Proyección del módulo 10 utilizado por Cerdá para el trazado de las vías principales y diagonales. En rojo, algunos de los antiguos caminos que han sobrevivido a la trama Cerdá
Esquema del funcionamiento de los cruces incluidos en el Plan Cerdá
Las dimensiones de las manzanas vienen dadas por las distancias antes mencionadas entre los ejes longitudinales de las calles y la misma anchura de estas vías, de manera que al establecer una anchura estándar de las vías en 20 metros, las manzanas están formadas por cuadriláteros de 113,3 metros, truncados sus vértices en forma de chaflán de 15 metros, cosa que da una superficie de manzana de 1,24 ha, contrariamente a la creencia popular de que tienen una superficie exacta de 1 hectárea.
Geometría de las manzanas Diseño y agrupación de las manzanas
Pla cerdà (english)
3.4. Pla dEixample, Pla Cerdà (1859)
General characteristics of the Plan CerdàOptimism. Unlimited foresight of the city’s growth. Possibility of integrate other towns in Barcelona. Possible limit: the Besós river.Egalitarian city People from different social classes in the same area. No privileged center.Scientific vision Preliminary study of the city’s soil. Straight, parallel and perpendicular streets. Use of the grid plan to create a tidy city. Importance of mobility.
Sanitary and hygienist aspects- Preliminary study of the soil : climate, wind direction, oxygenation and aircleaning.- Key role of parks and gardens in the blocks.- A tree every 8 meters. Plane trees (species which best adapt to the city).- A garden in each block: they want people to live with fresh air.- Cemeteries out of the city for reasons of healthiness.- Concern with the impact of mobility in the city.
«Take what is urban and make it rural. Takewhat is rural and make it urban» IldefonsCerdà Cerdá defended the balance between the urban values and the rural advantages
The streets of the Eixample: Geometry of the Eixample - Public space of mobility. 1. Streets - Support to the services net (water, cleaning up, gas…) - Street lighting. - Trees. - Urban Fitment.Classification - Manzana (block of houses). - Space of private life. 2. Intervías - Multi-family buildings in 2 or 3 lines (block of around a patio. houses) - With this inner patio ALL the houses have natural light and ventilation.
1. Streets Avenida Diagonal, Avenida Meridiana and Paralelo don’t follow the perpendicular trace of the other streets. They cross the city from side to side in a diagonal line.
Vertical layoutThe engineer wanted to link the sea with the mountain.
He designed a wider street every five, to make mobility easier (for example, Gran Via deles Corts Catalanes).
Wide streets to escape from the inhuman density of the city but also thinking of amotorized future with own spaces separated from the ones for the social life.Chamfered corners.
2. Intervías : The blocks of the EixampleThe city of Cerdà is born from the house itself, the private space.The intimacy of the dwelling is an absolute priority.
Design, grouping and orientation of the blocksCerdá thinks that the ideal house is isolated, the rural.But the big advantages of the city make necessary to put the houses together.Thus he designs a house which can be fitted in a high multi-family building.Houses with double ventilation from the street and from the patio inside the «manzana» andnatural light the whole day.
MThe people’s opposition to Cerdá and his Plan facilitated the appearance of speculative activities andarguments addressed to get a bigger area to build.-The first of them was that if the streets were 20 meters wide, the depth of the buildings could be enlargedproportionally.-Thus central gardens were eliminated and then both sides of the buildings were put together with otherbuildings, closing the «manzanas» completely. Another argument for mass construction : If the streets were 20 meters wide, the height of the buildings could be the same and not the 16 meters planned.
The anti-authoritarian, anti-hierarchical, egalitarian and rationalist essence ofthe plan conflicted with the vision of the bourgeoisie which preferred to have anew city like Paris or Washington as a reference, something monumental.Besides the first expansion of the Eixample coincides with a period known as LaFebre d’Or, characterized by the growing richness of the industrialist. In 1879 thisperiod of construction and speculation starts its decline.In 1905, 50 years after the plan was approved, Prat de la Riba (Catalan politicianand journalist) expressed his anger “against the governments which imposed themonotonous and shameful grid" instead of the system he had dreamt of a cityexpanded from the old historical capital. More than 150 years later the people from Barcelona see our city growing in the Cerdà’s grid.