• Save
MIS Project Management Best Practice
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

MIS Project Management Best Practice

on

  • 3,734 views

The main purpose of this paper is to state the project management best practices for a typical project in the field of software services and in specific tailored management information systems. This ...

The main purpose of this paper is to state the project management best practices for a typical project in the field of software services and in specific tailored management information systems. This paper will state all the project life cycle to cover most of the project management concepts and techniques trough illustrating a business case for a tailored MIS project.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,734
Views on SlideShare
3,730
Embed Views
4

Actions

Likes
6
Downloads
0
Comments
0

3 Embeds 4

http://searchutil01 2
http://www.slashdocs.com 1
http://www.docshut.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

MIS Project Management Best Practice MIS Project Management Best Practice Document Transcript

  • PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN & CASE STUDY “From Client Requirements to Full Implementation”BEST PM PRACTICES FOR TAILORED MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM- BASED ON, ISIS1- INFORMATION SYSTEMS INTERNATIONAL SERVICES, APPLIED PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY AL-MOTAZ BELLAH AL-AGAMAWI2 magamawi@gmail.com Nile University, 6th of October City, Cairo, Egypt Table of ContentAbstract ........................................................................................................................................... 3Keywords ........................................................................................................................................ 3Project Scope .................................................................................................................................. 3Project Deliverables and Services ................................................................................................... 3Project General Consideration ........................................................................................................ 4 Reliability.................................................................................................................................... 4 User interface engineering .......................................................................................................... 5 Information security .................................................................................................................... 5 System Scalability....................................................................................................................... 5 Modular Design .......................................................................................................................... 5Project Management Approach....................................................................................................... 5 Project Sponsorship .................................................................................................................... 6 Project Mission and Objectives .................................................................................................. 6 Efficient Communications .......................................................................................................... 6 Complete Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 6 Complete Design ......................................................................................................................... 61 ISIS- Information Systems International Services, is a Egyptian Software house, established since 1997 with areputable clientele list in the field of software bespoke development services. For information:www.isisinternational.net .2 Al-Motaz Bellah Al-Agamawi is the Vice President for Business Development in ISIS, and a M.Sc. Candidate inManagement of Technology in Nile University, Cairo, Egypt. 1
  • Modules Coding and Testing ...................................................................................................... 7 Training ....................................................................................................................................... 7Project Management Structure ........................................................................................................ 7 Top Management Council........................................................................................................... 7 Steering Committee .................................................................................................................... 7 Business Committee.................................................................................................................... 7 Technical Committee .................................................................................................................. 8 Human Resources Committee..................................................................................................... 8Project Communication Methodology ............................................................................................ 8 Reporting mechanisms ................................................................................................................ 8 Project Single Point of Contact ................................................................................................... 8Project Work Breakdown ................................................................................................................ 8Project Implementation Team ......................................................................................................... 9Project Implementation Plan ......................................................................................................... 10 Mobilization Phase [2 weeks] ................................................................................................... 11 System Analysis [6 weeks after Mobilization] ......................................................................... 