of stave). Tremolos should be limited tothirds within the stave.
    • 78 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 5. Advantages. Nimbleness; agility; theFlute can play legato, staccato, repeated notesas fast as a Violin, most shakes, skips, arpeggiosand scales of all sorts with perfect ease and forlonger without rest than can any other Windinstrument its sweet low tone and its brilliant ;high tone are equally useful. 6. Disadvantages. It has no power ofexpression of a soulful kind and can only beamiable or merry it has no power for an ;effective sostenuto, nor for crescendo and dimin-uendo. 7. General. Flute solos lying low arebest piano and with a thin accompaniment.The two lower registers are good for back-ground work but the highest is too shrill forthis purpose. In a loud tutti the Flutes shouldbe put Flute tone quickly becomes high.monotonous to hear, so restraint should beexercised with regard to its use. A flute must notbe expected to play softly high up in its compass.The oft-quoted " defective " notes need notbe considered on the modern instrument. SECTION II. The Piccolo Notation. Treble Clef. The part is I.written an octave lower than the real sound,in order to save leger lines.
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 79 2. Description.The Piccolo is about halfthe size of the Flute and is about an octavehigher in pitch. It has practically the sametechnique, and consequently the part isoften taken by the Second Flute player. Thechange from one instrument to the other canbe made quickly, as there is nothing to adjust ;and as the Piccolo is small enough to be keptwarm in the pocket the player can change toit more quickly than from it. 3. Advantages. It is invaluable, as Mr.Corder puts it, for providing " the golden braidon tapestry, lending a dazzling glitter to thedesign." It can give brilliance to a tutticlimax by trills or flashes, and is useful forstrengthening the top part in a thick mass oftone, and for doubling the Flutes in a highpassage. 4. Disadvantages. The tone is so pene-trating that quickly becomes monotonous. itIt is impossible to get soft notes high up in thecompass. It is in no way a vocal instrument,and quite unsuited to melody. Shakes cannotbe played as high up on the Piccolo as on theFlute. Its low notes are practically useless. 5. General. The Piccolomust be writtenfor with great restraint or the score becomesvulgarised. It is purely a decorative instru-
    • 8o HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONment, to be used on special occasions only.Everything said about the Flute applies the-oretically to the Piccolo, but as the latterreaches the top of its compass it is more difficultto play. Long sustained notes are unsuitedto its nature and it is at its best in continualrapid movement. SECTION III : The Oboe 1. Notation. Treble Clef. Non-transpos-ing. 2. Description. The Oboe has a verysmall compass, no variety of tone and is veryexhausting to play continuously, as the playerrequires so little breath that he has to hold itback while playing. For these three reasons itmust be written for with restraint. The bestpart of the instrument is from G on the secondline to G on the first space above the stave. 3. Shakes and Tremolos. All shakes arepossible up to the D above the stave. Sometremolos are possible, but there are so manythat are avv^kward or difficult that it is betterto avoid them altogether ; in any case they areunsuited to the character of the instrument. 4. Advantages. The Oboe is particularlygood which are short, legato, prefer- for solosably in the minor, fairly slow, and confined
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 8iwithin the five lines of the treble stave. In abrilliant tutti its piercing tone is useful for thehigher notes. It is extremely good for sharpstaccato passages which are not very fast. 5. Disadvantages. It can never be usedfor long at a time. Its piercing tone cutsthrough everything and is apt to upset thebalance. It does not blend well with otherinstruments except the Cor Anglais and, in aless degree, the Bassoon. It is good neither forarpeggios, nor accompaniments, nor background.Rapid and florid passages are ineffective. 5. General. The Oboe is essentially amelodic instrument, and its solos should beaccompanied lightly, and preferably by Strings.In a Wood tutti its part should lie low and becrossed with others. It has no favourite keys.Any passage having two sharps or two flatstogether is rather difficult. It is less affectedby temperature than any other instrument,and for this reason is the one selected to givethe A to the Orchestra for tuning. SECTION IV : The Cor Anglais 1. Notation. Treble Clef. The part iswritten in the key a perfect fifth higher thanthe key of the piece. 2. Description. The Cor Anglais is an 6
    • 82 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONAlto Oboe, having the same fingering andpractically the same technique as the ordinaryOboe. It is rather easier to blow and rathermore difficult to finger; its tone has no briUianceand is less piercing than that of the Oboe.Everything written in the preceeding Sectionapplies also to the Cor Anglais. 3. General. If not overdone the CorAnglais is perhaps the most beautiful instru-ment for solo work, especially for solos of amournful character. Its top octave is bad,and it is not worth while to write above thetreble stave, as the Oboe can get the notes better.If the Cor Anglais part is to beplayed by the SecondOboe player (a very usual arrangement) hemust have time to change and warm his instru-ment. SECTION V : The Clarinet 1. Notation. Treble Clef. Transposition,a major second or a minor third higher than thereal sound. 2. Description. Every Clarinet player hastwo instruments, one built in the key of Bflat, and a larger one built in the key of A.This is solely to avoid extreme keys, whichinvolve compHcated fingering and are thereforeparticularly difficult for the Clarinet. The B
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 83flatinstrument has its part written a majorsecond higher than the real sound the A ;instrument has its part written a minor thirdhigher than the real sound in each case the ;key-signature is given, so in a full score theClarinets key-signature is always different fromthe others. There is practically no differencein tone between the two Clarinets, and thetechnique is exactly the same the A, being ;rather longer, has of course a bigger stretch forthe fingers, and for small hands is a little moretiring to play. 3. Choice and Change of Instrument.That Clarinet should be selected which in itstransposed key, has the smallest number offlats or sharps. For instance, if the piece isin E Major, the A Clarinet should be chosen,because in its transposed key (G Major) thepart has only one sharp, whereas if the B flatinstrument were chosen the part would havesix sharps, being in the key of F sharp major,the major second higher than the original.A player can change his Clarinet in the middleof a piece, if ample time is given him to do so,but changes should not be made unnecessarily.The same mouthpiece is used for both instru-ments, so this has to be removed and re-adjustedfor each change.
