5.1. Main characteristicsSurrealism was an art movement of the inter-waryears, and the last major art movement to beassociated with Paris.Its name derived from the phrase Dramesurrealiste, the sub-title of a 1917 play by thewriter and art critic Guillaume Apollinaire(1880-1918).Surrealism evolved out of the nihilistic "anti-art"Dada movement, most of whose members becamesurrealists.While Dada was revolutionary, Surrealism was lessovertly political and advocated a more positive Surrealists aimed to generatephilosophy. an entirely new set of imagerySummed up by André Breton as "thought expressed by liberating the creativein the absence of any control exerted by reason, power of the unconsciousand outside all moral and aesthetic mind (dreams, hallucinations,considerations.“ automatic or random image generation).Initially, the main focus of the movement wasliterature but this rapidly involved painting,sculpture and other forms of contemporary visualart as cinema.
5.2. Philosophical Influences: Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Viennese neurologist who founded the psychoanalysis.Breton and other surrealists were highly impressed with Freuds insights into the unconscious, which they thought would be a major source of untapped pictures and imagery. They used his theories to clear away boundaries between fantasy and reality, and to address a number of disquieting drives as fear, desire and eroticization.
Our mind according to Freud…
5.3. Literature and manifestos: André Breton. Who Founded Surrealism? The writer André Breton (1896-1966), nicknamed "the Pope of Surrealism", was the movements founder and chief theorist. He introduced and defined the new style in his initial 1924 manifesto (Manifeste du Surrealisme) and later in his painting bulletin (Surrealisme et la Peinture). Breton, who was an ex dadaist, deplored the nihilistic and destructive character of Dada, nevertheless he built on many Dada ideas to create a movement with a coherent though doctrinaire philosophy Bretons overall aim was in fact highly revolutionary. He aimed at nothing less than a total transformation of the way people thought by breaking down the barriers between their inner and outer worlds, and changing the way they perceived reality, he intended to liberate the unconscious, reconcile it with the conscious.
Max Erns, «The meeting of friends» 1922
5.4. Artistic influences: Other painters toked as model by the Surrealism. 2. Any manifestation of European artistic trend in touch with obsessive and eccentric subjects:Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516)“The Garden of Earthly Delights” 1480-1490
«The Haywain Triptych» 1502
Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) «The nigthmare» 1781
engravings of prisonsGiovanni Battista Piranesi(1720-1778) « Carceri d’invenzione» 1745 Plate 1 Title
«Beata Beatrice» «Ancient of Days» 1794 1864-1870Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) William Blake (1757-1827)
Gustave Moreau (1828-1898) “Oedipus and the Sphinx”, 1794
Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978)Metaphysical school of painting
3. And DADA, of course... «Parade amoureuse» Francis Picabia 1917
5.5.Figurative Surrealism «The Lovers» 1928 «Gonconda» 1953 Renne Magritte (1898-1967) The Empire of Lights. 1954
«The sleepingVenus» 1944Paul Delvaux (1897-1994)
Marx Ernst (1891-1976)«The bride’s dress»
5.6. Abstract Surrealism « La famille en état de métamorphose » 1929 «La belle italien» 1942 André Masson (1896-1987)