11 Design (6 weeks from Analysis) ............................................................................................... 12 Development (12 weeks from Design) ..................................................................................... 13 Deployment (2 weeks from Development) ............................................................................... 14 Training (4 Weeks from Deployment) ...................................................................................... 14 Coaching and real-life Implementation supervision (12 Weeks from Deployment) ................ 14 After Sales Support and Warrantee (52 weeks from deployment date)…................................ 15Project Acceptance Criteria .......................................................................................................... 15 Initial acceptance ...................................................................................................................... 15 Tuning ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Final acceptance ........................................................................................................................ 16About ISIS .................................................................................................................................... 16Acknowledgment .......................................................................................................................... 16Disclaimer ..................................................................................................................................... 17 2
  • AbstractThe main purpose of this paper is to state the project management process for a typical project inthe field of software services and in specific tailored management information systems based onISIS- Information systems international services company internal applied methodology. We willstate all the project life cycle to cover most of the project management concepts and techniquesbased on ISIS- Information Systems International Services, internal process and methodologytrough illustrating a business case for a tailored MIS project delivered by ISIS. KeywordsProject Management, stakeholder management, requirement specification, validate and verify,work breakdown, project steering committee, project reporting, milestones, acceptance criteria;Project Service Definition, Project Deliverables, Project General Consideration, ProjectManagement Approach, Project Communication Methodology, Project resourcing, ProjectImplementation Approach, Project Resources Allocation, Project Implementation Plan, ProjectAcceptance Criteria, Project Closure Procedure Project ScopeThe project scope includes the development of a web based management information systemincluding a backend system managing all the client workflow processes and a frontendmarketplace giving the client customers the ability to place orders and receive services offeredby the client through a complete e-commerce system. The project is classified under the categoryof business process automation and online e-commerce systems. To achieve the strategicobjectives of the client a system must be developed based on the client existing manual andlegacy system procedures and workflow.In order to achieve this, ISIS services includes, analysis, design, development, deployment,training and go-life coaching for a period of 6 month for a management information systembased on the client request for proposal and the technical and financial proposal submitted byISIS to the Client. Project Deliverables and ServicesProject deliverables can be classified into a backend MIS- Management Information System andFrontend ecommerce system. The backend MIS is classified as business process automationservices which includes several modules; as suppliers management module, online productcatalogue management, user management, support and ticketing management, onlineadvertisement management, financial and administration reporting, social network management,products quality control management, promotion management, coupons issuing and managementand others.The frontend system is classified a typical e-commerce system development service. Frontendincludes two main interfaces supplier interface and buyer interface. The supplier interfaceincludes supplier registration process, supplier product catalogue management, supplierinformation management, supplier promotion management, supplier financial reporting, supplier 3
  • customer support interface and other related functionalities. The frontend buyer interfaceincludes public catalogue, registration process, purchase process, rating and review, socialnetwork interaction, wish list, complain, purchase history, online payment capabilities and otherrequired functionalities.In order to achieve the above mentioned deliverables ISIS services is composed of:  System Analysis: in which complete system requirements from different stakeholders must be gathered, verified and then an automated approach for the different processes and procedures must be proposed. The deliverable of the this phase is the complete system analysis including system requirements specification document.  System Design: based on this the output of the analysis phase a detailed logical and physical system design document will be developed. The purpose of this phase is to map all the requirements mentioned in the analysis phase into a system design.  System Development: a system will be developed based on the design document developed in the previous phase.  System deployment: the developed system must be deployed on the client infrastructure, including all the required parameters adjustment to be ready for usage by the client team.  Training: a professional training services must be provided for all the system stakeholders including client team and suppliers to be able to use the system in an efficient and effective manner.  Go-live coaching: a 6 month go-live coaching service is included. In this phase ISIS team will supervise and coach the client team during the real life operation of the system to guarantee the smooth operation.  Warrantee and support: a one year warrantee and support is included. Each of the above main services is composed on detailed subservices which will be mentioned in details in different sections of this document. Project General Consideration In addition to the above mentioned system requirements stated in the project deliverables and services section in this document, it is recommended that a set of general consideration must be consider by the project manager in any typical tailored/bespoke management information system development projects. In this section we state the general system technical consideration from the development point of view as well as a deployment, training and operation supervision.Reliability A reliable system needs extreme care during all its development life cycle. From its analysis phase (that identifies what it has to do) till it’s after sale support (that verifies that it has been done) passing by designing, coding, documentation and testing. 4