    • 84 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 4.Registers. There are four distinctregisters and consequent varieties of tone,though a good player can so merge one intoanother that the difference is hardly apparentto the ear. (i) Chalumeau, from the bottomof the compass to E, first line of stave (2) a ;weak section from F to B fiat (3) B natural to;the B above this octave is the best part of ;the instrument and (4) all notes above this ;high B, which are shrill and piercing. No. iis useful for special effects, particularly whenthere is no Bass very easily Clarinet, but it isdrowned. No. 2 is useful for backgroundwork, but should be avoided in a prominentpassage, as it is of bad tone quality and technic-ally difficult. No. 3 should be used for solos.No. 4 is ugly and difficult, but is useful some-times in Tutu writing. 5. The Break. This awkward mechanicalweakness, peculiar to the Clarinet, is notsuch a terrible thing on the modern instrumentas it formally was, but it should not be forgotten.It lies just round B flat, in the middle of thetreble stave, and no prominent nor rapid passageshould lie across it. 6. Shakes and Tremolos. On the moderninstrument all shakes are possible, but there area few which are clumsy and difficult. These
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 85are, roughly,major seconds on any F sharp orC sharp, minor seconds on the lowest F naturaland G sharp, and shakes close to the break.It the best Wind instrument for tremolo iswork all tremolos up to an octave are possible, ;provided they do not cross the break, nor riseabove the C above the treble stave. Any con-taining a C sharp should be avoided and thebest intervals are a third, a fourth and a fifth. 7. Advantages. The various tone quah-ties. The Clarinet ranks next to the Flute andPiccolo in mobility, can play arpeggios ex-tremely well, and repeated notes with singletongueing as fast as the Flute it is good for ;scales, shakes, tremolo, background, and cantake skips easily it has the most complete :control of any Wind instrument over crescendoand diminuendo, and its pianissimo is thesoftest that can be obtained in Wind. 8. Disadvantages. The break and theweak middle register it cannot play in ad- :vanced keys owing to its being built on a :twelfth, instead of the usual octave, any seriesof octaves or passages formed on an octave arenot good. 9. General. The Clarinet, in spite of itsdisadvantages, is the most useful Wind instru-ment of all, on account of its variety of accom-
    • 86 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONplishments practically it can be asked to do ;anything. Before maldng the choice of Clarinetthe whole piece should be examined, as the keywhich is the best at the beginning does notalways remain so it is better to write enharmoni- :cally than to use many sharps or fiats. Whenthe player has to change in the course of apiece he should not be given an importantpassage on the new instrument until he has hadtime to get it warm and in tune. In Germanscores the B flat instrument is described as" in B " because the English B fiat is the GermanB, and the English B is the German H. SECTION VI: The Bass Clarinet 1. Description. This instrument is anenlarged edition of the ordinary Clarinet, anoctave lower in pitch its compass, however, ;is smaller by a minor third. Only the B flatinstrument remains now in use. 2. Notation. There are unfortunately twomethods of writing the part, French and German.The French Method is to write always in theTreble Clef, a major ninth above the real sound— that is, the usual major second transpositionof the B flat Clarinet, plus the octave lower :this is the easier for the player as the fingeringis the same for both instruments. The German
    • THE STRING INSTRUMENTS 87method is to write in either Bass or TrebleClef according to the pitch of the notes, a major —second above the real sound that is, the usualtransposition of the B flat Clarinet, minus theoctave lower. This is more difficult for theplayer, as it has a different fingering and Clarinetplayers are not used to the Bass Clef. Keepingin mind the general rule to make things easyfor the player it is obvious that the Frenchmethod is better, but until the vexed questionis settled, it is wise to direct at the beginningof the score " to sound a major ninth lower." 3. Advantages. It has the greatest powerof pianissimo of any Wind of its pitch (for thisreason it always plays, when present, the four-note Bassoon solo near the beginning of the Path.Sym.) and a great range of crescendo anddiminuendo. It has been called the " BassGoblin of the Orchestra," and this exactlydescribes its unique tone, which is perfect fora slow, mournful, legato solo. It blends wellwith the rest of the Wood, to which it makes agood bass, and it can be used too as the bass ofthree-part Clarinet harmony. 4. Disadvantages. It cannot convey theidea of joy or gaiety, has little power of attack,and no rhythmical qualification. Rapid pas-sages can be played but are ineffective. It
    • 88 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONcannot be worked so hard as the ordinaryClarinet. 5. General. Everything written about theClarinet applies theoretically to the Bass but being lower in pitch, it is naturallyClarinet,more exhausting to blow, while its size and thegreat length of the tracker-rods make it moreawkward to finger. Moreover it possesses verystrongly marked characteristics of its own.The top fifth is poor in tone and passages inthat position are best allotted to the smallerClarinet if given to the Bass instrument the ;part should be doubled.SECTION VII : The Bassoon and Double Bassoon 1. Notation. The bass clef is used princi-pally ; for the higher notes the tenor or treble,preferably the tenor, for the same reason as inthe case of the Cello. (See Chap 11, Sec. iii, 2)Non-transposing. 2. Registers. All the minute particularsgiven in the text-books of former timeswith regard to the registers, their weaknessesand difficulties, apply to the older types ofinstrument. In the modern Bassoon, withits highly developed mechanism, they havealmost ceased to exist, The lowest notes, as
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 89always with Wind, are rather rough, though thelowest B flat is a good note. All the middlepart is good, but when the treble stave isreached the tone begins to get thin and poor. 3. Advantages. It is one of the mostuseful of the Wind on account of its adapta-bility. It has a large compass and can dosolos, accompaniment or background workwith equal ease. Scales of all kinds and re-peated notes are easy. It can take wideunslurred skips with great rapidity, has anexcellent legato, a very good staccato and blendswell with most instruments, particularly theHorn. 4. Disadvantages. Its fatal aptitude forsounding comic in the very things it can do best.It has a somewhat limited range of dynamics,and cannot play so softly as the Flute orClarinet nor so loudly as any other Wind of itspitch. Arpeggios, shakes and tremolos arenot suited to it and are best avoided. It isthe most imperfect of all the Wind instruments,so the composer is considerably at the mercyof the performers ability to overcome thevarious defects of his instrument. 5. General. A Bassoon solo should bethinly accompanied ; the player should neverbe obliged to force his tone, or it becomes harsli
    • 90 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONat once. Passages lying above middle C shouldbe doubled by some other instrument, andthe Viola is good for this. The combination ofF sharp, G sharp (G flat, and A flat) in any octaveis difficult and cannot be played legato. Verylong sustained notes low down in the compassmust be avoided, 6. The Double Bassoon. The larger instru-ment is in nearly every respect similar to thesmaller, to which it bears the same relation asDouble Bass bears to the CeUo. It is an octavelower in pitch and correspondingly unwieldyand difficult to blow and handle, so it must bewritten for with restraint and many rests.Everything written about the Bassoon appliestechnically to the Double Bassoon. The lowestoctave is its best. SECTION VIII: The Horn. (Note)This section refers to the Horn in F only, asmodern players confine themselves to the F crook. Forinformation regarding the other crooks see the Chapter" On the Study of Old and Foreign Scores." I. Notation. Treble Clef only. The partis written in the key of C, a perfect fifth higherthan the real sound, the necessary sharps andflats being added as required it is best to write :enharmonically if by doing so accidentals are
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 91avoided when the choice is open ; flats shouldbe used in preference to sharps. 2. Stopped and Open Notes. The Hornis the only instrument which enables the playerto regulate the pitch by the insertion of the handin the bell. It is this combination of handand lip which gives the Horn its great rangeof tone-colour and its variety of expression.But it is advisable to leave the matter entirelyto the player, there being no need now to fusshim about open and closed notes, except in twoparticular cases ; (I) when the hard brassyoverblown stopped sound is wanted an xshould be put over the note and (2) when the ;soft muffled stopped note is wanted, direct" con sordino." The Score should be thin wheneither of these effects is in use. 3. Double and Triple Tongueing. Thisis possible in the middle register, between the(written) G below the treble stave and the C inthe stave, so reiterated notes within these limitsare practicable and effective, but cannot be fast. 4. Shakes. These are done with the liponly and are extremely difficult and risky.Those possible are major seconds between G —(second line) and the G above both written notes. 5. Horns in Four-part Harmony. Thisis a common device, which is most useful and
