Passages= arcades (inglés) Benjamin linked them to the city's distinctive street life and saw them as providing one of the habitats of the Flâneur. Walter Benjamin Charles Boudelaire
El historiador Robert Herbert sostiene que «el movimiento impresionista mostraba esta pérdida de conexión en pinturas como Un bar en el Folies-Bergère de Manet ». El modelo de la pintura está hablando con un hombre, que se ve en el espejo detrás de ella, pero parece no ocupado. Según Herbert, esto es un síntoma de vivir en París en aquella época: los ciudadanos se sentían separados entre sí, aislados de otras personas. «La continua destrucción del París físico llevó asimismo a la destrucción del París social»
1. a) Government urban planning intervention : Haussmann Plan in Paris France, 1852-1870 . Second French Empire. Napoleon III Paris keeps the structure since the Middle Ages . Map of Paris during the 12th and 13th century. That means.. - Narrow streets. - Poor sanitation - Irregular streets: there are buildings with different architectonical styles and streets with irregular shapes. - The street doesn’t connect important areas of the city. Napoleon III comisionated the “grands travaux” from 1851. He wanted to reform the whole city. A city plan reform was planned and done by first time in Paris.
2. -High-level technical engineers from Ecole Polythechninique -The existence of a law of expropriation -The personal skills of Greotges-Eugène Hussmann which charged that "it modernize" Paris. He won the respect and popular admiration due to the great works. ¿What made this plan possible? The Haussmann Plan objectives 1. Road works. 2. Construction of government buildings. 3. Construction of low- income housing. 4. Public Parks. 5. Sanitation facilities. Haussmann hacia 1865 Plan with the main axis created by the reform.
3. The main changes in Paris a) The big avenues were built (boulevards) thanks to the law of expropriation. The city space view is opened by means of building long and straight streets . In order to make this intervention, first the soil was expropriated («in public interest»), the buildings were demolished and after that , other were built but modifying the street. An example would be the construction of the north-south axis, from Boulevard of Sébastopol to Boulevard Saint-Michel. That streets eliminated many alleyways and impasses. The boulevards are connected with big squares and roundabouts. Image of the Boulevard de Sebastropol construction.
4. b) The city soil increased its value and many dealers speculated with the capital profit (especially at the city center). The workers and the lower classes were displaced to peripheral areas. c) The streets leveling started to be regulated systematically : the alignment of the buildings , the connection with the drainage system. These changes will improve the sanitation conditions. d) The landscape improves: - There is an unification at style of the buildings. - Unification at the urban furniture : street lights, public markets, litter baskets, the railing… all will have the same style. - It will be mandatory for the building owners to keep the facades clean and to restore them every ten years. - The construction of buildings along the new boulevards will be examined, especially the facades. The houses will have “the same high in each floor and the same main lines at the facade”. Carved stone will be used without fail at the buildings along the new boulevards. e) New places for leisure were created: - Opening of public parks at the city. - New typologies were created: Monumental buildings (The Opera 1854 by Garnier is an example), outdoors public spaces for music and dance, artificial lakes, …
5. f) Haussmann comisionated new train stations : Gare du Lyon (1855) and Gare du Nord (1865). Both train stations were built near streets that connected them . This will facilitate the transport of people and goods. g) Paris will become the bourgeoisie ‘s city. The bourgeoisie will consolidate their position as dominant social group. The modern technology as the railroad train and the gas light were improvements that could be enjoyed by the bourgeoisie . This social group will have a more comfortable life style. With the reform many new spaces were created . The bourgeoisie could flaunt their richness in these new spaces and boost the economy.
6. The Opera staircase, was a monumental space and a theater used as meeting point , a place where everyone colud picture the social frame of the society.
8. The city as a new experience. - Many people accused Napoleon III of being concealing a repressive project under health reasons: The construction of new streets had as main objective to make the troops and canyons movements easier . The straight streets were built in order to shoot the crowd in case of a revolt and a barricade. (There were many revolts in Paris from 1789 and there was going to be another in 1871). One of Paris galleries (arcades). - The Flâneur is born. - Many Parisians were concerned about the loss of their historical roots . - The reform was very expensive and attractive for speculators. - Living in Haussmann ‘s Paris set a new frame: The citizens felt separated from each other, isolated from other people: «The constant destruction of the physical Paris led the social destruction and fragmentation of Paris» Criticism