  • User interface engineering As one of the basic key factors of success, the following parameters are to be applied during the system user interface design phase; Most recent international standards that guarantee ease of use and efficiency. Comprehensive navigation to secure best utilization of system functions. Fashionable interface that appeals users and guarantees user friendly environments.Information security As one of the highest concerns of all entities utilizing information and communication technologies nowadays, a special focus is applied to this vital issue of information security as follows. Extreme care is to be applied to the user’s access privileges on both function level as well as data levels in order to match their existing privileges. A powerful administration tools to guarantee that each individual user of the system will have a user definable accessibility rights. Users may be categorized into usage groups. For each group, some common privileges are to be set allowing at the same time some deviations between one user and another among the same group.System Scalability Even in a small systems, implementation takes effort, users’ acquaintance and loyalty takes time, tuning the enterprise resources for the best system adoption means money. All these, means that it is not desirable at all to frequently change a certain system to another. It usually consumes a lot of the most valuable resources of the enterprise time, effort and money. we live in a dynamic world. In which roles do change from time to time. Organization requirements get bigger every day. Operation size may change. Even technologies can change. All this factor emphases that system scalability must be considered all over the project life cycle; starting from the analysis, the design and development of the system.Modular Design In order to achieve scalability, it’s a must to design a modular system. A system that consists of so many modules stuffed together in a decent hierarchal/network nature. Each module is to be related to the others in a way that allows its change without affecting the others. Simply modules are as the building blocks of a sophisticated –yet smartly designed- building. Project Management Approach The project management approach consider three basic elements;  People.  Business Rules and Processes.  Technology & Infrastructure. For people, all involved parties (including both vendor and client teams) must be considered. All managerial levels from top management down to everybody in the enterprise (whether a 5
  • system user or not) since they will all be affected by the system. Considering their motivations and barriers. Considering their current degree of professionalism and their ambition to develop their capabilities and opens new horizons for their enhancements in terms of quality, cost and time. The deployment of a new management information system always needs good care. Not only from the people and business process point of view (as the adequate training and proper testing) but also from the technology suitability to its purposes. In order to take care of these three factors, the following considerations are to be implemented.Project Sponsorship As a well-proven practice, top management commitment and sponsorship provides the IT project with a vital success element. Through this sponsorship, the top management of the enterprise will provide the main guidelines of project objectives. It will also track its periodic milestones achievements and interfere when necessary to resolve any problem that may appear during its implementation lifecycle.Project Mission and Objectives A clear focus should be provided in order to define a clear mission and objectives for this project. Both parties should come up together with an agreed upon statements that clearly define both mission and objectives and convey them to all individuals participating in the project.Efficient Communications Well defined communication channels and rules should be set in order to guarantee the best possible comprehensive understanding between both parties. Although perception verification mechanisms may be considered as an overhead, but they had always proven to pay back for their costs.Complete Analysis Even though, a typical project may divide deliverable to more than one phase, good systems development practice require a good coverage for all phases in the analysis. Gathering all phases’ requirements and business processes is mandatory in order to define all modules inter-dependencies and interactions.Complete Design As it is with the analysis, the same should be applied to the design with adequate details of all modules. This is the main guarantee that all project modules are to be built up at their planned timing without the need of a redo or undesired changes in another module that has been already delivered and implemented. 6