    • 92 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONeffective when not overdone. Close harmonyis best, in the middle of the compass. TheFourth Horn must not be put too low, unless ithas an extra allowance of rest, as it is exhaustingto play low notes continually it is good some- ;times to help out the passage with Trombone.The low parts should not have long slurs the ;middle parts can be crossed sometimes with ad-vantage and the Bassoons can help out when ;more than four notes are required. 6. Advantages. The Horn is the mostbeautiful instrument in the modern orchestra,and one of the most useful. It can blend at willwith any combination, is perfect for slowmelody, background work and accompaniment. 7. Disadvantages. The Horn lacks mo- and cannot play fastbility, it does not like :extreme keys the part must not be over :written, in spite of the ever-present temptation.Skips are bad and scales and arpeggios do notsuit it well. 8. General. It is still wise to write thefour Horn parts in pairs, as has always beendone ; in a passage of double thirds, for instance,each pair should be put in octaves. A modernplayer can play high or low notes equally well,but he must have time to re-adj ust his lip If the .Horn is taken up above the stave, it should be
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 93by steps of a second {Eroica, p. 140). In usingone Horn with Wood its best place is atthe top or the bottom if it is to blend well. Themiddle register resembles and blends well withthe Bassoon, so it serves as a transitional instru-ment between Wood and Brass. A good work-ing rule is to keep written Horn parts betweenMiddle C and the top of the stave,. The Hornis the instrument most capable of making itselfheard in the middle of a mass of tone. (M. N.D, Nocturne).SECTION IX : The Trumpet and the Cornet I. Introduction. For many years play-ers to struggle with the " natural " Trumpet, hadthat produced only open notes. Then the valveTrumpet was invented, and gradually improvedby various makers until the fine Trumpet in Fevolved. This is a noble, dignified instrument,with a magnificent tone, and almost as muchcolour variety as the Horn ; but unfortunatelyit is extremely difficult to play. As time goeson music becomes more complex, and as a result,there is a tendency to manufacture instrumentseasier to play, the ease being obtained by a sacri-fice of tone. So we find the beautiful F Trumpetsteadily dying out of use, its place being taken bya small B flat instrument, which is really a com-
    • 94 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONpromise between the Cornet and the Trumpet.It has the same compass as the Cornet and isahiiost as easy to play. 2. Notation. Treble Clef only. As a re-sult of the various changes in the instrumentTrumpet writing is not yet standardised, andplayers are so experienced in transposing thatthey are quite indifferent to it. There arethree courses open — (i) to write for the FTrumpet, a perfect fourth lower than the realsound, which has the advantage of putting theTrumpets in the same keyHorns as the (2) :to write as if Trumpet for Clarinets (the B flatis always provided with an A shank), whichhas the advantage of being the method used forthe Cornet, thus making the part interchang-able : (3) to write the part in C, that is, inreal notes, which has the advantage of havingno transposition at all. 3. Shakes. These are done with the pistonsso depend on the fingers as well as on the lip ;a few can be obtained in the middle of tiiecompass, but they are risky, can never be veryfast, and are on the whole undesirable. 4. Mute. This is a pear-shaped stopperinserted in the bell, by which two distincteffects can be obtained (i) piano, ; whichreduces the sound to a faint echo and (2) ;
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 95 which by overblowing produces a weirdforte,pungent tone the P or F must be carefully :marked in every case. Muted notes can onlybe placed within the stave, and the player musthave time to put in and take out the mute.The direction is " con sordino " and the contra-diction " senza sordino." 5. Advantages. The Trumpet is un-equalled for brilliance, and very beautiful softeffects can be got in the middle and lowerparts of its Given time for rest and compass.breath, the Trumpet can be as agile as theFlute, but rapid passages are much moreexhausting for the player than is the case withthe Wood instrument. 6. Disadvantages. The tone of the Trum-pet soon becomes tiring to hear, especially ifthe part lies high and the players power of ;endurance is more limited than in the case ofany other instrument of its pitch. 7. General. A good rough rule is to keepthe Trumpet part between Middle C and thetop of the treble stave (as in Oboe) unless for aspecial and momentary effect. All kinds oftongueing are possible, but as a good deal ofbreath is needed for Trumpet playing it is wiseto break up a series of reiterated notes intogroups, or to divide them between the two
    • 96 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONplayers. No above the soft notes are possibletreble stave. The lower compass half of theblends well with the rest of the Wind, but asthe compass ascends, the tone becomes more andmore conspicuous. Below Middle C no longslurs are possible, and no rapidity. 8. The Cornet. In the days of the Trumpetin F it would have been necessary to write aseparate section on the Cornet but the B ;fiat Trumpet and the Cornet are so nearly alikein compass, tone, execution, and generalcharacter that this is now the part is needless ;entirely interchangable. Cornets are spec- Ifially written for, the parts must be transposedfor either the B flat or the A instrument, inexactly the same way as for the Clarinet.SECTION X : The Trombones and Tuba. I. Description. In England at the presenttime two kinds of Slide Trombone are in use,the Tenor and the Bass, two of the former andone of the latter being found in every completeorchestra. The Tuba now in use is a valve-and-piston instrument, built in F, which cansound its fundamental note. In other countriesvarious kinds of Trombones and Tubas havebeen and are in use, some of which have a lowercompass than the English instruments.
    • — THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 97 2. Notation. Both Trombone and Tubaare non-transposing instruments, in spite oftheir being built in keys other than C. Thereal sound is always written and the properkey-signature used. The four parts are written,on two staves, bass clef being used for thelower, and either tenor or bass for the upper. 3. Low Notes. The directions given respec-ting low notes in the fifth paragraph of ChapterIII apply particularly to the Trombones andTuba. Below the ordinary eompass of theTenor Trombone are three deep pedal notes, —B flat, A natural, and A flat, marked withdiamond heads on the Compass Chart. Of thesethe B flat is the best, but all are rather risky,and if used should be approached from theoctave above, or follow rests. The correspond-ing notes on the Bass Trombone are impractic-able. 4. Trombone Positions. The Trombone,like the Violin, possesses a technique of Posi-tions, and good writing consists in placingnotes either in the same or in neighbouringpositions. Great skips to distant positions areimpossible without rests to give time in whichto adjust the slide. The following Table givesthe positions of the Tenor Trombone, and canbe applied to the Bass Trombone if transposeddown a minor third.
    • 98 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 7oo/e of Tz-jmlom rbJ"/o/u ^ Tenor TnmboneJ (^^^^--
    • THE WIND INSTRUMENTS 99beautiful effect ; but for this, each instrumentmust be kept in the middle of its compass. 7. Disadvantages. These heavy Brassinstruments can play neither fast nor for longat a time. As the slide of the Trombone hasto be adjusted for each note it follows that noperfect legato is possible, except sometimesin the case of harmonics rising from the samefundamental phrasing therefore of any kind ;is impossible. 8. General. Solo writing is unsuited tothe nature of these deep pitched Brass they ;are at their best when used together in wellspread harmony. Octaves and two-part writ-ing are risky, as the slightest difference inintonation in such low instruments sets upvery violent " beats." It is as necessary forthe Trombone player, as for the Horn player,to hear mentally his note before he sounds it,so parts should be written vocally. Unlessnoise merely is wanted a lower dynamic shouldbe given to the Tuba, e.g. forte when the rest isfortissimo. Tuba tone never completely blendswith the rest of the Brass, so in delicate workit is wiser to use the Bass Trombone for thebass of the harmony, and to introduce theFourth Horn in the middle. If it is desired tomodify the brilliance of the Brass the parts
    • 100 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONshould be doubled in Wood. The militaryvalve-trombone, a necessity for cavalry regi-mental bands, is occasionally used in theOrchestra, the scoring being the same as forthe slide instrument. Trombones are very rarelymuted.
    • Chapter V : The Percussion Group 1. The Percussion instruments are tlie leastimportant, the most conspicuous, the mostrhythmical, the easiest to write for and theeasiest to play. Their good effect is in exactinverse proportion to the frequency of theiruse. Nothing vulgarises a score so readily,nor palls on the ear so soon, as the sound of over-much percussion nothing is more effective :than its judicious use. Restraint, therefore, isthe Alpha and Omega of good writing for thisGroup. 2. Percussioninstruments are continuallyon the increase, modern composers extend astheir demands for novel effects. The onesincluded here are those in ordinary use, thewriting for which demands some technicalknowledge. No particular information is re-quired in order to write for an anvil or a bird-whistle. 3. Most Percussion instruments are ofindeterminate pitch. Of these it may be saidin a general way, that the Triangle is treble, theSide-drum and the Tambourine alto, the Cym-bals tenor, and the Bass-drum and Tam-tambass.
    • —102 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION 4. The Kettledrums, Glockenspiel, Xylo-phone and Celeste, having definite notes, miisthave staves but for the rest of the Group ;it is far better to write each part on a separateand single Une, even if this entails the stickingof pieces of plain white paper over one or twostaves of the score. If staves are used it isusual to allot one to two instruments, whengreat care must be exercised with regard totails and rests. 5. All Percussion instruments vibrate for aconsiderable time after being struck vmlessdamped, and the bigger and deeper the instru-ment the longer it vibrates. Consequentlythe exact length of notes and rests must be amatter of meticulous accuracy. 6. On account of the conspicuous characterof the Percussion, dynamic marks must beinserted with greater attention to detail thanis necessary in the case of Strings and Wind.For instance, every crescendo must state whatit starts from and what it goes to. In thecase of a long crescendo the intervening steps atwhich it arrives should be showm thus: pp. —cres., p, cres., f, cres.,ff. 7. Rolls and trills must be written in one ofthe two following ways :
    • THE PERCUSSION GROUP 103 A/o.J .v<}jrNo. mm # I signifies that the roll continues i till thefirstbeat of the third bar and then stopsNo. 2 signifies that it continues to the bar-lineand is then concluded with a separate stroke.Without slurs the player makes an accent atthe beginning of each bar. Rolls on anyinstrument are very fatiguing to the player andshould not be too long on that account.
    • Chapter VI. The Percussion Instruments AND THE Harp SECTION I : The Kettledrums 1. Description. A Kettledrum is a basinshaped metal shell with a head of skin stretchedover the top, the tightness of which is regulatedby screws all round the shell. The tightnessof the skin determines within a perfect fifththe pitch of the Drum. It is played upon withtwo sticks having padded ends, the only twoeffects being separate notes and the " roll,"produced by a rapid wrist action of the twosticks at the edge of the Drum. Most modern —orchestras have three Drums, Big, Middle,and Small. A Kettledrum can be manufac-tured in any size in reason, but the three ingeneral use have the compass given in theChart. 2. Tuning. The exact note to which eachDrum is tuned should be written clearly to beat the beginning of the score on a small stave.Drums can be tuned during the course of themusic, but this should be done neither unneces-sarily nor frequently. The direction for re-tuning is " Tune C to D," or " Change C to
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 105D," or (in Italian) " Muta C in D." The twoimportant points to remember in regard toDrum tunings are (i) that the interval of changemust be as small as possible, or there is therisk of spUtting the skin, which is not a pieceof elastic ; and (2) to allow the player ampletime in which to screw all the keys round theDrum-head a rough-and-ready rule is " Allow ;three bars of Moderato 4-4 time for everyinterval of a second " ;but of course the longerthe time allowed, the easier is it for the player,and the healthier for the instrument. 3. Notation. The part is written in thebass clef, with key-signature and real notes. 4. Special Effects, (i) Muffling {coperti),done by placing a handkerchief or somethingof that sort on the head ; (2) using the Side-drum sticks or (in a roll) the players knuckles,instead of the proper sticks (3) placing three :heavy articles (such as the tuning-keys) on thehead, which produces an effect similar to thatof the Side-drum, the obstruction acting likethe snares of the latter. 5. General. The Kettledrums have animmense range of expression from the softestpianissimo to a gigantic fortissimo, and allgradations of tone are completely under thecontrol of the player. If the tunings can be
    • io5 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONconfined to two Drums it is an advantage in thecase of small bands, which often only possesstwo instruments. As the Middle Drum is ofvarying size it is best to avoid the top and bot-tom notes, G and E. It is possible to striketwo Drums simultaneously, and thus get atwo-note chord, but the effect is not good-With extra drummers and extra instrumentsthe possibilities of Kettledrum writing arealmost unlimited. As the Drum has a definitepitch, its note must always be a constituentpart of the harmony, but it need not neces-sarily be the bass. Formerly the two Drumswere invariably tuned to the tonic and dominant,and in simple scoring this is still an excellentplan. When a roll is wanted below the pitchof the lowest F it can be done with the Kettle-drum sticks on the Bass Drum, or a similareffect produced by a tremolo on the DoubleBass. It by no means follows that a part easyto read is therefore easy to play. All Dnraiwriting is easy to read, and the best way totest its actual difficulty is to play it throughwith two sticks on three cane-seated chairs ;if the part is clumsy the hands get badly" locked." The best Drum writing is thatwhich is simple and soft, and the lowest notesare always the best in tone. For additional
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 107information about the Kettledrums see Mr.Gordon Cleathers Lectures. (Bibliography,page 135).SECTION II : The Side Drum (Tambour Militaire) 1. Description. The Side Drum is a smallbrass cylinder, with two parchment headsplayed with two hard wooden sticks I ts peculiar .tone is due to the " snares," pieces of catgutwhich are stretched across, and resting upon,the lower head. 2. Strokes, (i) The Roll (or " daddy-mammy ") in the case of the Side-drum ;(alone amongthe Percussion) it is wise to finisha roll with a separate stroke, or to conclude ita beat or two before the rest of the orchestra.If a roll is broken into detached phrases thethe player must have time to re-start betweeneach. (2) The Paradiddle a method of stroke :which ensures that the whole-bar accent andthe half-bar accent shall fall to the leftand the right hand respectively, the strongaccent being done by the left-hand. This isincluded for the sake of completeness only ;no direction is necessary. (3) The Drag : thisconsists of a group of 3, 4, 5, or 6 notes playedas a roll, and concluding on an accented note ;
    • » ; io8 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION the groups with uneven numbers are the best.(4) The Flam two notes, one with each hand, ;played quickly if the first note is on the beat :it is an Open Flam if the second is on the beat :it is a Closed Flam. TarS/e g/ J/e/e-e/rc/m Jf/v/rcj l/tLL /t ^ /I ^ cfoi. daseti 3. Special Effects. Muffling, to preventthe " crackUng " sound, can be done in twoways ; either by loosening the snares, or bypushing the cords (or something soft) betweenthe snares and the drum-head to preventcontact. A good imitation of castenets canbe obtained by pla3dng on the wooden edgeof the Drum. 4. General. The utiUty of the Side Drumis either military or rhythmical, and it is usefulalso for adding to the tone in a great cUmaxits chief effect hes in its entry, after whichthe sooner it stops the better. Single detachednotes are bad the Drag and the Flam are the ;correct strokes for isolated accents. A rollshould never be so long as on the Kettledrums.