  • Modules Coding and Testing Once complete analysis and design are done, modules may be developed in an incremental manner. Knowing in advance what a certain module may require from another one, will permit its development and testing in an efficient way.Training The real success of any system is totally dependent on the ability of its prospect users to use and get results that satisfies their needs. The only way to achieve this is through good training. Project Management Structure Project Top Management Project Steering Committee Business Technical HR Committee Committee CommitteeTop Management CouncilAs the supreme council of the project; mainly to provide proper project sponsorship andguidance; it has the full rights to appoint all subordinates as well as follow up their performance.It should meet at the beginning of each phase and may meet in between if needed. It includes thefollowing personnel; A senior representative for each party (of the selected stake holders) topmanagement. The two project managers representing each party (vendor and client).Steering CommitteeTo take care of the daily management including but not limited to detailed planning versusachievements and corrective actions when needed. It should have a periodical meeting at amaximum interval of one calendar month. And has the authorities overall project subordinates.Its members are; Each party project manager. Each party senior representative in the followingthree committees.Business CommitteeThat supervises all analysis tasks related to requirements gathering, business rules, workflow andother related issues. Although its’ main tasks will be at the analysis phase, but it will have otherroles including the approval of the design, the verification of the delivered applications from thebusiness point of view, and the consulting when needed afterwards. 7
  • Technical CommitteeThat takes care of all technical infrastructure including the hardware, communication, databases,development technologies and other related issues. It will also have other roles including theapproval of the design, the verification of the delivered applications from a technical point ofview with a main role all-over the project development life cycle.Human Resources CommitteeResponsible for the allocation of the required users human resources, training them, replacing ifneeded and other related issues with special focus in the deployment and operation phases. Project Communication MethodologyReporting mechanismsIn addition to the reports to be agreed upon as part of the communication mechanisms during themobilization period, there are to be two basic types of reports addressed to the customer; Regularperiodical progress reports, on weekly, monthly and at the end of each phase. Irregular reportsthat approaches a certain deficiency or unplanned delays. These reports are to be submitted notlater than a week in advance.Project Single Point of ContactIt is very important for any project success to assign a well-defined communication mechanismbetween the vendor and the client. One basic element of this mechanism is to appoint a SinglePoint of Contact- SPOC. This SPOC is to empowered and authorized to take all necessarydecision to secure the project success. Based on the above mentioned project managementstructure, both parties Project managers is usually the SPOC. Both SPOC ’s are to communicatetogether and take the required actions and decisions. They also report to the top managementcommittee on a regular basis.For strategic customers and mission critical projects, it is recommended to assign an accountmanager. This account manager main responsibility is to follow up and secure customersatisfaction. Although he does not interfere with a certain project detailed actions, but he/she isinformed regularly with the project status through a periodical progress report. Once a foreseendeviation of the plan is anticipated, he/she is to escalate this deviation to the top management inorder to decide a preventive action. Project Work BreakdownThe project work breakdown is as follows; categorized based on the project main activities:  Analysis o Requirement Gathering o Backend Systems Specifications o Frontend Systems Specification o System Navigation Plan 8
  •  Design o High Level Architecture o Logical Design o Physical Design o Navigation Design o GUI Interface Engineering Design o GUI Graphical Design o Test Scenarios and Test Cases Design  Development o System Infrastructure Components Development o System Backend Modules Development o System Frontend Modules Development o System Integration Development (Backend + Frontend)  Testing o Modular Testing o Integration Testing  Deployment o Server Tools Deployment o System Deployment  Training o System Help Development o User Manual Development o Training Material Development o Conduct User Training  Support o First Line Support to Client Users o Second Line Support to Client Suppliers o Go-live coaching  Warrantee o Bug Fixes based on contact SLA- Service Level Agreement terms Project Implementation TeamBased on the work breakdown and estimated project effort, the following table represents thevendor team main roles, number of allocated resources per role and phase of involvement.Although this is the project team resources required for the delivery of the project mentioned inthis paper but the below main roles can be considered as the typical required resources for atypical tailored MIS/bespoke development project, the difference will be in the number ofallocated resources based on the project size and allocated delivery timeframe.Role # Allocated Resources Involvement PhaseProject Account Manager 1 All PhasesSecurity Senior Consultant 1 Design Phase 9
  • Project Manager- SPOC 1 All PhasesSenior Analyst 1 Analysis PhaseSenior System Architect 1 Design PhaseSenior System Designer 1 Design PhaseSenior Team Leader 1 Development PhaseSenior Support & Training 1 Deployment and TrainingManager PhaseSenior Support 2 Deployment and TrainingSenior SW Engineer 2 Development PhaseSenior Developer 6 Development PhaseSenior Administrator 1 Deployment and Training PhaseSenior Interface Engineer 1 Design PhaseGraphic Designer 2 Development PhaseSenior Web Navigation 1 Design PhaseSenior Test Engineer 1 Testing PhaseTester 2 Testing Phase Project Implementation PlanThe project implementation plan is divided in the following major phases: 1. Mobilization 2. Complete System Analysis 3. Complete System Design 4. Development 5. Deployment 6. Training and Coaching 7. After Sale support & Warrantee. 10