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 109 SECTION III : The Bass Drum This large drum has the deepest note in theorchestra cannot be tuned ; it only two ;methods of playing it are possible (i) Single ;strokes at a considerable distance from eachother and (2) a roll, done preferably with the ;Kettledrum sticks. The two legitimate effectsare to add to the force of a climax or to conveythe idea of awe in a pianissimo. If a veryshort note is required it is best to add thedirection " damp," as the Drum vibrates avery long time after being struck. It is muffledeither by being wrapped in a cloth, or by loosen-ing the braces, or both. SECTION IV: The Triangle The Triangle a small bar of steel made in isthe ^shape of a triangle, and struck with a steelbeater. The only effects possible are singlenotes, trills, and groups of notes similar to theDrag and Flam of the Side Drum. These smallgroups should consist of an uneven number ofnotes, to allow the player to begin and end withthe downward action of his beater. The besteffect of all is that of single notes at rare intervalsand not too loud.
    • ;no HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION SECTION v.: The Cymbals Two large circular brass plates of equal size,(the larger the better for tone), which are playedin four ways ; (i) by clashing them togetherbrushwise {2) by striking one either with a ;Side Drum stick or a Kettledrum stick (3) ;the " two-plate roll," produced by agitatingthe edges against each other and (4) by hanging ;one by the strap and playing a roll on it (onestick on each side) with the Kettledrvun sticksor with the knuckles. If notes appear in thepart without instructions the player uses No i,which is the only one possible for a loud effectexact directions must be given for Nos. 2 and 4,and Nos. 3 and 4 require the usual symbol for aroll. The three last methods of stroke areonly applicable to middle tone or soft passages. SECTION VI : The Gong, or Tam-tam This huge instrument can only be used forsingle blows with the Bass Drum stick, and ismost effective when soft. It is dangerous toattempt more than this on the Tam-tam becauseof the difficulty of stopping the vibrationsafterwards otherwise a dinner-gong roll would ;be possible.
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS iii SECTION VII : The Tambourine This ancient and familiar instrument can beplayed in four ways (i) by knocking the ;parchment with the knuckles (2) by violent ;shaking so that the " jingles " rattle (3) by ;rubbing the thumb on the parchment so as toproduce a tremolo effect and (4) by placing ;the ball of the hand in the middle of the headand striking the parchment lightly at the edgewith the four fingers. The first two methods,only possible in forte and fortissimo passages,are as old as the Tambourine itself ; the lasttwo are modern devices invented to meet therequirements of soft passages. If notes arewritten without instructions No. i is usedNo. 2 has the usual sign for a roll for No. 3 ;write " trem.^;and No. 4 " col mano." SECTION VIII : The Glockenspiel This instrument has several forms. Onecommonly used in England consists of a seriesof steel plates lying horizontally on a framework.As the exact number of plates varies in differentmakes, it is v/ise to confine the part to thatone having the smallest compass, twenty-seven notes, the one given in the CompassChart. Another kind, having a far better tone,
    • 112 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONconsists of eight small gongs, bells, or steelbars hung on a lyre-shaped frame. Both kindsare played with two wooden hammers. A thirdkind, having a keyboard, has almost fallen outof use, while the military instrument, thirteenplates on a lyre-shaped frame, is rarely used inthe concert-room. Simple Glockenspiel partsare sometimes played on a set of Tubular Bells. The Glockenspiel should never be given rapid it is a slow-speaking instrument andpassages, asthe effect becomes blurred. Its best use is asa gilt-edge to high Wood Wind, somewhat afterthe manner of the Piccolo, but without thePiccolos velocity. It has no sustaining power,so it is useless to write notes longer than acrotchet, or to introduce slurs nor has it any ;range of dynamic force beyond a uniformmiddle tone. The part is written on one stave,treble clef, two octaves below the real sound.It is best to confine the part to single notes :Two-note chords, though possible, are unsatis-factory. SECTION IX : The Celeste The Celeste most used in England consistsalso of steel bars struckwith hammers, but itis played from a keyboard, similar to that of aPiano, shortened. It possesses a system of
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 113resonators andpedal mechanism, which aincrease its power. The part is sustainingwritten on two staves, like a Piano part, butan octave below the real sound. It is as easyto play as the Piano, and should be treated in amanner which comes between that of the Pianoand that of the Glockenspiel. Melody notesshould not be long. Its chief use, like theGlockenspiel, is to pick out the high lights ofa dainty Wood passage. The Celeste part ofthe Casse Noisette Suite is a perfect example,but the notes here are written at their realpitch. SECTION X : The Xylophone This instrunient is similar to the twenty-seven barred Glockenspiel except that the barsare made of wood instead of steel. It is playedwith wooden hammers. The part is writtenon one stave, with the treble clef and in realsounds. The best part of the instrument isthe octave above the C in the treble stave. SECTION XI : The Harp I. Description. Each one of the forty-seven strings of the Harp is a flat note, and theseven-pedal mechanism causes each string to beraised in pitch either a semitone or a tone ; 8
    • ;114 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONthat is, each string can be raised from the flatto the natural, and again from the natural tothe sharp, all the strings of the same namebeing affected by the pedal simultaneously.Double sharps and double flats are impossible.The Harp, because it has only seven notes inits octave, is essentially a diatonic instrumentchromatic passages are entirely unsuitable inany cage, and may be unplayable. The bestpart of the compass is in the middle ; thelowest strings are rather rough in tone and thehighest are too short to be resonant. 2. Notation. The part is written hkePiano music on two staves (treble and bass)braced, in real notes and with proper key-signatures. The terms " 8va " and " 8va bassa"may be used for the extremes of the compass.Everything for the right-hand must have tailsturned up, and everything for the left-handtails turned down, irrespective of compassposition. Great care must be exercised ingiving the exact length of each note, as thestrings vibrate for some time unless damped out. 3. Keys. Major keys are better than minor.As the flat notes have a greater length of stringit follows that the flat keys are the better forthe Harp. The extreme sharp keys shouldbe written enharmonically, B major written as
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 115C flat, F sharp major written as G flat, and Csharp major as D flat. 4. Duplication of Harps. Harps gainnothing by duplication in unison, but much bypart-writing. If the part is simple, one Harpis sufficient. The advantage of having a secondlies in the possibility of harmonic elaborationand sudden harmonic changes, which by ofbeing divided between the players can make themusic more continuous. 5. Homophones. These enharmonic uni-sons are nine in number, the missing notes ofthe twelve in the octave, C to C, being D, G,A,the three white notes which on the Piano liebetween two black notes. A player can domuch by means of homophones, providedalways that he is given time to re-adjust, thepedals. 6. These can be set by means Glissandos.of homophones for all minor ninths, somedominant sevenths, and parts of other chro-matic chords. Major and minor scales arealso possible, the tonal result being a cacaphonysimilar to that produced by playing scales onthe Piano with the pedal down. In writingglissandos the point to remember is that everystring must sound, so that every letter of themusical alphabet must be included either as
    • ii6 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONflat, natural or sharp. For example, for thechord, A,C,E flat, G flat, the pedals are setfor A natural, B sharp, C natural, D sharp,E flat, F sharp, G flat. The most gUssando is long, four or effectivefive octaves, as the fullsweep of the strings canbe done in a second, and a slow glissandois an absurdity. Other kinds are (i) a seriesof short two-octave glissandos following eachother quickly (2) those done by both hands ;in similar or contrary motion (3) those done;by one hand, while the other has separate notes.In every case over-lapping of the hands must beavoided. 7.Chords and Arpeggios. The chief pur-pose in life for the Harp is to accompany it is ;in no way a melodic instrument chords and ;arpeggios therefore form its normal language andthe more simple they are the better. They mustbe written as for the Piano, within the octave,and with never more than four notes for each hand.In general, in the upper part of the compass, themore notes there are and the closer together theylie, the better the effect. Close chords are alwaysslightly spread, unless marked sec ., andthis can only be applied to very small chords.Chords and arpeggios should never over-lapbut keep straight on, up or down, hand over hand.
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 117When both hands are playing arpeggios simultan-eously there should always be a clear octavebetween the two parts. 8. Harmonics. One only, the octave abovethe open string, can be got on each string,the effect being very soft and only goodin a thin score. Harmonics are best standingalone, but chords of two or three notes closetogether are possible. They should never suc-ceed each other quickly and must be confined with-in the compass of the great stave, the bass halfbeing rather the better in tone. The modernnotation is to write the open string with an " o"over it (as in Violin), but formerly the noteswere sometimes written at their actual pitch. 59. Special Effects, (i) Shakes and Trem-olo. These are possible but sound stupid andclumsy, being foreign to the nature of the instru- rment. (2) Etoufee ; the vibration is stoppedas soon as the string is plucked, the result beingan effect something like pizzicato on the Strings.(3) Sul ponticello, (or " sonsprh la table ") ; thestring is plucked at the lower extremity, whichhas the effect of a Guitar. The contradictionin each case is " sons naturel," or " s.n." 10. General. Harp writing is not difficultif three points are kept in mind ; (1) the positionof the harpist (2) ; the similarity between Harp
    • .Ii8 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONplaying and Piano playing and (3) the constant ;necessity for ample time between passages inorder that the last notes played may be dampedout and thepedals re-set for the next. The instru-ment rests on the right shoulder and is playedfrom the treble end, consequently the right handand arm are rather confined, and cannot stretchout so freely as the left. The left hand plays thelow bass notes as on the Piano. Both handsshould not be put low down for any length of timeas this is extremely exhausting for the player.The little finger is never used, so only four notescan be played by each hand ; these should bewritten within the compass of an octave, thoughplayers with a big stretch can do a ninth or a tenthA string needs to be plucked considerably outof the vertical, and is some time in regaining itsnormal position, so reiterated notes can only 1) ?done by means of homophones. When the pedalsare being set there is inevitably a moment of si-lence. The Harp is a slow-speaking instrument,and becomes incoherent in a rapid passage. Ason the Piano, quick repetitions should be avoided,also a great space between the hands. In thickchord work octaves are the best for the left-hand. The harmony of the Harp-part shouldbe correct in itself, each chord having its truebass. Scales are not good, though quite play-
    • THE PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 119able. Nothing is gained in including the Harp -in a ponderous tutti, or when there is much move-ment on the Strings, as it has no great force andcannot be heard. It is best suited to delicatepassages, soft rather than loud, and to makemovement in a mass of sustained tone.
    • Notes on some obsolete or rarely used instruments. 1. Bassett Horn. A tenor or alto Clari-net, built in F, with a technique similar to thatof the ordinary Clarinet and the compass of theViola. The part is written a perfect fifth high-er than the real sound. There is also an altoClarinet in E fiat that is occasionally used. 2. Clarinet in C. A non-transposing Clar-inet, rather smaller than the B fiat instrument,which has fallen out of use on account of its badtone. 3. Euphonium. A military bass brass instru-ment which occasionally strays into the orches-tra the older form has three vedves and the same ;compass as the tenor Trombone the modern ;instrument has a fourth valve which extendsthe compass down to the B flat below. It iseasy to play and in military music is the principalbass solo voice. 4. Guitar. A part is sometimes found inmodern scores for this essentially un-orchestralinstrument. In pitch it comes between theViola and the Cello. It has six strings, tuned inthirds and and the part is written in the fourths,treble clef an octa^ve below th^ real sound.
    • OBSOLETE INSTRUMENTS 121 5. Mandoline. This other un-orchestral in-strument has the same tuning as the Viohn, butits tone is too thin to penetrate through the mod-ern orchestra, and parts written for it are gener-ally played pizzicato on the Violins. 6. Oboe da Caccia. A wood instrumentalmost identical with the modern Cor Anglais,on which the part is now always played. Bachuses real notes in the alto clef, but as a rule thepart used to be transposed in the manner of themodern Cor Anglais. 7. Oboe d Amore. A mezzo-soprano Oboe,a minor third lower in pitch, with the samefingering. In tone and compass it comesmidway between the Oboe and the Cor Anglais. 8. Ophicleide. a family of brass instru-ments, having holes and keys after the mannerof the Wood Wind, which were last used byMendelssohn, (M.N.D. Nos. IV and V), Wagnerand Berlioz. They were easy to play and havefallen out of use chiefly on account of theirdefective intonation. The part is now generallyplayed by the Bass Tuba. 9. Saxophone and Sarrusophone. Two French Wind instruments, inventedfamilies ofby Sax and Sarrus respectively, which aremade of brass and have a reed and fingermechanism like the English Wood Group.
    • 122 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONThe Saxophones have a single reed and resemblethe Bass Clarinet in appearance the Sarruso- ;phones have a double reed and are nearlyrelated to the Bassoons. Both groups aremade in six sizes and all are transposing in-struments. They are in general use in Frenchmilitary bands, and French composers some-times include them in orchestral scores, butthey are rarely seen in England. 10. Serpent. A military bass Wood Windinstrument occasionally found in old scores.Its compass was from the A below the bassstave upwards for about three octaves, and thepart was written a major second higher thanthe real sound. 11. Viola d Amore. This had the samecompass and notation as the ordinary Viola,but possessed seven strings, tuned to the chordof D major. It had also a second series of" sympathetic " strings made of steel wire.It was too difficult to play, too un-dependablefor ordinary use, and could only be given verysimple parts. Its part is now played by theViola. 12. Viola da Gamba. The old " BassViol," the predecessor of the Violoncello. Ithad six strings, tuned in fourths and thirds,and has not been used in the orchestra since thetime of Bach.