  • Mobilization Phase [2 weeks]The purpose of this phase is to form the project management committees, prepare and approveproject detailed plans, set the project communication mechanisms between the two parties,design forms and templates for the various project activities, and allocating team members andproject stakeholders for the project kick-off.The outcome of this phase would be the project baseline, detailed time plan, and detailed actionplans and duties for teams.The major activities of this phase would be as follows:  Nominating project steering committee, which is the highest authority in the project, auditing the project management practices and approaches.  Forming different project management teams and committees and representatives of each party.  Do preliminary project sizing for different project activities over the two major project modules  Do time planning and resource allocation over the entire teams.  Agreeing on the project communication mechanisms between all parties.  Specify necessary required pre-requisite information to be gathered and devising collection forms if necessary.  Divide responsibilities and objectives within the devised project plan specified for all team members.  Conducting the project kick-off meeting.System Analysis [6 weeks after Mobilization]The purpose of this phase is to come out with a concrete description of the system data, businesslogic, business cycles, actors, permissible and non-permissible activities. 11
  • The deliverable of this phase would be a complete analysis document, which enlists all the factsand specifications obtained and formulated through the analysis phase.The major activities of this phase would be as follows:  Requirements gathering includes; understanding the general natures of products of suppliers, promotion business rules, coupons and their codes, promotions, and other data elements. Also gathering of supported business processes and workflow for suppliers, the clients and buyers.  Synthesizing gathered data to come out with solid business processes and business flows for product management, complaint management, promotion enrollment and many other business processes supported by the suggested system.  Producing the Complete Analysis Document which includes the data specifications and relationships, business processes and cycles, system use models, test scenarios, input methods, reporting, security specifications, and Software Requirements Specification along with the proposed initial and final acceptance criteria.  Challenging the Analysis Document which includes peer review, auditing and challenging the analysis document against business cycles, known flaws and best practices.  Analysis Document Approval is done by the client, which is then the road map of the entire system.Design (6 weeks from Analysis)The purpose of this phase is to translate the analysis document into a system design thatindicates how the system objectives, data, and processes are going to be technically met; andvalidated.The deliverable of this phase is the Design document. The design document would include thetechnical representation of the analysis document, in an arrangement that maximizes the systemintegrity, reliability and maintainability. It is considered to be the intermediary language betweenthe Analysis (business) and the Development (programming and testing). The document includesalso information regarding the system success conditions, testing plans, and User Acceptance 12
  • Criteria (UAC). The audience of this document is majorly with a strong technical background,but has to be validated with the client for the UAC related issues.The major activities of this phase would be as follows:  Review Analysis for consistency so as to make sure everything put into the design document is consistent.  Represent data and business processes in standard technical representations and diagrams. Also include testing plans, testing cases and scenarios along with Detailed infrastructure requirements specifications  Represent Security Design Issues in relevant formats for maximum understandability and tracing purposes.  Challenge the Design Document against design errors through peer review and auditing.  Design Document Approval in this phase is done by the client.Development (12 weeks from Design)The purpose of this phase is to actually produce the application, including its two maincomponents the backend modules and frontend modulesThe deliverable of this phase is a working application, technical documentation if necessary (toreflect any changes from the design phase) and a user manual (help/how-to).The major activities of this phase are:  Programming o Programming in a Modular Fashion where each team is assigned a module to be finished, and hence build the system incrementally. o Unit Testing along the completion of each logically coherent block.  Testing o Detailed Testing Plan which includes designing all the test cases and scenarios corresponding to the analysis, design, and development inputs. o Module Functional Testing which tests each module functionalities against its supposed behavior. 13
  • o Integration Testing at the completion of each module integrated with the previously developed and testing one. o Load Testing  Documentation o Technical documentation for the changes that may be applied in the development phase. o User documentation for the system users.Deployment (2 weeks from Development)The purpose of this phase is to install the developed software at the customer site.The outcome of this phase is that the developed software is installed in its final destination.The major activities of this phase are:  On-going Deployment Preparation, in which the deployment teams deploy the so-far- ready modules of the application in an in-house server/facility to test the deployment techniques, challenges, and finding best practices.  Tuning, in which minor changes might be implemented for a better system performance and customization.  Final Deployment which entails the final deployment of the application in its final destination at the client site (or whatever hosting facility chosen by eLABs).Training (4 Weeks from Deployment)The purpose of this phase is to leverage the system users to be capable to capitalize on thesystem capabilities and maximize its benefit.The outcome of this phase is a help document for the different system modules interfaces, anOnline manual, and a supervised integration for selected sample of data.The major activities of this phase are:  Conducting Supervision for Security Integration for a selected sample of the client data..  Training for client users  Training for client suppliers technical teams for ‘how-to’ operate best practices.Coaching and real-life Implementation supervision (12 Weeks from Deployment)The purpose of this phase is to support the client staff and suppliers in using all of the systemfeatures effectively. This will be done through an agreed upon number of working hours between 14