    • ON THE STUDY OF OLD AND FOREIGN SCORES In studying old scores it must always beremembered that the present conditions oforchestral balance are different from those forwhich the music was written. All itistrumentsin the Orchestra, except only the Violin andthe Tambourine, have changed in charactermore or less in the course of time, while manyhave ceased to exist with the result that their ;parts have of necessity to be played on othersof the same pitch. Some have in the courseof their development become more resonant,and others more delicate. The Wood Wind isfar less powerful formerly was, but more than itbeautiful, more refined in tone, and capableof a more elaborate technique. The Stringsin a modern orchestra are stronger numericallythan they used to be and these two things ;alone completely upset the balance of tone.The Brass instruments have also changedconsiderably, the tendency being always towardsease of execution and delicacy at the expenseof tonal power. The Percussion is continually both in make and in manner of use.altering, With regard to foreign scores, both old and
    • 124 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONnew, the point for consideration is that there hasnever been any exact international standard-isation in musical matters. Each country,therefore, has developed its musical instrumenttrade independently ; the result of this is thatthe instruments scored for by, say, a Russianor Italian composer are by no means necessarilythe same that will play the parts in Englandor in France. Every orchestra in the world,in dealing with scores from other countries,has to adopt some system of compromise intheir execution. Again, many composers(Wagner, for instance) have employed speciallyconstructed instruments, not in ordinary useat all, but which had to be manufactured forthem ; parts written for such instrumentshave now of course to be played by others ofthe same pitch. Every text-book on Orchestra-tion relates principally to the orchestras andto the instruments of its own country and itsown time, which is the reason why there areso many contradictions between them in mattersof detail. The present arrangement of the full Score(Wood, Brass, PtTcussion, Voices or Solo parts.Strings) seems to be practically settled, althoughthere is still room for logical improvement inthe case of the Piccolo and the Horns. But
    • a OLD AND FOREIGN SCORES 125up toWagners time scores were arranged atpleasure some have the Brass at the top and ;the Wood in th^ Middle ;others have theStrings at the top, and so on. The student isgenerally mt^st perplexed by the vari-^ty oftranspositions in the Horn and Trumpet parts.Space does not allow for a full explanation ofthe reason for this, but briefly, it is this ; —tube can only produce one note (determinedby its length) and the upper particles of thatnote. It follows therefore that without anysort ofmechanism the " natural " Horn andTrumpet could each play only a few notes.To get over this difficulty the length of the tubeitself was regulated by means of additionalpieces of tubing called " crooks " or " shanks,"there being one for each key, hence the term" in D," in G," etc. To simplify the notationfor the player (as the method of blowing re-mained unchanged) the part was always writtenin the key of C. Kettledrums also beforeBeethoven s time were treated in the same way.They were tuned always to the tonic and domi-nant of the principal key of the piece, the nameof the key was stated at the beginning, and thepart was written throughout with the notesC and G.
    • ;126 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONExplanation of the Horn and TrumpetPARTS OF the Four Full Scores to be used WITH this book horn parts Eroica. Beethoven keeps his three Hornscrooked in the principal key (E flat) throughout,except in the case of the First and Third Hornsin the Funeral March, which are crooked in Cbecause the movement is in the key of C Minor.(The key of the piece was generally chosen, forthe reason that it provided the instrumentwith more " open " notes). Because E flat isa major sixth below C, the part is written amajor sixth higher than the real sound, so thevery first chord played by the Horns is in imisonwith that played by the Violas. In the FuneralMarch the First and Third Horns play theirfirst chord in unison with the Clarinets, thepart " in C " sounding an octave lower than itis written. M.N.D. Mendelssohn crooks his Horns infour ways movements. Horn parts for the fiveare invariably written higher than they sound,so the Second Horn s first note in the Scherzois the D in the middle of the bass stave, thusproviding the bass of the chord. In theIntermezzo a curious old anomaly appears
    • OLD AND FOREIGN SCORES. 127formerly when the part got low, the bass clefwas used, and then the part was written anoctave too low, so the first C in octaves soundsthe two As of the bass stave. The octave G,ten bars later, being in the treble clef, soundsthe E (first line, unison with Second Viohn)and the E below. In the Nocturne the part iswritten a minor sixth higher than the realsound (because E is a minor sixth below C,)and in the Wedding March it is written a perfectfourth above the real sound ,the first chordsounding F sharp, A. Pathetic Symphony and Suite. Tschaikow-sky, being a modern composer, writes onlyfor the Horn in F. TRUMPET PARTS Eroica. The Trumpets are in E fiat through-out, except in the second movement (FuneralMarch, in C Minor) where they are in C. TheTrumpet in E fiat sounds higher than it iswritten, so the first octave C sounds the twoE fiats in "the treble stave. The Trumpet inC has no transposition at all. M.N.D. The Trumpet in D in the Scherzosounds a major second higher than written ;the first octave G (page 9) being in unison
    • 128 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATIONwith the first Violin. The Trumpets in theWedding March sound as written. Pathetic Symphony and Suite. The Sym-phony begins with the Trumpet in B flat, andthis has the same transposition as the B flatClarinet. For the rest of the Symphony andthe whole of the Suite the composer uses theA shank, which has the same transposition asthe A Clarinet. (Note). All Horn parts are written higherthan they sound, and always have been. Trum-pet parts vary Trumpets in D, E flat, E ;and F are written lower than they sound,these four letters being above C in the musicalalphabet Trumpet in C has no transposition ; ;Trumpets in B, B flat, and A are written higherthan they sound, these three letters beingbelow C in the alphabet.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHYFOR BEGINNERSJohnstone (A.E.) Instruments of the Modern Symphony Orchestra (Carl Fischer, New York). This gives photographs of a uni- form size showing each instrument being played, and is particularly useful for those students unfamiUar with the appearance of the instruments.Lyon (James) A Practical Guide to Orchestration (Stainer & BeU, 1912, i/-) This gives a useful hst of musical examples for reference.Prout (E.) Instrumentation (Novellos Music Primers)RiEMANN (Hugo) Catechism of Orchestration (Augener, 2/-). This contains an example for the scoring of a Haydn Piano Sonata.RiEMANN (Hugo) Introduction to Playing from Score (Augener, 2/-).Taylor (H. J.) The Orchestra (Weekes & Co., 3d.) This small booklet gives illustrations of each instrument. Two companion volumes at the same price on The Military Band and Elementary Acoustics are also U33 ful.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS 131Vincent (Charles) (Vincent Publishing Co. 1897, i/-). This has tables of all the Trombone Positions and of all the Horn and Trumpet transpositions.FOR INTERMEDIATE STUDENTSCarse (Adam) Hints on Orchestration (Augener, 1919, 1/6).CoRDER (Frederick) The Orchestra (Robert Cocks & Co.)Fetis (F. J.) How Play from Score (Reeves, to 1888). an old book, appHes This, being only to early scores but the information ; is sound, and there are good examples of identical passages, for Piano, and for Orchestra, showing how the compression should be made.Montagu-Nathan. The Orchestra and How to Listen to it. (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., 4/6, 1920.) This contains use- ful musical quotations a table of Tutti Chords, , and illustrations of the instruments.Prout (E.) The Orchestra and Orchestral Combinations (Augener, each volume 5/-). 9
    • 132 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION All the articles bearing on the subject inGroves Dictionary of Music (MacmUlan & Co.)are useful. The Royal College of Organistspublishes volumes of Lectures which have beendelivered at the College, some of which relateto Orchestration. The two best are The Artof Tympani Playing by Gordon Cleather (gd.),and Scoring for a Military Band by Dr. A.Williams. The three on Orchestration by Prof.Prout are good, and include an analysis ofSchuberts Symphony in C. Dr. Turpins onThe Manipulation of Modern Wind Instrumentsis mainly scientific and not as helpful £is thetitle might suggest. Useful information canalways be gathered from the Schools andInstruction Books for the practice of thevarious instruments, pubUshed by Messrs.Boosey & Co, and various other firms.FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS.CoERNE (Louis Adolphus). The Evolution of the Modern Orchestra (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1908).Forsyth (Cecil). Orchestration (Stainer & BeU and Macmillan & Co., 1911, 25/-). This is the most exhaustive work published in England on the subject.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY. 133Gevaert. a New Treatise on Instrumentation, translated by E. F. E. Suddard. This standard work, written in 1863, still remains the best known treatise on the scientific side of the subject.RiMSKY-KoRSAKOFF Principes d Orchestration. This, the most advanced foreign work on the subject^ is published in Russian and in French. It deals almost entirely with combinations, and gives 312 examples in FuU Score from the composers own works.ScHLESiNGER (Kathleen) The Instruments of t/he Modern Orchestra. (Reeves, 1910, 18/6). This interesting work is concerned only with the history and development of the instruments themselves it is illustrated ; with reproductions from old pictures, statuary, missals, etc.Smith (Hermann) The Worlds Earliest Music. (Reeves, 1904). This is on much the same Un^s as Miss Schlesingers larger book, but deals chiefly with the instruments of early Egypt and Assyria.Strauss (Richard) Commentary on Berlioz Instrumentation (1909). In German and in French.
    • :134 HANDBOOK OF ORCHESTRATION Acoustics For the most advanced work a knowledgeof acoustics is essential. The standard worksby Hehnholtz and T5nidall are heavy andexpensive. Three smaller books areBuck (Percy) Acoustics for Musicians (Claren- don Press, 1918, 37/6).Segaller. Musical Acoustics. (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., 1920, 2/6)Taylor (Sedley) Sound and Music. (Note). This BibUography makes no preten-sions to completeness.Many books, some verywell-known, are purposely omitted as beingout-of-date or relating to foreign orchestras andconditions only. Printed in Great Britain by Clements Bros., Chatham
    • . INDEXAbbreviations, 6, 26, 50. Double Bass, 8, 36, 46, 54, 57,Accompaniment, 24, 25, 40, 41 65, 132.Arpeggio, 22, 53. Double Bassoon, 31, 32, 36, 70, 72, 90, 132.Bach, 122, Dovetailing, 22.Background. 28. Drums, (See Kettledrums, SideBalance, 41, 58, 125. Drum, Bass Drum).Bass Clarinet, 31, 32, 70, 88, 132.Bass Drum, 4, 31, 43, loi, 106, Ear-training, 2, 41. no, 132. Eroica, 5, 6, 17 to 20, 22, 23, 25,Bassett Horn, 120. 93. 126.Bass of Harmony, 18, 21, 30, Euphonium, 120. 36, 37-Bassoon, 23, 42, 45, 46, 70, 72, Farjeon, 5, 28, 29, 31, 32. 81, 89, 132. Flute, 23, 46, 69, 70, 71, 78,Bass Tuba, 36, 44, 70, 97, 121. 132.Bass Viol, 122. French Horn (See Horn).Beethoven, 5, 20, 22, 27, 29, 31, 32, 126 (See Eroica). Glockenspiel, 102, 113, 132.Bells, 112. Gong, (See Tam-tam).Berlioz, 121, Grace-notes, 39.Borch, 5, 19, 27, 28, 32. Grieg, 5, 29, 32.Bowing, 50, 59, 62, 63, 66. Groups, 7, 34, 39, 50, 69,Brass, 13, 36. 39, 42 to 47, 70, lOI. 73. 75. 93 to i°2. 127 to 132. Guitar, 120.Casse Noisette Suite (See Suite). Harmonics, 12, 46, 54, 56, 62,Castenets, 108. 65, 66, 118.Celeste, 102, 113. Harmonic Series, 36.Cello (See Violoncello). Harmony, i, 18, 25, 30, 34, 36,Chopin, 32. 93. 99. 118.Chords, 18, 19, 21, 25, 35, 36, Harp, 32, 37, 115, 132. 41. 53- Hautbuoy, (See Oboe).Clarinet, 24, 25, 39, 44, 46, 70, Homophones, 115, 118. 76, 83, 120, 132. Horn, 10, 27, 44, 46, 47, 70Climax, 19, 79, 108, 109. to 73, 92, 129, 131, 132.Col legno, 59, 62.Combinations, 2, 40. Kettledrums, 27, 30, 38, 102,Compass, 13, 72. 104, 132Cor Anglais, 28, 44, 46, 70, 71, Key, 10, 50, 74. 76, 81, 82, 121, 132.Comet, 44, 69, 70, 72, 94, 96. Lieder ohne Worte, 5, 17, 19,Counterpoint, i 20, 23, 24, 27, 28.Crescendo, 30, 35, 102.Cymbals, 29, 43, no, 132. Mandoline, 121. Material for Scores, 32.
    • Melody, i8, 24, 25, 37. Side Drum, 31, 43, loi,Mendelssohn (See Lieder and 107. M.N.D.) Small Orchestra, 27, 70, 71.Military, 100, 107, 108, 112, Strings, i, 7, 12, 17, 35, 36, 42, 120, 122, 132. 50, 60.M.N.D. (Midsummer Nights Suite, 5, 6, 20, 24, 27, 28, 29, Dream Music), g, 6, 22, 23, 24, 31, 32, 113, 128. 27, 93, 121, 127. Sul ponticello, 58, 62, 117.Muffling, 105, 109, no. Sul tasto, 59, 62.Mutes, 43, 34, 62, 67, 95, 100. Sur la touche, 59.Oboe, 23, 44, 46, 70, 71, 75, 81, Tambour, 107. 132. Tambourine, loi, in, 123.Oboe da Caccia, 121. Tam-tam, 43, in.Oboe dAmore, 121. Timpani (See Kettledrums).Ophicleide, 121. Tone, 2, 21, 25, 35, 41, 69, 71.Orchestration, i, 3, 9, 19, 47, Tongueing, 72. 126. Transitional effects, 46, 93. Transposing instruments, 9,Parts, 8, II, 18, 19, 21. II, 27, 127 to 130.Pathetic Symphony, g, 6, 23, Tremolo, 55, 74. 29, 31. 32, 43. 68, 87, 128. Triangle, 29, 43, loi, 129.Percussion, 13, 29, 35,41,43,101. Trombone, 13, 31, 44, 45, 70,Phrasing, 19, 30, 74. 98, 129.Piano, 5, 21, 28, 29. Trumpet, 13, 31, 70, 72, 94,Piccolo, 31, 45, 70, 72, 80, 132. 128 to 129.Pizzicato, 19, 20, 42, 53, 62, Tschaikowsky (See Pathetic 64, 67. Symphony and Suite).Players, 10, 11, 18, 24, 25, 71, Tuba (See Bass Tuba). 76, Tuning, 65, 82, 105.Ponticello (See Sul Ponticello). Tutti, 19, 25, 26, 27, 34, 36, 79,Positions (Violin), 51, 61, (Trom- 81, 119. bone), 97.Prout, 10, 41, 131. Valve Trombone, 100. Viola, 12, i^, 46, 50, 61, 129.Rachmaninoff, 5, 28, 33. Viola da Gamba, 122.Riemann, 7, 130. Viola dAmore, 122.Rolls, 43, 104, 105, 107, 108, VioUn, 18, 42, 46, 60, 129. no. 111, 112. Violoncello, 8, 46, 50, 63, i 29. Voice, 24, 33, 40, 41. 73.Sarrusophone, 121.Saxophone, 121. Wagner, 47, 121, ^25, 1 26.Score, 4, 5, 9, 17, 19, 124 to 128. Wind, 7;>«, 23, 34, 70778.Serpent, 122. Wood, 70.Shakes, 52, 74. Xylophone, 102, 113, 129.
    • niiiiniiiitMrm^mim»lltmniKmi;[: i.NUl,-|lthltKKIi.->tUti:kUl(.>il