  • the vendor support teams and the client staff and suppliers. These working hours are to be spentin either of the following options…  Regular visits to the client site.  Visits upon calls to the client site.  Pre-scheduled training sessions to client/suppliers in the client premises.After Sales Support and Warrantee (52 weeks from deployment date)…During this period,  Providing unlimited number of support phone calls to the client staff and suppliers .  Fixing any bug that may arise within the following two steps; o Providing a work-around solution that does not let the system halt from operation in not more than three working days from occurrence. o Fixing the bug and providing a complete solution for it in not more than 15 working days. Project Acceptance Criteria The client team must be involved in all the project phases. Each phase must include a well defined outcomes and deliverables. Pre-defined templates for each deliverable must be agreed upon between the vendor and the client at the project mobilization phase. Phases definition and deliverables are mentioned in details in the project implementation phase section of this document. In addition to each phase deliverable, the acceptance process of the final system delivery is recommended to go through the following:Initial acceptance During the training period, utilizing some well studied data samples that represent the most commonly applied processes and exceptions. After feeding these samples to the system, both parties (vendor and client) can judge the initial degree of acceptance of the system. 15
  • Tuning Real life experience showed that when it comes to the actual implementation some more enhancements will be required. For this, allocating what is call the tuning period is important. During which; the vendor professional teams are to take care of exceptional handling and more optimization seeking the best possible system performance.Final acceptance (Pilot Conference) Toward the end of the training period, and after the tuning of the delivered modules, and a reasonable percentage of real data (around 10% of the total data) are fed into the system, both parties (client and vendor) should be in a position to tell the degree of satisfaction that the system had achieved. Through conducting final pilot conference, that includes representatives of all users’ categories, typical daily workflow cycles are to be simulated and users’ feedback are to be gathered. Minor fixes and changes may be applied. At that moment, a final acceptance should be reached. About ISIS ISIS is a member of a group of software companies with different backgrounds and specializations, and with accumulative years of experience summing up to more than 40 years of best practices and successful engagements. ISIS has a wide range of products and services including professional services, outsourcing and tailored applications for large to huge organizations, business solutions offerings to medium and large entities, linguistics services and localization offered to international IT companies in addition to readymade productivity software products offered to end-users. ISIS services clientele list includes and not limited to Remedy Intelligent Stafware USA, Commerce Bank, Frankfort, NOVA Networks Canada, Central Bank of Emirates UAE, Dubai Governorate UAE, Ministry of Education UAE, Saudi British Bank KSA, Ministry of Education Kuwait, Kuwaiti Parliament, Aswan High Dam Authority Egypt, Ministry of Health Egypt, State Information Authority Egypt, Trade Development Center Egypt, Kafr El- Sheikh water supply company Egypt, Egyptian Organization for Standards Egypt, Egyptian German Telecommunication Industries Egypt, Citibank Egypt and more. For more information please visit, www.isisinternational.net. AcknowledgmentThis business case have been constructed based on several interviews and meetings with ISIS-Information System International Services senior management team including CEO, PMO,Account Manager and other team members. The included project management concerns,approach, management structure, communication plan, implementation methodology and projectclosure procedures are summary of ISIS original copyrighted methodologies and best practices.We use the summary in this document under permission from ISIS without exposing themethodologies details. We have also used one of the project templates of ISIS for a typical real 16
  • life tailored information system development project which have been delivered to one of ISIScustomers after applying the appropriate modifications and adjustments.ISIS provided access to the author of this report for ISIS project management appliedmethodology, ISIS implementation methodology, ISIS project charter templates, ISIScommunication methodology, ISIS QC methodology and procedures, ISIS testing methodology,ISIS project follow-up procedures and templates, ISIS version control procedures, ISIS projectclosure methodology and procedure, ISIS service level agreement models and templates and ISISSW development life cycle methodology. The author have just tried to provide a summary andbest practices techniques based on the previous mentioned methodologies and documents in asummarized form. DisclaimerAll material in this report is for informational and scholar research study purposes only . Anyand all ideas, opinions, and/ or best practices, expressed or implied herein, should not beconstrued as a recommendation to be used in a real life project. Be advised that study author willnot be held responsible for any actions that you take as a result of any information mentioned inthis report. 17